Imatges de pÓgina


De una Religione; De Bibliothecis; Satira Menippaa; Saturnalia; and an Oration on the Death of the Duke of Saxony. The best edition of them is that printed at Antwerp, in 1637.

LIQUEUR (from the French); a palatable spirituous drink, composed of water, alcohol, sugar, and some aromatic infusion, extracted from fruits, seeds, &c. The great difference in the qualities of the different liqueurs is owing principally to a variation in the proportions of the sugar and alcohol. The French distinguish three qualities: the first are the ratafias, or simple liqueurs, in which the sugar, the alcohol and the aromatic substance are in small quantities: such are the anise-water (q. v.), noyau, the apricot, cherry, &c. ratafias. The second are the oils, or the fine liqueurs, with more saccharine and spirituous matter; as the anisette, curaçao, &c., which are those commonly found in the cafés. The third are the creams, or superfine liqueurs, such as rosoglio, maraschino, Dantzic water, &c. The same aromatic infusion may, therefore, give its name to liqueurs of different qualities, in which the materials are the same, but the proportions different: thus one proportion of ingredients gives eau-de-noyau ; another, crême-de-noyau, &c.

LIQUIDAMBAR ŠTYRACIFLUA, or SWEET GUM. This tree is widely diffused through the U. States, from lat. 43° to Florida, and along the shores of the gulf into the provinces of Mexico. The leaves, which somewhat resemble those of some maples, are very regularly five-lobed, and the lobes are serrated on the margin. The flowers are inconspicuous. The fruit consists of a sort of bur, supported on a long pedicle, and is somewhat similar to that of the button-wood, or plane-tree, but is much less even, on the surface. It is abundant every where throughout the Middle, Southern, and Western States, and sometimes has a trunk five feet in diameter, with a proportional summit. The usual diameter, however, is from one to three feet. The wood is compact, capable of receiving a fine polish, and has been used for articles of furniture; but, for this purpose, it is inferior to either the wild cherry or black walnut. It is, how ever, employed for lining mahogany, for bedsteads, and for a variety of purposes in the interior of houses, possessing great strength, but requiring protection from the weather. The bark, on being wounded, vields a small quantity of a fragrant resin. This tree is, however, inferior, in useful

properties, to many others which inhabit our forests.

LIQUORICE (glycyrhiza); a genus of leguminous plants, containing eight species, one of which is a native of North America, and the others are confined to the northern and temperate parts of the eastern continent. They have pinnated leaves, and small, blue, violet, or white flowers, which are disposed in heads or spikes, and are remarkable for the sweetness of the roots. The common liquorice (G. glabra) grows wild in the south of Europe, and is cultivated in many places, even in England, for the sake of the root, which is much used in pharmacy, and forms a considerable article of commerce. More than 200 tons of the extract are man ufactured annually in Spain, a considerable portion of which is sent to London, and employed in the brewing of porter. It is often administered medicinally, in coughs and pulmonary affections, and the aqueous infusion is exposed for sale in all the European cities, as a refreshing beverage. A deep, light and sandy soil is best adapted to its culture. The American species (G. lepidota) inhabits the plains of the Missouri, from St. Louis upwards, extending even to the borders of the Pacific, but is not found in the Atlantic states.

LIRIODENDRON. (See Tulip-Tree.)

LISBON (Lisboa), the chief city of Portugal, and the residence of the court, in the province of Estremadura, on the right bank of the Tagus, which is here a mile and a half in width, and not far from the mouth of the river, is built on three hills, in a romantic country, and exhibits a grand appearance from the harbor. Including the suburbs Junqueira and Alcantara, it is about five miles in length, and a mile and a half in breadth. It contains 40 parish churches, 75 convents, and 100 chapels, 44,000 houses, and, before 1807, had 300,000 inhabitants, but, at present, has not more than 200,000, among whom are many foreigners, Negroes, Mulattoes, Creoles, and 30,000 Galicians, who come from Spanish Galicia, and serve as porters and water carriers, and perform other menial occupations. The town is open, without walls or gates. The highest hill only has a castle, now in ruins; but the harbor is beautiful, capacious and safe, and is defended by four strong forts on the banks of the river (St. Juliana, St. Bugio, the tower of Belem, &c.). Many of the streets are very uneven, on account of the hilly situation of the city. The finest are on the banks of the river. There are no elegant private buildings.

