Imatges de pÓgina


lakes and inorasses. Lithuania raises considerable numbers of cattle, and produces abundance of corn, flax, hemp, wood, honey, and wax. The mineral kingdom yields iron and turf. The forests are full of game; among the wild animals are the urus, lynx, elk, beaver, &c. Corn, wax, honey, wolf and bear skins, leather, wool, and small but good horses, are exported. The manufactures are iron, glass, leather, and there are numerous distilleries. The Lithuanians, who are of Lettish origin (see Livonia), were in the eleventh century tributary to Russia. They made themselves independent when Russia was divided by the troubles under the successors of Wladimir, and soon became formidable to their neighbors. Ringold, in 1235, bore the title of grand-duke, and, under his successors, the whole of Russian Lithuania was separated from Russia. Gedemin conquered Kiev; Wladislaus Yagello was baptized in 1386, and, by his marriage with the Polish queen Hedwig, united Lithuania and the conquered Russian provinces with Poland. A portion of Lithuania, 6675 square miles, with nearly 400,000 inhabitants, now forms part of Gumbinnen, in the province of East Prussia, and is fertile and well cultivated. (See Russia, and Poland.)

LITMUS; a blue paste or pigment obtained from the lichen parellus. It is brought from Holland at a cheap rate, but is not much used in painting, for the least acid reddens it; but the color is again restored by the application of an alkali. On this account, it is a very valuable test to the chemist for detecting the presence both of an acid and alkali. It is employed also for staining marble, and by silk dyers for giving a gloss to more permanent colors. Considerable quantities of the lichen are collected in the northern parts of Great Britain.

LITRE. (See France, division Decimal Measure.)

LITTER; a sort of vehiculary bed; a couch or chair wherein the Roman patricians were borne by their servants, particularly on solemn public occasions, such as triumphal pomps or religious ceremonies. These litters were mostly provided with an awning or canopy, to preserve their occupiers at once from the heat of the sun and from the general gaze.

LITTLE ROCK; the seat of government of Arkansas territory, which is sometimes called by the name of Acropolis or Arcopolis. It is a high bluff point on the south bank of the river Arkansas, and derives its name from the masses of stone


about it. It is 300 miles from the mouth of the river by its course, and about half that distance in a direct line. The village of Acropolis was laid out in 1820, and is but small; 1237 miles west of Washington; lat. 34° 34′ N.; lon. 92° 10′ W.

LITTLETON, OF LYTTLETON, Thomas, a celebrated English judge and law authority, born at the beginning of the fifteenth century, at Frankley, having been educated at one of the universities, was removed to the Inner Temple, where he studied the law, and became very eminent in his profession. In 1455, he went the northern circuit as judge of assize, and was continued in the same post by Edward IV, who also, in 1466, appointed him one of the judges of the common pleas. In 1475, he was created a knight of the Bath, and continued to enjoy the esteem of his sovereign and the nation until his death, at an advanced age, in 1481. The memory of judge Littleton is preserved by his work on Tenures, which has passed through a very great number of editions, those from 1539 to 1639 alone amounting to twenty-four. This work is esteemed the principal authority for the law of real property in England, while the commentary of sir E. Coke is the repository of his learning on the subjects treated.

LITTORALE; an Italian word signifying the sea coast, applied particularly to the Hungarian province on the coast of the Adriatic, comprising the three towns Fiume, Buccari and Porto-Re, with their territories, on the northern coast of Dalmatia. It formerly belonged to the military district of Croatia. The emperor Joseph II annexed it to Hungary in 1776, and gave it a civil government for the encouragement of Hungarian commerce. The district had, in 1787, 19,928 inhabitants upon 140 square miles. From 1809 to 1814, it formed part of the Illyrian provinces of France. In 1814, it was restored to the Austrian empire, and, in 1822, was reunited with the provinces of the crown of Hungary. The seat of government is at Fiume. (q. v.)

