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into a Chartist lodge, and so he did. In the beer-shops, for the most part, were the absurd, but truculent, plans of that ragged regiment of rebels concocted; and throughout the agricultural districts they are the very foci of crime.

But, fortunately, there are yet peaceful villages, where Chartism and beer-shops are alike unknown, and where, while the chime of the Sabbath bells sounds musi cally through the summer air, the ancient light-blue straight-cut coat, bordered with its constellation of broad, round, silver buttons of the first magnitude, is still to be seen in the chequered shade of the churchyard, about the hour of prayer. In the button-hole of that coat is secured a small phial of limpid water, wherein are refreshed the stems of some three or four choice pinks, or two or three bright bizarres of carnations, cherished for the occasion, on which the wearer looks with fond pride, and whose fair blossoms forms a sort of order of Flora upon a bosom that many a courtier might envy. This same coat is never without a magnificent Old Brompton stock on the club-day; and you shall find its owner's humble home a happy oneas happy as the happiest in Goldsmith's Village, before it was deserted. Cleanliness and comfort are everywhere; and his garden-not without bees-is a perfect picture. The fumes of the beer-shop, reeking with tobacco-smoke, and the company of the poacher, the thief, and the burglar, would have no charms for him, even if the hamlet were cursed with one.

Now, the hut must be poor indeed, which is without some coign of vantage; and we earnestly pray the attention of benevolent landlords to the fact, that there are few cottagers in South Britain who might not materially aid their resources, and add to their comforts, by the culture of the vine, as recommended by Mr. Hoare.

The Zoological and Horticultural Societies.

We would gladly see a low wall covered with well-managed vines, stretching along the north side of the terrace-walk that borders the Regent's Park, in the garden of the Zoological Society. The southern side of the wall would have a very beautiful appearance, when well covered in the summer and autumnal months; and then, how refreshing the fruit would be-to the surviving monkeys!

Before we close this notice of a useful work, deserving of a better commentary, may we be pardoned for offering a word in favour of another society, to which, in our opinion, much praise is due ? It is not that this society has merely made the rich familiar with many lovely flowers and healthful fruits of all seasons, from the

peep of the first crocus to the fall of the last apple,

"That dances as long as dance it can,"

but that it has spread many of these beautiful and sapid productions through the land. The dahlia may be seen at every cottage door; and the methods of forcing, upon cheap principles, have been so widely diffused, that the hard-handed London artisan may now cool his September palate with a slice of melon for a small copper coin. If it were but in being auxiliary to the spread of these innocent pleasures among the people, enough has been done to make every good man wish well to the Horticultural Society of London.

Death of Lord Chatham.

On the 7th April, 1778, the Duke of Richmond, hitherto the ally and supporter of all Lord Chatham's American policy, moved an address to the Crown, recapitulating in detail the expenses, losses, and misconduct of the war, entreating His Majesty to dismiss his ministers, and to withdraw his forces, by sea and land, from the revolted provinces. There was hardly a topic in this motion which Lord Chatham had not himself repeatedly urged; and it was, no doubt, so framed with a view to secure his concurrence; but he saw that it involved, though not in direct terms, the acknowledgment of American independence; and on the motion's being communicated to him, the day before it was to be made, he apprised the Duke, “with unspeakable concern, that the difference between them, on the point of the independence and sovereignty of America, was so very wide, that he despaired of bringing about any reasonable issue. He was still ill, but hoped to be in town tomorrow." On that morrow he appeared in the House of Lords, for the last time:

"Lord Chatham came into the House of Lords, leaning upon two friends, wrapped up in flannel, pale and emaciated. Within his large wig little more was to be seen than his aquiline nose, and his penetrating eye. He looked like a dying man; yet never was seen a figure of more dignity: he appeared like a being of a superior species. He rose from his seat with slowness and difficulty, leaning on his crutches, and supported under each arm by his two friends. He took one hand from his crutch, and raised it, casting his eyes towards heaven, and said, 'I thank God that I have been enabled to come here this dayto perform my duty, and to speak on a subject which has so deeply impressed my mind. I am old and infirm-have one foot, more than one foot, in the grave; I am risen from my bed, to stand up in the cause of my country-perhaps never again

to speak in this House.' The reverencethe attention-the stillness of the House was most affecting if any one had dropped a handkerchief, the noise would have been heard. At first he spoke in a very low and feeble tone; but as he grew warm, his voice rose, and was as harmonious as ever: oratorical and affecting, perhaps more than at any former period; both from his own situation, and from the importance of the subject on which he spoke.

