Imatges de pÓgina

must also of necessity be the death 17. of the testator. For a testament

is of force after men are dead: otherwise it is of no strength at all 18. while the testator liveth. Where

upon neither the first testament was dedicated without blood. 19. For when (x) Moses had spoken every precept to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and of goats, with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book 20. and all the people, saying, "This "is the blood of the testament "which God hath enjoined unto 21. you." Moreover, he sprinkled likewise with blood both the tabernacle and all the vessels of the 22. ministry. And almost all things

v. 19.



men are dead," is in the original 66 Ego;" and in, with a dative case after it, may signify 66 on account of; so that the translation will be, " on account "of the deaths, or the dead bodies." In Ps. 1. 5. mention is made of those who had made a covenant with God, "with “ sacrifice,” επι θυσίαις.

(x)" When Moses," &c. After Moses had received from God the ten commandments, and divers other laws, he "told "the people all the words of the Lord, " and all the judgments: and all the

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people answered with one voice, and "said, All the words which the Lord "hath said will we do. And Moses "wrote all the words of the Lord, and "built an altar, and twelve pillars, ac"cording to the twelve tribes of Israel. "And he sent young men of the Children ❝of Israel, which offered burnt-offerings, "and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen "unto the Lord. And Moses took half "of the blood, and put it in basons: "and half of the blood he sprinkled on "the altar. And he took the Book of "the Covenant, and read in the audience "of the people: and they said, All that "the Lord hath said will we do, and be "obedient. And Moses took the people, "and sprinkled it on the people, and said, "Behold the blood of the covenant which "the Lord hath made with you concern

are by the law purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no remission. It was therefore necessary that the patterns (y) of things in the heavens should be purified with (z) these; but the heavenly (a) things themselves with better sacrifices than these. For Christ is not entered into the holy places made (b) with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us: Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth (c) into the holy place every year with blood of others; (for then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world:) but now once, in the end of the

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(y)" Patterns of things in the hea"vens," i. e. the tabernacle, &c. which Moses made according to the pattern of what God shewed him in the Mount, (Exod. xxv. 9.-Heb. viii. 5.), and which were considered as corresponding with what was in heaven. "The holy places "made with hands," in verse 24. are called "the figures of the true."

(z) "These," i. e. the blood of bulls and goats.

(a) "The heavenly things themselves," i. e. heaven itself. The meaning of the verse seems to be this; that it was neces sary the blood of bulls and of goats should be shed to purify those who should enter into the tabernacle, and that to purify for an entrance into heaven itself, much more valuable blood, even that of Christ him. self, was shed.

(b) "Made with hands," i. e. of human workmanship,-here on earth, which are only the figures or representations of what is in heaven.

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(c) "Entereth," &c. Once every year, v on the tenth day of the seventh month, the high priest was to make an atonement in the holy place for the sanctuary, for the tabernacle of the congregation, for the altar, for the priests, and for all the congregation. See Lev. xvi. 11 to 34.

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world hath he appeared, to put away sin by the sacrifice of him27. self. And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this 28. the judgement; so (d) Christ was

once offered to bear the sins of many (e); and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time, without (f) sin, unto salvation.

The Gospel. Luke xxii. 1. Now the feast (g) of unleavened

bread drew nigh, which is called 2. "The Passover." And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him; for they 3. feared the people. Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the 4. twelve. And he went his


and communed with the chief priests and captains, how he might 5. betray him unto them. And they were glad, and covenanted to give 6. him money. And he promised, and sought opportunity to betray

v. 28.


v. 28.

(d) "So Christ," &c. The meaning is, as it is with man, that he dieth once only, and after that comes judgment, so is it with Christ; he was to be offered once only, and his second appearance will be to judge the world. The literal, and perhaps the better translation of this verse seems to be, "So Christ, having "been once offered to bear the sins of 46 many, shall the second time be seen "without sin to those who look to him " for salvation."

(e)" Of many," not indiscriminately of all; but of such as feel their own insufficiency, and the advantages of the atonement he has made, and humbly look up to him, and endeavour to walk in his commandments.

(f) "Without sin," i. e. probably, in a far different state from that in which he was, when he was taking upon himself the sins of the world; not in a state of humility, as one who had sins upon him, but in a state of glory, as one who was

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over, that we may eat." And 9. they said unto him, "Where wilt "thou that we prepare?" And 10. he said unto them, "Behold, "when ye are entered into the "city, there shall a (i) man meet


you, bearing a pitcher of water: "follow him into the house where "he entereth in. And ye shall 11. "say unto the good man of the "house, "The Master saith un"to thee, Where is the guest"chamber, where I shall eat the "passover with my disciples?" "And he shall shew you a large 12. 66 upper room furnished: there "make ready." And they went, 13. and found as he had said unto them and they made ready the passover. And when the hour 14. was come, he (k) sat down, and

without sin, as the great Judge, to give salvation to those that look for him, and to punish those who do not.