LITURGIA (Greek, Aarovoyta); the office of the Arougyou. These were persons in Athens, of considerable estates, who were ordered by their own tribe, or by the whole people, to perform some public duty, or supply the commonwealth with necessaries at their own expense. This institution indicates the rudeness of an age in which political science had made but little progress. These arougyou were of divers sorts. all elected out of 1200 of the richest citizens



who were appointed by the people to undertake, when required, all the burdensome and chargeable offices of the commonwealth, every tribe electing 120 out of their own body. These 1200 were divided into two parts, according to their wealth. Out of the wealthiest half, were appointed 300 of the richest citizens, who, upon all exigencies, were to furnish the commonwealth with necessary supplies of money, and, with the rest of the 1200, were to perform all extraordinary duties in turn. If any person, appointed to undergo one of the duties, could find another person more wealthy than himself, and free from all the duties, the informer was excused. This obnoxious institution was abolished on the proposition of Demosthenes. (See Wolf's Prolegomena to Demosthenes, Böckh's Political Economy of Athens, and Potter's Grecian Antiquities. The word Aroupyia is the origin of the English word liturgy (q. v.), the sense having become contracted from public ministry, in general, to the ceremonies of religious worship.

LITURGY (Greek, Metroupyia, from Xerov, public, and yov, work); a precomposed form of public worship. It is merely our intention here to mention some of the most important liturgies, without entering at all into the question of the primitive forms of worship in the Christian church. There are three liturgies used in the Greek church-those of Basil, of Chrysostom, and of the Presanctified. They are used in all the Greek churches subject to the patriarch of Constantinople; also in the countries originally converted by the Greeks, as Russia, Georgia, Mingrelia, and by the Melchite patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. (King, Rites of the Greek Church.) There are various liturgical books in use in the Roman Catholic church, the greater part of which are common to all the members in communion with the church, while others are only permitted to be used in particular places, or by particular monasteries. The Breviary contains the matins, lauds, &c., with the variations made therein according to the several days, canonical hours, and the like. There are various breviaries appropriated only to certain places; as the Ambrosian breviary used in Milan, the Gallican, by the church of France, and those of different monastic orders; but the Roman breviary is general. It consists of the services of matins, lauds, prime, third, sixth, nones, vespers, complines, or the post-communie, that is, of the seven hours, on account of the saying of David, "Sev

en times a day do 1 praise thee." It is recited in Latin. The Missal, or volume employed in celebrating mass, contains the calendar, the general rubrics, or rites of the mass, and, besides such parts as are invariably the same, the de tempore, that is, the variable parts on Sundays and holydays that have proper masses; the propri um sanctorum, or the variable parts in the masses for the festivals of such saints as have proper masses; and commune sanctorum, or the variable parts on the feasts of those saints that have no proper mass. The canon of the mass was committed to writing about the middle of the fifth century. Gregory the Great made many additions to it. The Ceremonial contains the offices peculiar to the pope, treating of his election, consecration, benediction and coronation, the canonization of saints, the creation of cardinals, the vestments of the pope and cardinals when celebrating the divine offices, &c. The Pontificale describes the functions of the bishops of the Roman church, such as the conferring ecclesiastical orders, consecrating of churches, manner of excommunicating, absolving, &c. The Ritual treats of those functions which are to be performed by simple priests, or the inferior clergy, both in the public service of the church, and in the exercise of private pastoral duties. The ancient Gallican liturgy is that which was in use among the Gauls before the time of Pepin and Charlemagne, who introduced the Roman mode of celebrating divine worship. The Spanish liturgy, more commonly called the Mozarabic liturgy, is derived from that of Rome. The Ambrosian liturgy, used in the cathedral at Milan, derives its name from St. Ambrose, who made some changes in it. It does not differ from the Roman in doctrines, though it does in form. The whole of the Roman liturgy is in Latin. The Protestants all adopted their vernacular tongue in the celebration of divine service. In 1523, Luther drew up a liturgy, or form of prayer and administration of the sacraments, which, in many points, differed but little from the mass of the church of Rome (Opera, ii, 384). He did not, however, confine his followers to this form, and hence every country, in which Lutheranism prevails, has its own liturgy, agreeing with the others in the essentials, but differing in many things of an indifferent nature. The prayers are read or chanted by the minister at the altar, and the subject of the discourse is, in most cases, limited to the epistle or gospel of the day. A new liturgy for the principal


