Imatges de pÓgina

15, 16, 17. it is said, “ By him (i.e. Christ) * were all things created that are in hea* ren, and that are in earth : all things

were created by him, and for himn : and "he is before all things, and by him all "things subsist.” Again in Hebr. i. 2. it is said, that “ by him God made the "worlds.” And Hebr. i. 8. 10. « Unto * the Son he (i.e. God the Father) saith, “Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid * the foundation of the earth; and the * heavens are the works of thine hands, &c."

P. 33. v. 21. “ I am not ;" i. e. " not

the Elias of antient times :" but he was the person referred to in the prophecy by the name of Elijah, and it was in the spirit and power of Elijah that he came.

P.37. v. 28. “ My Lord and my God!" an exclamation not of wonder, but of distinct acknowledgement. And would our Saviour have suffered it without rebuke or notice, had the term “God” been misapplied ? would he have left an expression unexplained, which, if he were not God, would lead to a wrong

faith ? P. 38. v. 8. “ God.” So that this term is here plainly and unequivocally applied to Jesus Christ.

P. 40. v. 58. “ Stoned him ;" probably on the ground that what he said was considered blasphemy; claiming to be God. See 121. note on John xix. 7.

P. 40. v. 59. “ Lord Jesus, &c.” making him therefore the object of his prayer. And would have Stephen done this, or would it have been recorded without comment or explanation, had it not been the then existing faith, that Christ was a proper object of worship, and consequentby God. -Our Saviour says, Matt. iv. 10. "It is written, thou shalt worship the "Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou "serve." And God says twice in Isaiah, Ls. xlii. 8. and Is. xlviii. 11. “My glory will "I not give to another.” The caution with which false worship, the worship of any one but God, was watched, may be collected from Acts xiv. 14: Rev. xix. 10: and Rev. xxï. 8, 9.

P. 40. v. 34. “ I send.” Another argument of Christ's divinity. Who, that was not God, could send ?

P. 46. v. 4. “ his Son." Our Saviour is continually called the Son of God, as if it were the understanding that God was in a peculiar manner to be his father, and that no earthly being was to stand in that relation. When the tempter assailed him, his address was “ If thou be the Son of

« God,” Matt. iv. 3.-Luke iv, 3. When the Devils spoke to him, it was by the appellation, “ Jesus, thou Son of God,Matt. viii. 29.-Luke viji. 28. When he walked upon the sea, they that were in the ship worshipped him, saying " of a * truth thou art the Son of God," Matt. xiv. 33. The devils he cast out at Capernaum said to hiin, “ Thou art Christ, the Son of God," Luke iv. 41. Peter said unto him, “ We believe and are sure, that “ thou art that Christ, the Son of the

living God," John vi. 69. So Matt. xvi. 16. “ Thou art Christ, the Son of the

living God." Martha said to him, ") “ believe that thou art the Christ, the So

of God, which should come inte « world,” John xi. 27. In Joh' Nathaniel exclaimed “ Rabbi the Son of God, thou art “ Israel." In Matt. xxvi. priest adjured him, “ whet “ Christ, the Son of God." 70. the question to him " then the Son of God plaint against him to Pil. was, that “ he made hime “ God.Could this appellau been often so applied, had it not obtai. at the time a determinate and well know meaning ? and could that meaning have been less than this, that the only person who could be considered as standing, in the relation of father to him, was God?

P. 50. Collect. “ by faith," i. e. “ by believing what has been revealed con“ cerning thee;" having no other knowledge than that which faith or belief gives.

P. 50. Collect. " the fruition, &c." i.e. the power mentioned 2 Cor. iii. 18. and 1 John iii. 2. of “beholding, as in a glass, “ the glory of the Lord," and of "seeing « him as he is."

P.52. v. 1. “Herod the king.” Herod was the first foreigner who was set over the kingdom of Judea. Till his time they were governed by some of their own people, and the priesthood continued in its appointed line: they were now become tributary to Rome; Rome nominated their kings, and the kings made the priests out of the lowest of the people. The prophecy therefore (Gen. xlix.10.) “The scepis tre shall not depart from Judah, nor a “ lawgiver from between his feet, until « Shiloh come,” contributed to raise the expectation of the Messiah's coming at this time. See Eusebius's Eccl. Hist. B. i. c. 6. P. 57. Rom. xiii. 20. “ heap coals, &c.'

