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ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

А

POPULAR DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS, AND

BIOGRAPHY.

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EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, to wit: BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the tenth day of August, in the fifty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1829, Carey, Len & Caroy, of the said district, have deposited in this office the titie of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit:

Encyc.opædia Americana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Litorature, History, Politics and Biography, brought down to the present Timo; including a copious Collection of Original Articles in American Biography ; on the Basis of the soventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Francis Lieber assisted by E. Wigglesworth.”

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, “ An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times theroin mentioned :" and also to the act, entitled, “An Act supplementary to an act, entitled

An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to zhe authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned ;' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other printsp

D. CALDWELL,
Clerk of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

1

ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

scene.

BATTLE-Axe; a weapon much used instruction in the hands of the Highlanders the early part of the middle ages, particu- nearly to the present period, and is still larly by the people who fought on foot. used, by the city-guard of Edinburgh, in It was not uncommon, lowever, along quelling riots, &c. the knights, who used also the mace, a BA'TT'LE-PIECE; a painting which repspecies of iron club or hammer. Both resents a battle, exhibiting large masses are to be seen in the different collections of men in action. The armor of the anof old arms in Europe. Both these cients, and the whole array and action of weapons, and another kind, called, in their battles, afford subjects much more German, Morgenstern (morning star), con- favorable to the artist than the straight sisting of a staff, having an iron ball at lines, or condensed columns, and the firethe end, with cross iron spikes, served to arms of the moderns. A painter of batgive stunning blows, whose force was tle-pieces ought to have an accurate felt through the iron armor of the knights. knowledge of the appearance of horses Knights used chiefly the Morgenstern and men, and, if possible, to have seen a and the mace. The Greeks and Romans battle, as few persons are able to form did not employ the battle-axe, though it from hearsay an accurate idea of such a was found among contemporary nations.

Some of the greatest pieces of In fact, the axe is one of the earliest this kind are, the battle of Constantine, weapons, its use, as an insyument of do- of which the cartoons were drawn by mestic industry, naturally suggesting its Raphael, and which was executed by application for purposes of offence; but, Giulio Romano ; Lebrun's battles of Alat the same time, it will always be aban- exander, and the battles of the Amazons, doned as soon as the art of fencing, at- by Rubens. From these may be distintacking and guarding is the least culti- guished the skirmishes, surprises, &c., vated; because the heavier the blow which are represented with so mucn given with this instrument, the more will skill by Antonio Tempesta, John Sne!it expose the fighter. It is a weapon link, Jos. van der Velde, John Asselyn, which affords hardly any guard, and it Peter Sneyers, Robert von Hoek, Fulnever would bave remained so long in cone, called oracolo delle battaglie, James use in the middle ages, had it not been Courtois, Francis van der Meulen, Philip for the iron armor, which protected the Wouvermann, Charles Breydel, Henry vody from every thing but heavy blows. Verschuuring and George Philip RugenIn England, Ireland and Scotland, the. das. battle-axe was much employed. At the BATToges, BATTACKS; two thin sticks, battle of Bamockburn, king Robert Bruce with which criminals in Russia were clave an English champion down to the formerly beaten upon their naked backs chine with one blow of his axe. A blow The criminal was laid upon the grouud, of equal force was given by a Suabian and one of the executioners sat upon his knight, in the Levant, in presence of the head, another upon bis feet By the code German emperor.

The Lochaber axe of Catherine II, this puisiment was remained a formidable implement of de- abolished.

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