(8) "The feast," &c, "the passover." v. 1. See note on Mark xiv. 1. ante 99.

(b) "The day," &c. i. e. the evening v.7. which began that day at the end of which the paschal lamb was to be slain: they reckoned their days from evening to evening according to Gen. i. 5. the evening and the morning were the first day; and according to Gen. xii. 18. on the fourteenth day of the first month, at even, they were to eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month,

at even.

(i) "A man meet you," &c. See v. 10. note on Mark xiv. 13. ante 100.

(k)" He sat down," &c. Q. To what? ~.14. He was crucified on the day of the preparation; the day before the Sabbath; the day before the passover was to be eaten. St. Mark xv. 42. says it was the preparation, the "day before the Sab

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v. 16.

v. 18.

and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, "This (n) is my body which is "given for you: this do in re"membrance of me." Likewise also the cup after supper, saying,

"bath;" Matt. xxvii. 62. implies the same thing; Luke xxiii. 54. says, "that "day was the preparation, and the Sab"bath drew on ;" and John xix. 31. assigns as a reason for beseeching Pilate that their legs might be broken, &c. "because it was the preparation, that the "bodies should not remain on the cross 66 on the Sabbath day, for that Sabbath "day was a high day." According to John xviii. 28. "they," (i. e. the chief priest and elders) "went not into the "judgment hall, lest they should be de"filed, but that they might eat the pass


over," which implies that it was not then eaten. And according to John xix. 14. whilst Jesus was before Pilate, “it "was the preparation of the passover, and "about the sixth hour." The paschal lamb was to be eaten on the fourteenth day of the first month at even, and nothing was to remain of it unto the morning. Exod. xii. 6. 10. Lev. xxiii. 5. Numb. ix. 3. And see verse 12.

(1) "Until it be fulfilled," &c. May not this mean, until that great sacrifice in God's dispensation as to the Messiah, of which this is a figure, until that true Paschal Lamb, shall be offered up?

(m) "The fruit." In Matt. xxvi. 29. it is "this fruit," which might mean this cup of the passover.

"This cup is the new (0) testa"ment in my blood, which is "shed for you. But, behold, "the hand of him that (p) be"trayeth me is with me on the "table. And truly the Son of


man goeth as it was (9) deter "mined: but (r) woe unto that "man by whom he is betrayed!" And they began to inquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing. (s) And there was also a strife among them, which of them should be accounted the greatest. And he said unto them, "The kings of "the Gentiles exercise lordship "over them; and they that ex"ercise authority upon them are "called Benefactors. But (t) yea "shall not be so: but he that is

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(r) "Woe." According to Matt. xxvii. v 4, 5. he "repented, when he saw what was done, and went and hanged him"self." This prophetic declaration, therefore, of our Saviour, had so far a very speedy accomplishment.

(s)" And," &c. According to Matt. xx. 25. 29. and Mark x. 42. 46. this happened at an earlier period: before they reached Jericho, on their way to Jerusalem.

(t) "Ye shall not be so," i. e. you v shall exercise no lordship over others; shall have no temporal power: he shall be greatest among you who has the most complete controul over himself; who subdues his own pride, his own appetites and passions, and makes the greatest sacrifices for the benefit of others.



greatest among you, let him be "as the younger; and he that "is chief, as he that doth serve. "For whether is greater, he that "sitteth at meat, or he that ser"veth? is not he that sitteth at "meat? but I am among you as 28." he (u) that serveth. Ye are "they which have continued with "me in my temptations: And I "appoint unto you a kingdom, 66 as my Father hath appointed 30. unto me; that ye may eat and "drink at my table in my king❝ dom, and sit on thrones, judg



ing the twelve tribes of Israel." 31. And the Lord said, "Simon, Si"mon, behold, Satan hath de"sired to have you, that he may 32.❝sift you as wheat: but I have

prayed for thee, that thy faith "fail not: and when thou art "converted (x), strengthen thy 33." brethren." And he said unto him, "Lord, I am ready to go "with thee, both into prison and 34. " to death." And he said, "I "tell thee, Peter, the cock shall

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(u)"As he that serveth." Not in worldly pomp, but benefiting mankind: not courting homage, but doing good. ข.32.



(x)" Converted." May not this mean, when thou shalt turn again, after having denied me, as I know thou wilt.