See 10 Augustine 335. de tempore Sermo. 168. and 4 Augustine 375. on Rom. propos. 71. So Jerome in loco.“ heap, &c.” says

“ that when he perceives coals of “ fire are heaped upon him by that mercy

he did not deserve, he may shake them “ off, that is, be changed, and love you. “ But if you do this that something worse

may come upon him, it is not mercy, “ but cruelty. That (i. e. the coming of

something worse upon him) you are “ commanded to pray to God to avert. This passage too teaches us to imitate “ God, who causes his sun to shine upon “ the wicked and the good : for by feed“ ing our enemy, and giving him drink, e provoke him to peace and recontion." Matt. viii. 2. “worshipped him,

would he, who had declared It worship the Lord thy in only shalt thou serve, ould he, without rebuke

have suffered bimself orshipped, and to have by the high title of

That too for a purpose psied that he had divine power, ne not meant it to be understood at he himself really was a proper object of worship, and consequently God? Similar instances, in which before his crucifixion he suffered himself to be worshipped, occur Matt. ix. 18.--Matt. xiv. 33. and John ix. 38. And after his resurrection, his disciples held him by the feet, and worshipped him, Matt. xxviji. 9. When they saw him afterwards on the mountain in Galilee, they worshipped him, Matt. xxviii. 17.; and when he was parted from them, and carried. up into heaven, they worshipped him again, Luke xxiv. 51, 52. And shall we hesitate to make him an object of our worship, or doubt of his divinity ?

P. 58. Matt. viii. 4. “ Tell no man.” This miracle was performed early in our Saviour's ministry, at least two years before his crucifixion; and he appears to have acted with great reserve and caution till the time of his suffering approached, that he might not draw on the multitudes to avow him as their king (which a.conviction in their minds that he was the Messiah would probably have done), and that he might not provoke the jealousy of the Roman power.

But for this conduct, he might have been obstructed at an earlier period, before he would have had the full opportunity of exhibiting the

purity of his life, nf displaying the powers he possessed in . e regions where he wished them to be knuwn. This prudence is noticed in a striking manner by Mr. Locke in his Reasonableness of Christianity, 55 to 142. See post 9. the added note on Matt. xvi. 16.

P. 62. Mal. iii. 1. “ before me.” And yet it was before Christ, and for him, that the way was to be prepared : Christ therefore is the speaker, and to him is applied the expression at the end of the verse, The Lord (Hebr. Jehovah) of Hosts.” Bellarm. lib. 1. De Christo, c. 4. p. 283. And in speaking of John the Baptist, Luke i. 16. the angel says, “many of the “ children of Israel shall he turn to the “ Lord their God, and he shall go before “ him (i.e. the Lord their God) in the

spirit and power of Elias.” Is not this some argument as to Christ's divinity ?

P. 63. Mal. iv. 1. his temple.” So that he was to have a temple, to be an object of worship! And who, that is not God, can have that right? See 3 Hors). Serm.

P. 69. Matt. xxiv. 27. The Son, &c." with the article in the original, to distinguish him from every other individual. Our Saviour," says Dr.Middleton (Midd. on Gr. Article, 354.), assumes this appellation at least seventy times, and he

does so, but in allusion to his “present humiliation, or his future glory. “ It is therefore a strong and repeated,

though indirect, declaration, that the “ human nature did not originally belong “to him, and was not properly his - own."

P. 73. 2 Cor. xi. 21, “ bold," i. e. “ vaunting," “ proud." See Philip. iii. 4. where he again states that his pretensions in what he there calls “ the Flesh," i. e. “ the Old Testament prerogatives," are superior to those of any other person.

P.74. Lukeviii. 10.“might not see,&c.” That if they had not right dispositions, if they were not inclined to search after truth, and exert their talents to find it, they should not have such overpower. ing evidence as should force them to believe.

· P. 77. Luke xvii. 31, rather “all things “ written by the prophets shall be ac

complished upon the Son of Man." τελεσθησεται το υ.α, &c.