divine service on Sundays, holydays, and the celebration of the holy communion, was published at Berlin, in 1822. This was designed primarily for the use of the royal and cathedral church in Berlin, but has been generally adopted in Prussia. Calvin prepared no liturgy, but his followers in Geneva, Holland, France, and other places, drew up forms of prayer, of which the Genevese and the French are the most important. The Genevese liturgy contains the prayer with which divine service begins, a confession of sins, public prayers for every day in the week, and for some particular occasions, the Lord's prayer, decalogue, and creed, &c. A new liturgy of the French reformed church was compiled in 1826. The Kirk of Scotland, or the Scotch Presbyterian church, has no liturgy. The Directory for the public Worship of God contains directions for the assembling of the congregation, the manner of proceeding, &c. In 1562, the Book of Common Order, or Knox's Liturgy, was recommended to be used by those who were unable to pray without a set form. In England, before the reformation, the public service of the church was performed in Latin, and different liturgies were used in different parts of the kingdom. The most celebrated of these were the Breviary and Missal, secundum usum Sarum, compiled by the bishop of Salisbury about 1080. They consisted of prayers and offices, some of very ancient origin, and others the produce of later times. In 1536, by Henry VIII's direction, the Bible, Paternoster, creed and decalogue were read in English. In 1547, Edward VI commissioned Cranmer, Ridley, and 11 other divines, to draw up a liturgy in English. This was published in 1549, and again, with some changes, in 1551, whence it was called the Second Prayer Book of Edward VI. In the reign of James I, and, finally, at the restoration, it underwent new revisions. This was the last revisal in which any alteration was made by authority. A liturgy of the New Church (the Swedenborgians) signified by the New Jerusalem in the Revelation, was published by the Swedenborgian general conference in England, in 1828. The liturgy of the episcopal church in Scotland, is at present not very different from that of the church of England. The attempt of Charles I (1637) to introduce into Scotland a book of common prayer, copied from the English, produced the solemn league and covenant. The Directory was afterwards adopted but


by no means strictly adhered to. In 1712, the English Book of Common Prayer was finally adopted, with some modifications. The Book of Common Prayer of the Protestant Episcopal church in the U. States was adopted in 1789, and, besides some minor deviations from the English, it omits the Athanasian creed, and, in the Apostles' creed, leaves the officiating minister the discretional power of substituting, for the expression "he descended into hell," "he went into the place of departed spirits." It has adopted the oblation and invocation in the communion service, in which it approximates to the Scottish communion office, and has add ed six forms of prayer-for the visitation of prisoners; for thanksgiving for the fruits of the earth and other blessings; for morning and evening prayer in families; for the consecration of a church or chapel; and, lastly, a beautiful and impressive office of institution of ministers. (See Koecher's Bibliotheca Liturgica; Bingham's Origines Ecclesiastica; Comber's Scholastical History of Liturgies.)

LIVADIA; the ancient Hellas (q. v.), or Middle Greece (see Greece); situated to the south of Janna, or Thessaly (q. v.), and north of Morea (q. v.), bounded east by the Egean, and west by the Ionian sea, 5800 square miles in extent, and containing 250,000 inhabitants, chiefly Greeks. The name is derived from the town of Livadia (or Lebadia; 2000 houses and 6000 inhabitants). The boundary between Livadia and Thessaly is formed by the mountain Eta (on whose summit Hercules was burned), now called Kumaita. It is only accessible, at least for artillery, by a narrow pass between Eta and the swamps on the Malian gulf (gulf of Zeitouni), or the famous pass of Thermopylae. (q. v.) In the war of the Greek revolution, several decisive battles were fought in this part of the country, the most bloody near the town of Zeitouni, the ancient Lamia, which lies to the north. From this pass, which is about six miles long, we enter, 1. Locris, the northerly part of Livadia; farther south lie, 2. Phocis, with the ancient Elatæa, now Turko-Chorio, watered by the river Cephissus, and intersected by mount Parnassus (q. v.); and, still more southerly, 3. Boeotia 4. Attica; and 5. Megaris; to the west are, 6. Ætolia; and 7. Acarnania. The ancient names of places are now revived, and Middle Greece has been divided into East and West Hellas. (See Greece, Revolution of Modern.) The boundary of Greece, as