(y)" But now," &c. This was probably to forewarn them that they would have to encounter much greater dangers and difficulties in preaching the Gospel than when he had sent them out before : that they would be in want of food, in danger of bodily harm, and should therefore provide for all emergencies. This passage is in Isaiah liii. 12. "He was numbered with "the transgressors, and he bare the sin "of many, and made intercession with

(x) "Written."

said unto them,

said unto them, "When I sent

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you without purse, and scrip, "and shoes, lacked ye any "thing?" And they said, "No"thing." Then said he unto 36. them," But (y) now, he that "hath a purse, let him take it, "and likewise his scrip: and he "that hath no sword, let him "sell his garment and buy one. "For I say unto you, That this 37. "that is (z) written must yet be "accomplished in me, "And he "was reckoned among the trans

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gressors:" for the things con"cerning me have an end." And 38. they said, "Lord, behold, here

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temptation.' And he was 41. withdrawn from them about a stone's cast, and kneeled down, and prayed, saying, Father, if 42. "thou be willing, remove this cup (b) from me: nevertheless

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"(or for) the transgressors. See note on Mark xv. 28. ante 106.

(a) "Pray that," &c. This may either mean that they were to pray against temptation, that this was to be the subject of their prayer, or generally, that they were to pray, leaving the subject to them, and that strength against tempta, tion would be the consequence.

ข. 40.

(b) "Cup," i. e. of affliction, the suf- v.42. ferings I am about to undergo. In Mark x. 38. our Saviour said to James and John, "Can ye drink of the cup that “I drink of, and be baptized with the


baptism that I am baptized with?" meaning to put the question, whether they could bear whatever he could. And when he checked Peter for having smitten


"not my will, but thine, be "done." And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, 44. strenghtening him. And being in an agony, he (c) prayed more earnestly and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood fall45. ing down to the ground.

And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples, he found them sleeping for sorrow, 46. and said unto them, "Why sleep "ye? rise and pray, lest ye enter 47. "into temptation."

And while he yet spake, behold a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them, and drew near unto Jesus to kiss 48. him. But Jesus said unto him, Judas, " Betrayest thou the Son 49. "of man with a kiss?" When

v. 44.

they which were about him saw what would follow, they said unto him, "Lord, shall we smite with

the high priest's servant, he said, (John xviii. 11.) 66 The cup which my Father "hath given me, shall I not drink it ?”


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(c) "Prayed," &c. It is to this, probably, that the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews refers, when in speaking of our Saviour, Heb. v. 7. he says, "who "in the days of his flesh, offered up prayers and supplications, with strong crying and tears, unto him that was "able to save him from death." According to Matt. xxvi. 42. his prayer the second time was, "O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me, except "I drink it, thy will be done." The greatness of our Saviour's sufferings shews the greatness of God's abhorrence of sin, (for otherwise he might have dispensed with the sacrifice), and the greatness of our obligation to Jesus Christ. As our Saviour was to take upon himself the sins of the whole world, and by his sufferings to make an atonement for them, his sufferings might at this time be so great, as to be almost more than could, in a state of human nature, be born: and the fact may be recorded to


"the sword?" And (d) one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. And Jesus answered and said, 5 "Suffer ye thus far." And he touched his ear, and healed him. Then Jesus said unto the chief 5 priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders, which were come to him, "Be ye come out, as "against a thief, with swords "and staves? When I was daily 5 "with you in (e) the temple ye "stretched forth no hands against "me: but this is your hour, and "the power of darkness." Then 5 took they him, and led him, and brought him into the high priest's house. house. And Peter followed afar off. And when they had kindled 5. a fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them. But a cer- 5 tain maid beheld him as he sat

shew that God's abhorrence of sin was so great, that it was as much as his own Son could do to bear the punishment. Should not man's thankfulness to our Saviour be in proportion to his sufferings?

(d)" One of them," i. e. Peter. See v.j note on Mark xiv. 47. ante 102.

(e)" In the temple." He might pos- v. sibly wish to bring to their recollection the prophecies that the Messiah should come to that temple. In Hag. ii. 7. 9. as an encouragement to go on with the temple they were then building, God said unto them, "The desire of all na"tions shall come, and I will fill this "house with glory, saith the Lord of "hosts: the glory of this latter house "shall be greater than of the former," (i. e. Solomon's, which had been destroyed)," saith the Lord of hosts: "and in this house will I give peace, "saith the Lord of hosts." And in Mal. iii. 1. is this prophecy: "The Lord "whom ye seek, shall suddenly come "to his temple; even the Messenger of "the Covenant, whom ye delight


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