P. 77. At the end of the note on Luke xviii. 32. add, in the language of Jacob's Prophecy (Gen. xlix. 10.) « the


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sceptre had now departed from Judah," This fact, which is also noticed Lukeiv. 2. ".and a lawgiver from between his feet," might be mentioned not merely to shew and yet they did not draw the conclu- how aptly the first temptation was sesion, that Shiloh, he that was

lected, but to signify that at this time sent, was come.

our Saviour was really man, with the P. 81. 2.Cor. vi. 3. “ The ministry," human nature truly and intirely upon j.e. “the ministers of the gospel.” The him, and subject to all the wants, presapostles were anxious that the conduct of sures, and passions of that nature. Had the believers should confer credit upon his divine nature co-operated, where the cause of christianity. See ante 33. would have been the difficulty or the note on Philip. iv.5. Should.not christians merit of resisting the temptation ? and of the present tiine take care that their it would not have been by the seed of the conduct does it no discredit ?

woman alone that the tempter would P. 82. 2 Cor. vi. 8. “ By honour, have been defeated. That our Saviour &c.”i.e.“ by every species of conduct”. continued till his crucifixion perfect man, leaving no means, if innocent, unem- what is called John i. 14. “ flesh," " in ployed : becoming, as he says of himself " the likeness of men and in fashion as a in i Cor. ix. 22. « all things to all men,” “ man,” Philipp. ii. 7. 8., and as it is ex, See 1 Cor. ix. 20, 21.

pressed in the collect for Christmas Da: P. 82. Matt. iv. j. “ Then” i. e. “ im- with "

our nature upon him," is strong “mediately after he had been baptized implied (amongst other passages) f “ by John in Jordan, and the Holy Spirit the description of his agony, Hebr. “bad descended upon him,” Matt. iii. 16. “ who in the days of his flesh, offer - Mark i. 12.- Luke iv. 1. " When he

prayers and supplications, with “ was about thirty years of age,” Luke ii. crying and tears, unto him that 23. and “ before he began his preaching “ to save him from death." “ and public ministry." Matt. iv. 17. Till Luke xxii. 43. 44. this time, as far as we can collect from the P. 82. Matt. iv. 3. “ The Son or Evangelists he had lived with his parents It was just before he was led into the at Nazareth, and had been subject unto derness, that the voice from Heaven an them, See Luke ii. 51.; and with the ex- nounced “ This is my beloved Son, in ception of his reasoning with the doctors “ whom I am well pleased,” Matt. iii. 17. in the temple at the age of twelve, bad or as Mark and Luke record it, “ Thou done nothing to distinguish himself from “ art my beloved Son," &c. Mark i. 11. ordinary men. The temptation therefore Luke iii. 22. so that this was an apposite was before he had exercised any of those topic for temptation. miraculous powers which so plainly proved P. 83. Matt. iv. 10. “ Satan." Till this he came from God.

last temptation, our Saviour might not - P. 82. v. l. “ The wilderness," i. e. know by whom he was assailed, and he (most probably) “ of Sinai,” in the great might now name him, to let him know be desert of Arabia, where the Israelites was detected. had wandered forty years, and where . 84. Matt, xv. 25. “ Worshipped, Moses and Elias, two types of the Mes- &c.Another instance in which our Sasiah, had before fasted forty days. See viour suffered himself to be worshipped, Middl, on Gr. art. 176.- Exod. xxiv. 18. to be addressed by the high title “ Lord,” - Deuter. ix. 9. 18.–1 Kings xix. 8. and to be applied to for that relief which

P. 82. Matt. iv. 1. “ To be tempted, none but God could give. &c.” that in his human nature, as man,

he P. 85. Eph. v. 5. - an idolater," i. e. might be exposed to and resist the most “às bad as an idolater; making money his powerful temptations. This temptation “ idol, the sole object of his thoughts ;" is referred to, Hebr. ii. 18. “ for in that so Col. iii. 5. post 127. “ he himself hath suffered, being tempted, P. 85. Eph. v. 5. “ of Christ and of “ he is able to succour them that are “God," i. e. (according to Dr. Middle“tempted ;” and Hebr. iv, 15. “ for we ton) “ of him who is both Christ and “ have not a high priest which cannot be “ God." The original is, " Tu Xeiro xj “ touched with the feelings of our in- Ose;" and there being no article before “ firmities, but (one who) was in all Old, the terms « Christ and God” must “ points tempted, like as we are, yet refer to the same person. Middl. 81.' « without sin.”