settled by the protocol of February, 1830, runs north of Livadia, thus placing it within the kingdom of Greece. The character of the present inhabitants of these countries is as various as their descent and mode of life. The first inhabitants of the coast were chiefly of foreign, or, as the Greeks called it, of barbarian descent. Their occupation was piracy. The mountaineers were robbers, constantly at war with their oppressors. Missolonghi (q. v.), the only strong-hold on the western coast, has been rendered celebrated by late events. To the north is the ancient Actium (q. v.), or Azio. Prevesa, which, with Parga (q. v.), and the coast of Epirus, was ceded to the Turks in 1800, and Arta (q. v.), near the gulf of Arta, belong to Albania. In the southerly part of Locris lies Lepanto. (q. v.) In Boeotia (q. v.) is the town Livadia, formerly Lebadia, at the foot of mount Helicon, near which are the cave of Trophonius (q. v.), and the fountains of Mnemosyne (memory) and Lethe (oblivion). Not far off are Leuctra and Platæa (q. v.), and the ruins of Thespin, whose inhabitants were selected by Leonidas to die for their country, with the 300 Spartans. Tanagra, on the Esopus, was the birth-place of the celebrated Corinna. (q. v.) Mount Citharon divides Boeotia from Attica (q. v.) and from Megaris. (q. v.) (See Greece.)

LIVE OAK. (See Oak.)

LIVER (jecur, hepar); a large gland which occupies a considerable portion of the cavity of the belly, and which secretes the bile. It is a single organ, of an irregular shape, brownish-red color, and, in general, is sinaller in proportion as the individual is more healthy. It occupies the right hypochondrium, or space included by the false ribs, and a part of the epigastric region, and lies immediately under the diaphragm (midriff), above the stomach, the transverse colon, and right kidney; in front of the vertebral column, the aorta and the inferior vena cava, and behind the cartilaginous edge of the chest. The right false ribs are on its right, and the spleen on its left. The superior surface is convex, and the inferior is irregularly convex and concave, which has given rise to the division into the right, or large lobe, the small, or inferior lobe, and the left lobe. The right extremity of the liver is lower than the left, and is the most bulky part of the organ. The pressure of the surrounding organs, und certain folds of peritoneum, called its gurients, which connect it with the dia

phragm, retain the liver in its place, leaving it, at the same time, a considerable power of changing its relative position. The organization of the liver is very complicated. Besides its peculiar tisse, or parenchyma, the texture of which is unknown, it receives a larger number of vessels than any other gland. A peculiar venous system-that of the vena portarum-is distributed in it. To this must be added the ramifications of the hepatic ar tery and veins, the nerves, which are small, the lymphatic vessels, the excretory tubes, and a peculiar tissue, enclosed by a double membrane, a serous or peritoneal, and a cellular one. The excretory apparatus of the bile is composed of the hepatic duct, which, rising immediately from the liver, unites with the cystic duct, which terminates in the gallbladder. The choledochic duct is formed by the union of the two preceding, and terminates in the duodenum. (See GallBladder, and Bile.)

LIVERPOOL; a borough town of England, in the county palatine Lancaster; the principal seaport in the British dominions. It extends along the eastern bank of the Mersey, about three miles, and, at an average, about a mile inland. On the west side of it, and forming a remarkable feature in the town, lie the docks, which, with the wharfs, warehouses, &c., extend in an immense range along the bank of the river. On the other side, the town is prolonged into numerous suburbs, consisting of villas and country houses, the residence or retreat of its wealthy citizens. The streets are mostly spacious, airy, some of them elegant, and the greater part of them lighted with coal gas. The older and more confined parts of the town are in a state of improvement. The public buildings are elegant. The princi pal of these are the town hall, exchange buildings, corn exchange, lyceum, athenæum, Wellington rooms, infirmary, workhouse, blue-coat school, dispensary, and asylum for the blind. There are at present 20 churches belonging to the establishment, many of them of much architectural beauty; a greater number of chapels belonging to various denominations of dissenters; with four Roman Catholic chapels, a meeting-house for Quakers, and a Jews' synagogue. The charitable institutions are numerous and well conducted. About 1500 patients are admitted annually into the infirmary. The blue-coat hospital maintains and educates about 200 boys and girls. The school fe the blind is on a most extensive scal