"He rejoiced that he was yet alive to give his vote against so impolitic, so inglorious a measure, as the acknowledgment of the independency of America; and declared he would much rather be in his grave, than see the lustre of the British throne tarnished, the dignity of the empire disgraced, the glory of the nation sunk to such a degree as it must be, when the dependency of America on the sovereignty of Great Britain was given up."

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After speaking for some time with great enthusiasm, he sat down exhausted, and the Duke of Richmond rose to explain. While he was speaking, Lord Chatham listened to him with attention and composure; and, when his Grace had ended, rose to reply; but his strength failed him,

and he fell backwards in convulsions. He was immediately supported by the Peers around him, and by his younger sons, who happened to be present as spectators. He was conveyed, first, to the house of Mr. Sargent, in Downing-street, and thence to Hayes, where he lingered for three days, and Monday, the 11th of May, terminated a glorious life, by a death, it may be said, in the service of his country, and on the very field of battle.

That same evening-on the motion of Colonel Barré, formerly the bitterest of his enemies, but lately become a close ally

-the House of Commons voted him a public funeral, and a monument in Westminster Abbey, a tribute in which men of all parties generously and cordially joined.

Character of Lord Chatham.

The sum of all seems to us to be, that the qualities of the orator were more transcendent than those of the statesman, and that his public character, when calmly considered, excites rather admiration than applause. The generosity of his sentiments did not always guide his practice; and the majestic stream of his declamations for the rights and liberties of mankind was always accompanied by eddies and under-currents of personal interest. He was too fine a genius for the lower, and too selfish a politician for the higher

duties of a minister.

"Graced as he was with all the power of words"

his talents were neither for conducting an office nor managing a party - he was neither the sun to rule the day, nor the moon to rule the night; but a meteor, which astonished and alarmed mankind by its supernatural splendour, but left the world, when it expired, in deeper darkness than before.

Notes of a Reader.

NEW BOOKS.

THERE are two questions to be asked respecting every new publication:-Is it worth buying? Is it worth borrowing.Sydney Smith.

SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH.

Coleridge observes, of Mackintosh : "After all his fluency and brilliant erudition, you can rarely carry off anything worth preserving. You might not improperly write on his forehead, 'Warehouse to let.'

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NABOBS.

bibed in youth, in the East Indies, as unDr. Knox, speaking of the ideas imfavourable to liberty, remarks: "Enriched at an early age, the adventurer returns to higher circles of fashionable life. He England. His property admits him to the aims at rivalling or excelling all the old nobility in the splendour of his mansions, the finery of his carriages, the number of his liveried train, the profusion of his table, in every unmanly indulgence which an empty vanity can covet, and a full looks from the window of his superb manpurse procure. Such a man, when he sion, and sees the people pass, cannot endure the idea that they are of as much consequence as himself in the eye of the law; and that he dares not insult or opkennel, or sweeps his chimney. press the unfortunate being who rakes his

EDUCATION ALARMISTS.

Mrs. Trimmer, objecting to the " rewards and punishments" in Lancasterian education, observes: "Boys, accustomed to consider themselves the nobles of the school, may, in their future lives, form a conceit of their own merits, (unless they have very sound principles,) aspire to be nobles of the land, and to take place of the hereditary nobility." Upon which the Rev. Sydney Smith remarks: "For our part, when we saw these ragged and interesting little nobles shining in their tin stars, we only thought it probable that the spirit of emulation would make them better ushers, tradesmen, and mechanics. We did, in truth, imagine we had observed, in some of their faces, a bold project for procuring better breeches for keeping out the blasts of heaven, which howled through

those garments in every direction, and of aspiring, hereafter, to greater strength of seam, and more perfect continuity of cloth. But, for the safety of the titled orders we had no fear; nor did we once dream that the black rod, which whipped these little, dirty dukes, would one day be borne before them as the emblem of legislative dignity and the sign of noble blood."

UNIVERSAL POISONING.

The fear of being poisoned was universal, in the dark ages, in Europe. In the lower ranks of life, men were thought to be in most danger of being thus made away with by their wives; in the higher, by their physicians and cooks.

POLITICAL LIBERTY.

It is always considered as a piece of impertinence, in England, if a man of less than £2000 or £3,000 a-year has any opinions at all upon important subjects. Sydney Smith.

BIGOTRY IMPARTIAL.

Bigotry is just as amiable and as respectable in her indulgences as in her severities, in her partialities as in her persecutions. She deified most of the Roman emperors, and she has graced the calendar of saints with the names of many disgusting fools and villains.- Sharp.

NICE ROBBERY.