528, 9.-But if “ God” here mean the P. 82. Matt. iv. 2. “ an hungered." Father, would Christ be thus associated

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with him, and the kingdom be spoken of " who consider the Mosaic institutions
as the kingdom of Christ and of God, if as still in force, who are born after the
Christ were of a lower species or nature ? “ flesh, persecute us who are free from
So in Rev. xi. 15. the kingdoms of this “ those institutions, the children of the
world are said to have become the king- Spirit.”
doms- of whom? “ of our Lord and of P. 90. Hebr. ix. 11. “ not made with
his Christ ;” and the manner in which “ hands," i. e. “ not of human structure,
God and Christ are joined in many pas-

“ heaven.”
sages in the Revelations deserves atten- P. 90. Hebr. ix, 12. “ the holy place,"
tion. The Song of the Angels, Rev.v.13. “ heaven," of which the holy of
is, “ Blessing and honour and glory. and holies in the temple at Jerusalem, was
power be unto him that sitteth upon

a type. “ The throne, and unto the Lamb for ever P. 90. Hebr. ix. 14. “without spot,” so « and ever.” When the kings and other that it was not for any sin of his own he great men of the earth are described, had to make the sacrifice. Rev. vi. 16. as calling to the mountains to P.91. at the end of the note (e) on verse fall on them, it is to hide them not only 58,-There is another passage (John xiii. “ from the face of him that sitteth upon 9.) where our Saviour applies to himself

the throne (but also) from the wrath of the same term “ I am,” perhaps with
the Lamb.The cry of the multitude the same view : “I tell you before it
h stood before the throne and before come, that when it is come to pass, ye
Lamb, Rev. vii. 10, is, “ Salvation to may believe that I am.” He, which
God which sitteth

the throne,

is added in our translation, is not in the
o the Lamb." In Rev. xiv, 4. the original. So in this same chapter, v. 24.
there mentioned are spoken of as 28. “ If ye believe not that I am, ye shall

fruits unto God and to the “ die in your sins," and “ when ye have • In Rev. xx. 6, it is said of the “ lift up the Son of Man, then shall ye - there referred to, that they shall o know that I am." “ He" is in both

priests of God and of Christ.In places an addition. See post 8, the ev. xxi, 22. “ the Lord God Almighty added note on John üi. 13. « and the Lamb" are described as “ the P. 91. “ Stones, &c.” probably because “ temple of the holy Jerusalem,” and in they considered him as having claimed Rev. xxii, 1.3. mention is made “ of the God's attribute, self-existence, and treated “ throne of God and of the Lamb." If it as blasphemy, for which stoning was Christ were not God as well as the Father, the punishment. See 121, note on John can it be supposed that both would have xix. 7.-And would our Saviour have been made objects of the same praise in used an expression, from which such an heaven, that the wrath of each would inference could have been drawn, had he have been made equal objects of dread, not meant to make the claim of being that both would have been described as God ? It was no part of his character to forming one temple, and that both would run unnecessarily into danger, nor would have had the same priests, the same offer- he make an assertion which might mislead ings or first fruits, the same throne, and his followers. the same kingdom ?

P. 91. Is. vii. 12. “ I will not, &c." A P. 88. Gal. iv. 26. “ But, &c." The refusal from insolence and attachment to reasoning seems to be this ; as the Jeru

idol worshipsalem which now is, the earthly Jerusa- P. 91. Is. vi. 13. “O house of David,” lem, to which Hagar answers in the alle- addressing the whole house ; no longer gory, is in bondage with her children, viz.

speaking individually to Ahaz, who had under the burtben of the Mosaic institu- shewn himself unworthy.

ions, so on the other hand, Jerusalem P.91. Is. vii, 13. “ weary my God," by which is above, i. e. heaven, the place distrusting and despising him. Would it from which the Christian dispensation be a light offence to discredit man, and do comes (to which Sarah answers) is free ye dare to discredit God? Chrys. in loco. from all bondage, and as she is the mother P. 92. Is. vii. 15. “Butter and honey," of us all, and we are her children, we the food of infants in those times, “ that must be also free, and consequently must “ he may know” or “ till he shall know.” be released from the bondage of the Mo- The object probably was to intimate, that saic law.

though according to the preceding verse P.88, Gal. iv. 29. “So,&c." i.e. "they he was to be called (i.e. to be) Immanuel,


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i. e. God with us, yet was he also to be very man; to pass through the ordinary stages of infancy, to be reared as infants are, and to be in the early part of life as other children are, in that state of ignorance as not to know right from wrong ; that, in the language of the Athanasian creed, though he was to be God, of the substance of the Father, as begotten before the worlds, he was also to be man, of the substance of his mother, as born in the world ; not only “perfect God” but also “

perfect man, of a reasonable “soul, and human flesh subsisting.”