A handsome and spacious theatre, and a circus, are open during great part of the year. At the royal Liverpool institution, public lectures are given; and attached to it is a philosophical apparatus and a museum of natural curiosities. A botanic garden was also established in 1801, at an expense of about £10,000. The lyceum and the athenæum consist each of a news-room and library. There are also the Union news-room, the music-hall, the Wellington rooms, opened in 1816, for balls, concerts, &c., the town hall, the exchange buildings, erected in 1803, for commercial purposes. The area enclosed by the fronts of these buildings and the town hall, is 197 feet by 178. In the centre of the area is erected a superb group of bronze statuary, supposed to be the largest in the kingdom, to commemorate the death of lord Nelson. The trade of Liverpool is very extensive. The most important branch is the trade with Ireland, from whence are imported from 2300 to 2500 cargoes of provisions, grain, &c.; and in return are shipped salt, coals, earthenware, &c. The second branch of commerce is that with the U. States, which consists of more than three fourths of the whole commerce of this country with England. Of this commerce, cotton-wool is the chief article, and may be termed the staple of the Liverpool trade. In 1830, of 793,695 bales of cotton imported into England, 703,200 were carried into Liverpool. In 1824, the whole amount imported into Liverpool was 578,323 bales, of which 413,724 were from the U. States. The West India trade may be considered next in importance. The trade of Liverpool to other parts of the globe, is very great, and rapidly increasing, particularly to the East Indies. In 1824, the amount of the exports of Liverpool was £20,000,000 sterling; the number of vessels belonging to the port in 1829, was 805, of 161,780 tons. Liverpool has an extended system of canal navigation, which has grown up with its increasing trade, and by which it has a water communication with the North sea. The manufactures are chiefly those connected with shipping, or the consumption of the inhabitants. There are extensive iron and brass founderies, breweries, soap-works and sugar-houses. In the vicinity are many wind-mills for grinding corn, which have a very striking appearance; also a large tide-mill, and another worked by steam. A great number of men are employed in building, repairing and fitting out vessels. Of the finer manufactures, the watch-movement


and tool business is carried on extensively, being almost entirely confined to this part of the kingdom; and in the neighborhood is a china-manufactory, where beautiful specimens of porcelain are produced. Liverpool sends two members to parliament, chosen by about 4500 freemen. It is governed by the corporation, consisting of a common council of 41 persons, from. among whom a mayor and two bailiffs are annually chosen by the free burgesses. The following is an account of the progressive increase of its population-In 1700, 5000; in 1760, 26,000; in 1773 34,407; in 1790, 56,000; in 1801, 77,653 in 1811, 94,376; in 1821, 118,972 (or, in cluding the suburbs and a floating population of 10,000 sailors, 151,000); in 1831, 163,000; with the suburbs, 200,000. The Liverpool and Manchester rail-road commences with a tunnel, 22 feet high, 16 broad, 6750 long. The thickness from the roof to the surface of the ground, varies from 5 feet to 70. About two thirds of it is cut through solid rock. The railroad is continued through the remaining distance of 30 miles, with embankments, viaducts and excavations. It is traversed by locomotive steam-carriages, consuming their own smoke, and running at the rate of 18 miles an hour. The quantity of merchandise conveyed between Liverpool and Manchester, has lately been estimated at 1500 tons a day, the number of passengers at 1300. But the most remarkable objects in Liverpool are its immense docks. The old dock, the first opened, was constructed in the beginning of the eighteenth century. In 1821, there were six docks and basins, covering an area of 63 square acres. The Brunswick dock has since been added, of 10 acres, and additional docks are in contemplation, which will give an area of 92 square acres. In 1724, the dock dues were £810 11s.; in 1828, £141,369, on 10,700 vessels. Before the sixteenth century, Liverpool was a mere hamlet; in 1716, her merchants began to engage in the trade to America and the West Indies. The growth of the manufactures of Manchester promoted the growth of the place, while an extensive contraband commerce with South America and the chief portion of the African trade, inade it the first seaport in Great Britain. 204 miles from London; 36 from Manchester; lon. 2° 59′ W.; lat. 53° 25′ N.

LIVERPOOL, Charles Jenkinson, earl of, was the eldest son of colonel Jenkinson, the youngest son of sir Robert Jenkinson, the first baronet of the family. He was born in 1727, and educated at the Char

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