[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

'The houses of the nobility are distinguished only by their size. The western part has been beautifully rebuilt since the dreadful earthquake (Nov. 1, 1755) which destroyed half of the city, with the loss of 30,000 lives,* the streets being straight, and regularly laid out, with fine houses and squares. The eastern part of the city, which was not affected by the earthquake, has preserved its gloomy aspect-crooked streets and old-fashioned houses, six and seven stories high. Lisbon was formerly known to be extremely filthy and unsafe; but, at present, regulations have been made to provide for the public security, and the streets are well lighted. Among the squares, the principal are the Plaça do Commercio and the Rocio. They are connected by handsome, wide, straight streets. The former, on which the royal palace, now in ruins, was situated, lies on the bank of the Tagus, at the landing-place of the harbor, is an oblong square, of 615 paces in length and 550 in breadth, and is surrounded, on three sides, with fine buildings (the fourth is open towards the river). In the centre there is a bronze statue of king Joseph I. The Rocio, where the autos da fé were formerly exhibited, is a regular oblong, 1800 feet in length and 1400 in width, with the new palace of the inquisition on one side. In this square 10 streets meet. Among the churches, the new church is the finest, and is the most magnificent building erected since the earthquake. The patriarchal church, on an elevated situation, which affords a beautiful view, is magnificent in its interior, and contains rich treasures and many curiosities. The patriarch, the head of the Portuguese. church, has a large annual income. The aqueduct, about seven miles in length, is a remarkable construction. The centre is so high, that a ship of the line might pass under it. The water is carried over the valley of Alcantara, on 35 marbie arches. It withstood the force of the earthquake, although the keystones sunk a few inches. The St. Joseph's hospital, where 16,000 sick, and the foundling hospital, where 1600 children, are annually received, de

[blocks in formation]

serve to be particularly mentioned. Among the literary institutions are the royal academy of sciences, the college of nobles, the marine academy, with other seminaries, a botanical garden, three observatories, the royal cabinet of natural curiosities, and several public libraries, among which is the royal library, containing 80,000 volumes. Lisbon is the seat of the supreme authorities, and of the patriarch of Portugal, with a numerous clergy. The inhabitants have but few manufactories: there are not even mechanics enough to supply the demands of the city. But Lisbon is the centre of Portuguese commerce, which extends to most of the countries of Europe, to the U. States, and to the Portuguese possessions in other parts of the world. There are about 240 Portuguese and 130 foreign (principally English) mercantile houses. From 1700 to 1800 vessels arrive annually at the port (Junqueira). The beautiful environs of the town are embellished by a great number (6-7000) country seats (quintas). In the vicinity are Belem and the castles RamaIhao and Quelus.

LISLE, or LILLE (Flemish, Ryssel); a large and strong city of France, formerly the capital of French Flanders, and now of the department of the North, situated on the Deule, in a dead flat. The Deule is navigable, and is divided into several branches, part of which supply the moats or great ditches of the citadel and town The form of Lisle is an irregular oval: its length, from north-west to south-east, is nearly two miles; its breadth, about three quarters; its circumference, between four and five, exclusive of the earthen ramparts that surround the town, and which are, in their turn, surrounded by a moat. Lisle presents an imposing appearance, from its extent, its fortifications, its canals, its squares, and its public buildings. Few cities of France can vie with it in the straightness and width of its streets, the regularity of its buildings, and its general air of neatness. Several convents have survived the revolution; the hospitals are five, one very large. Lisle is a fortress of the first rank. Its citadel, the masterpiece of Vauban, is the first in Europe after that of Turin. It is a mile in circuit, and is surrounded by a double. moat. trade of Lisle is extensive. Its manufactures are of camlets, serges, and other woollen stuffs, cotton, calico, linen, silk, velvet, lace, carpets, soap, starch, tobacco, leather, glass and earthenware. The origin of this town is ascribed by tradition to Julius Cæsar. Louis XIV took it from



the Spaniards in 1667. It surrendered, in 1708, to the duke of Marlborough and prince Eugene. At the peace of Utrecht, it was restored to France. In 1792, it was bombarded by the Austrians, who were obliged to retire, with the loss of 20,000 men. In 1815, Louis XVIII spent one day here, before leaving France. Population, 69,860; 18 miles east of Tournay; lon. 3° 4′ E.; lat. 50° 37′ 50′′ N.