P. 93. Philipp. ii. 6. "Who, &c.” What can be stronger than this


to prove our Saviour's pre-existence and divinity ? He was in the form of God! When ? Evidently before he was in the form of a servant, and made in the likeness of men. It was therefore before he was born of the Virgin Mary. And by whose act did be pass from the form of God to the form of a servant ? Clearly by his own! He made himself of no reputation, and took upon. himself the form of a servant. And who that was not God was ever in the form of God? Who of an inferior nature, could without injustice claim equality with God? And who of less power than God, could divest himself of one nature and assume another?

P. 93. Philipp. ii. O. “ being” rather “ bearing rule" pre-existing," υπάρχων. .

P. 93. Philipp. ii. 6. “not robbery," or injustice, because his right; because their nature was equal. Non rapuit, quia vere habuit. 4 Aug. de Trin. lib. 1. c. 2. p. 498. And see 9 Aug. Tr. in Johannem, 78. p. 180.

P. 93. Philipp. ii. 7. “but,” rather yet.” P. 93. Philipp. ii. 7. “ made himself of "no reputation,” rather “stripped or di“ vested himself,” sauloy EXEWOS,

i. e. of the form of God, of the glory he had with the Father before the world was. See Magee, Notes, No.1.-And see an able discourse upon the whole of this

passage, Waterland's 5th Sermon at Lady Moyer's Lecture.

P. 93. Philipp. ii. 10. “Every knee, &c." How properly then is he made an object of our worship!

P. 93. Matt. xxvii. 2. “delivered, &c." The Jews had not at this time the power of life and death; it was vested in the Roman Governor. The sceptre therefore was departed from Judah, and a lawgiver

from between his feet. See 77. note on Luke xviii. 32. and 13). note on Acts xiij. 28.

P.95. Matt, xxvii. 37. “This, &c.” In derision !

P.111. Luke xxii. 30. “ My table in

my kingdom." Expressions not undeserving notice!

P. 122. John xix. 15. “ but Cæsar.” The sceptre then was departed from Judah: and what kept them from drawing the conclusion, that Shiloh, the Messiah, must. have come ?

P. 124. 1 Pet. iii. 18. “ quickened
by the Spirit,” rather“ quick in Spirit,
." dead in body, alive in soul,”_" dead

as to the flesh, alive as to the spirit." Middl. on Gr. Art. 618. 1 Horsley's Serm. 404, 405. θανατωθείς μεν σαρκί, ζωοποιηθείς δε τω ονεύματι.

P. 124. 1 Pet. iii. 19. “ by which, rather “ in which," éves

P. 129. Acts x. 36. “Lord of all.” One of many instances in which the highest titles are ascribed to Christ. In Rom. ix.5. St. Paul calls him “ God blessed for ever." He it is, who, according to Rev. xvii. 14. and Rev. xix. 16. is “ King of kings, and “ Lord of lords,” and in Rev. i. 17. he assumes to himself these characteristics, “I

am the first and the last : I am he that “ liveth, and was dead; and behold, I am “ alive forevermore, Amen; and have “ the keys of hell and of death." -To “him, (in the language of Rev. i. 6.) be

glory and dominion for ever and ever, “ Amen.” According to 1 Pet. iii. 22. “ He is gone into heaven, and is on the

right hand of God, Angels and Authori«ties and Powers being made subject unto " him." And according to Philipp. ii. %. “ God hath given him a name, which is " above every name: that at the name of “ Jesus every knee should bow; and that

every tongue should confess, that Jesus “ Christ is Lord, to the glory of God thé


P, 135. 1 John v. 7. at the end of note (2) add, This passage is in Cyprian's Tracts, p:

109. and is evidently referred to in his Epistles, p. 203. and if it were not genuine, the Greek language would not admit of the article « go." in verse 8, (See Middl. on Gr. Art. 634. 6. 7. 647.). nor would the word we render “ three's be masculine. See a very full discussion upon the genuineness of this passage, 2 Hales's Trinity, 132 to 226.

P. 135. 1 John v. 7. “ one" i. e! " one thing," one in disposition, will, and



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