LIST; the enclosed ground wherein knights held their justs and tournaments; so called because encircled with barriers as with a list. Some were double, one for each cavalier, so that they could not approach nearer than a spear's length. Hence to enter the lists is to engage in contest.

LISTEL; a small square moulding, serving to crown or accompany a larger, and to separate the flutings in columns.

L'ISTESSO TEMPO (Italian); a phrase implying that the movement before which it is placed is to be played in the same time as the previous movement.

LITANY (from the Greek Aravela, supplication, prayer); a form of prayer or song, used on occasions of public calamity, first introduced, according to Zonaras and Nicephorus, by Proclus, about the year 446, at Constantinople, in the reign of Theodosius; according to Paulus Diaconus, under Justinian, at Antioch, in consequence of the following circumstance: An earthquake, says the legend, having driven the people into the fields, a boy was suddenly taken up into the air in their presence; but was again let down unhurt, on the people crying out Kyrie eleeson! The boy related that he had heard the songs of the angels, "Holy God! Holy and Mighty, Holy and Immortal! have mercy upon us!" and this gave rise to the litany. This kind of common prayer was, perhaps, not unusual among the Jews, and the 136th Psalm seems to have been adapted to this purpose. Litanies afterwards became very common, and every saint of the Roman calendar has bis litany. It must be owned, that some of these are very unmeaning, enumerating all the names and miracles attributed to the saint, and, in this respect, not unlike those prayers of the Romans, which consisted inerely of a catalogue of the names of the deity addressed, against which St. Paul gives a particular warning. Litanies are found in the old hymn-books of the Lutherans, but are no longer used by German Protestants. The Catholic litanies are distinguished into the greater and less. The latter is said to have been composed by bishop Mamertus, of Vienne (in France),


in 446, when that place was visited by repeated calamities; the former by Gregory the Great, during an inundation of the Tiber, and a raging plague. This consisted of a song of seven choirs (hence septiformis), of clergy, monks, nuns, boys, girls, Roman citizens, and widows and married women. The litany probably consisted, at first, of the words kyrie eleeson, but was gradually enlarged. The litany was annually sung on the dies rogationum. At a later period, the litany was not only addressed to the Holy Trinity, but also, as we have said, to the saints, and sung in processions. This latter kind of litany of course was omitted by the Protestants. The usual answer of the people is, Ora pro nobis (pray for us), if the litany is directed to the Virgin or a saint; or Libera nos (deliver us), if it is addressed to the Deity. Indecent parodies have often been made on litanies, and sung in connexion with other profane songs. In early times, 'nstances occur of this being done, even by monks. (See the note to the article Fools, Feast of The following parody is taken from the Cavalier's Letanie (1647):

From too much keaping an evil de corum,
From the manyfold treasons parliamentorum,
From Oliver Cromwell, dux omnium malorum,
Libera nos.

See the Sacræ Litania varia (Antwerp. 1606), and Bingham's Origines Ecclesiastica, for a great variety of litanies.-That this simple form of prayer and response has, at times, been of great advantage to the people cannot be denied; and, because many litanies are poor, all ought not to be condemned. (See Liturgy.)

LITCHFIELD; a post-town, and capital of Litchfield county, Connecticut; 30 miles west of Hartford, 31 north-north-west of New Haven, 329 from Washington; lun. 73° 37′ W.; lat. 41° 50 N.; population, in 1820, 4610 (for the population in 1830, see United States); organized as a town in 1721, and contains four large territorial parishes. The principal village is delightfully situated on an elevated plain, affording extensive and beautiful prospects. It was made a borough in 1818, and contains a court-house, a jail, a female academy, a law school, a printing-office, a bank, and two houses of public worship,one for Congregationalists, and one for Episcopalians, and has some trade. In the township, there are nine houses of public worship,-four for Congregational ists, four for Episcopalians, and one for Baptists. It is a good agricultural town, and contains numerous mills and manufacturing establishments, cotton manufactories



iron works, &c. Mount Tom, on the western border of the township, is 700 feet high. There are four ponds in this township, the largest of which comprises 900 acres. There is a medicinal spring within half a mile of the court-house. The law school in this town is a private institution, established in 1782, by judge Reeve. In 1798, judge Gould was associated with him. Since 1820, judge Gould has lectured alone. The students, however, are weekly examined by another gentleman. The number of students, from 1798 to 1827, both inclusive, was 730. The number has been somewhat reduced, by the establishment of another school in connexion with Yale college. The students in this seminary study the law by titles, in the ordér in which the lectures are given. The mode of instruction is by lecturing on the several titles of the law in an established order. The course of lectures occupies about 14 or 15 months. One lecture is given every day. There are two vacations of four weeks each; one in May, the other in October. The price of tuition is at the rate of $100 a year.

LIT DE JUSTICE was formerly a solemn proceeding in France, in which the king, with the princes of the blood royal, the peers, and the officers of the crown, state and court, proceeded to the parliainent, and there, sitting upon the throne (which, in the old French language, was called lit, because it consisted of an under cushion, a cushion for the back, and two under the elbows), caused those commands and orders, which the parliament did not approve, to be registered in his presence. The parliament had the right of remonstrating, in behalf of the nation, against the royal commands and edicts. If the king, however, did not choose to recede from his measures, he first issued a written command (lettres de jussion) to the parliament; and if this was not obeyed, he held the lit de justice. The parliament was then, indeed, obliged to submit, but it afterwards commonly made a protest against the proceeding. Louis XV held such a lit de justice, in 1763, in order to introduce certain imposts, but, on account of the firm resistance of the parliaments, he was finally obliged to yield. The last lits de justice were held by Louis XVI, in 1787 and 1788.

LITERARY HISTORY is the science whose object is to represent the developement or the successive changes of human civilization, as far as these are manifest el in writings, as the object of political

history is to show the same, manifested in the various political establishments and changes. In a more limited sense, literary history treats of learned writings, their contents, fate, modifications, translations, &c. (which is bibliography, q. v.), of the lives and characters of their authors, the circumstances under which they wrote, &c. (which constitutes literary biography). The latter has also been called external literary history, the former internal literary history, because it aims to show, in a connected view, the developement of sciences. From its nature, it is obvious that literary history could not fairly begin until mankind had acquired extensive knowledge of what has been done and written, which required the preparatory study of centuries, as well as a civilized intercourse among the various nations. This science is, indeed, of comparatively recent date, and we have by no means, even yet, a general literary history. What we have is mostly confined to Europe; at least, we are yet too little acquainted with many parts and periods of the literary history of the East, which has several times given an impulse to the western world, to authorize us to call what has hitherto been done a general literary history. The branch which relates to Greece and Rome must remain of surpassing importance. The ancients did not treat literary history as a distinct department of history. The literature of the Greeks, and, though not in the same degree, that of the Romans, were so intimately connected with their religion and politics, that a separation of literary from general history could not easily take place, besides, the materials were not sufficient to claim a separate consideration. Hence the classics contain only scattered notices and detached materials for a literary history, partly in biographies of poets, philosophers, orators, grammarians, &c.; partly in criticisms and extracts from their writings. Such notices we find in the works of M. Terentius Varro, Cicero, Pliny, Quinctilian, Aulus Gellius, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Pausanias, Athenæus, and the biographers Plutarch, Suetonius, Diogenes Laertius, &c. Suidas and Photius likewise contribute names and titles. The iniddle ages contribute only detached facts to the history of their literature, partly in chronicles, partly in the confidential communicatious of poets and other authors, respecting their own lives. The first rude attempt at a compilation of general literary notices, yet without systematical order, was made by Polydore Virgil of Urbino in his work


De Inventoribus Rerum, which first appeared in print in 1499. The true father of literary history is the famous Conrad Gesner, whose Bibliotheca Universalis contains stores of knowledge not yet exhausted. In his 25th year, he began to execute his grand plan of a general work on literature, and, in three years, his materials were so far prepared, that they could be arranged for printing. According to his plan, the work was to be divided into three parts an alphabetical dictionary of authors, a general systematic view of literature, which even cites single dissertations and passages, and an alphabetical index of matters and subjects treated. (See Ebert's Bibliog. Lex., article Gesner.) The first edition of the first division appeared in 1545.* Peter Lambeck gave instruction in literary history at the gymnasium of Hamburg, in 1656, on the plan of Gesner and Virgil, and published, in 1659, outlines, as a text-book for his lectures, the title of which is Prodromus Historia Literaria. Daniel George Morhof's Polyhistor Literarius, Philosophicus et Practicus, the first edition of which appeared in 1688, contributed to promote the study of literary history. Since the beginning of the eighteenth century, literary history has been a favorite study of the learned, and has been taught in the *Lord Bacon, in his Advancement of Learning (De Aug. Sci. ii. 5), seems to have been the first (1605) to have traced out the objects and extent of a general literary history (Historia Literarum, Historia Literaria). "History," says he, natural, civil, ecclesiastical and literary; whereof the first I allow to be extant, the fourth I note as deficient. For no man hath propounded to himself the general state of learning to be described and represented from age to age, as many have done the works of nature, and the state civil and ecclesiastical, without which the history of the world seemeth to me to be as the statue of Polyphemus with his eye out, that part being wanting which doth show the spirit and life of the person and yet am not ignorant that in divers particular sciences, as of the jurisconsults, the mathematicians, the rhetoricians, the philosophers, there are set down some small memorials of the schools, authors and books; and so like wise some barren relations touching the invention of arts or usages. But a just story of learning, containing the antiquities and originals of knowl' edges, and their sects, their inventions, their traditions, their divers administrations and managings, their flourishings, their oppositions, decays, depressions, oblivions, removes, with the causes and occasions of them, and all other events concerning learning, throughout the ages of the world, I may truly affirm to be wanting. The use and end of which work I do not so much design for curiosity or satisfaction of those that are lovers of learning, but chiefly for a more serious and grave purpose, which is, that it will make learned men wise in the use and administration of learning."

[blocks in formation]


[merged small][ocr errors]

universities, and in higher schools, at least in Germany. To these lectures we owe several Introductions, General Views, and Systems of literary history. We mention, in chronological succession, Burkhard Gotthelf Struvius, professor at Jena; Matthew Lobetanz, professor at Greifs wald; N. H. Gundling, professor in Halle; Gottlieb Stoll, professor in Jena; G. G. Zeltner, professor in Altorf; C. C. Neufeld, professor in Königsberg; F. G. Bierling, professor in Rinteln; and others. Reimmann must also be mentioned on account of his Introduction to Historia Interaria (1708), and his Idea Systematis Intiquitatis Literaria. Still more important was Chr. Aug. Heumann's Conspectus Republica Literaria, a work much superior to any that had preceded it, in arrangement, acute criticism and richness of materials. John Andrew Fabricius's Sketch of a General History of Literature (1752) is a comprehensive work, and unites the synthetic and analytic method. A. Y. Goguet was the first to introduce a more philosophical treatment of literary history; and the Italian Denina rivals him in brilliancy of manner, without equalling him in thoroughness and originality of views or in judgment. It began to be more and more clearly felt, that literary history, though an independent branch of history, would remain a mere list of names, titles, and dates, if it were not treated with constant reference to the state of religion, politics, morals, and the arts. Attempts have been made to treat it as a part of the general history of civilization by Iselin, Ferguson, Home, and particularly by Herder. In recent times, the Germans have taken the lead in this science, both in extent of knowledge and comprehensiveness of views. J. G. Eichhorn's and L. Wachler's work is of high value, as are also those of S. G. Wald, J. G. Meusel and Fr. Schlegel. It would exceed our limits were we to mention here the different productions upon the literary history of single nations and particular periods. A work on an extensive plan, though not of a general nature, is the great enterprise of the literary society of Göttingen-History of Arts and Sciences in Europe, since the Rest ration of the same, until the End of the Eighteenth Century. Literary history is naturally divided into ancient, middle and modern The ancient terminates with the retirement of science into the convents, in the sixth century; the middle begins with the downfall of the great Roman empire (about 500 A. D.) and the commencement

« AnteriorContinua »