M. Bachelier, a French florist, kept some beautiful species of the anemone to himself, which he had procured from the East Indies, and succeeded in withholding them for ten years from all who wished to possess them likewise. A counsellor of the Parliament, however, one day paid him a visit, while they were in seed, and, in walking with him round the garden, contrived to let his gown fall upon them; by this means, he swept off a good number of the seeds, and his servant, who was apprised of the scheme, dexterously wrapt up the gown, and secured them. Any one must have been a sour moralist who should have considered this to be a breach of the eighth commandment.-The Doctor.

SOURCE OF LUXURY.

There is not, upon earth, air, or sea, a single flavour, (cost what crime it may to procure it,) that mercantile opulence will not procure. Increase the difficulty, and you enlist vanity on the side of luxury; and make that be sought for, as a display of wealth, which was before valued only for the display of appetite. This doctrine is exemplified in laver, a sea-weed, which is eaten by the poorest people in Scotland twice a-day, and is served at the tables of the wealthy in this country, as a first-rate luxury, in a silver saucepan, or lampdish. (See Hints for the Table.)

"THE RULING PASSION STRONG IN DEATH."

Garci Sanchez de Badajoz, when he was at the point of death, desired that he might be dressed in the habit of St. Francis ; this was accordingly done, and over the Franciscan frock was put his habit of Santiago, for he was a knight of that order. Looking at himself in his double attire, he said: "The Lord will say to me, presently, My friend, Garci Sanchez, you come very well wrapt up! (muy arropado;) and I shall reply: Lord, it is no wonder, for it was winter when I set off."

Don Rodrigo Calderon wore a Franciscan habit at his execution, as an outward and visible sign of penitence and humiliation: as he ascended the scaffold, he lifted the skirts of the habit with such an air, that his attendant confessor thought it necessary to reprove him for such illtimed regard to his appearance. Rodrigo excused himself by saying that he had all his life-time carried himself gracefully.-The Doctor.

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INIQUITOUS LEGISLATION.

clergyman, in a smuggling town, I would Coleridge oddly says: "If I were a not preach against smuggling. I would not be made a sort of clerical revenue absurd duties, fosters smuggling, prevent officer. Let the Government, which, by it itself, if it can. How could I shew my hearers the immorality of going twenty miles in a boat, and honestly buying with their money a keg of brandy, except by a long deduction which they could not understand.-Table Talk.

GENIUS AND INDUSTRY.

A little difference in native genius, when augmented by practice, is like a small superiority in the first number of a geo

metrical series.-Sharp.

THE LAW'S DELAY.

It is well known, upon one of the English circuits, that a leading barrister once undertook to speak while an express went twenty miles to bring back a witness, whom it was necessary to produce on the trial. But, what is this to the performance of an American counsellor, who, upon a

like emergency, held the judge and the jury by their ears for three mortal days! He was, indeed, put to his wit's end, for words wherewith to fill up the time; and he introduced so many truisms, and argued at the utmost length so many indisputable points, and expatiated so profusely upon so many trite ones, that Judge Marshal, the most patient of listeners, at last said, "Mr. Such-a-one! (addressing him by his name, in a deliberate tone of the mildest reprehension,) there are some things with which the court should be supposed to be acquainted."

WONDERS OF AUSTRALIA.

In this remote part of the earth, Nature, (having made horses, oxen, ducks, geese, oaks, elms, and all regular and useful productions for the rest of the world,) seems determined to have a bit of play, and to amuse herself as she pleases. Accordingly, she makes cherries with the stone on the outside; and a monstrous animal, as tall as a grenadier, with the head of a rabbit, a tail as big as a bed-post, hopping along at the rate of five hops to a mile, with three or four young kangaroos looking out of its false uterus, to see what is passing. Then comes a quadruped as big as a large cat, with the eyes, colour, and skin of a mole, and the bill and web-feet of a duck, puzzling Dr. Shaw, and rendering the latter half of his life miserable, from his utter inability to determine whether it was a bird or a beast. Add to this, a parrot with the legs of a sea-gull; a skate with the head of a shark; and a bird of such monstrous dimensions, that a side bone of it will dine three real carnivorous Englishmen ;-together with many other productions that agitated Sir Josephi, (Banks,) and filled him with emotions of distress and delight.-Sydney Smith.

DUTCH COURTSHIP.

At Katwyck, it was formerly a piece of Dutch courtship for the wooer to take his mistress in his arms, carry her into the sea till he was more than knee deep, set her down upon her feet, and then, bearing her out again, roll her over and over upon the sand hills, by way of drying her.

RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION.

If experience has taught us anything, it is the absurdity of controlling men's notions of eternity by Acts of Parliament.Sydney Smith.

THE HOMELESS.

Shew me a man who cares no more for one place than another, and I will shew you, in that same person, one who loves nothing but himself. Beware of those who are homeless by choice! You have no hold on a human being whose affec

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Tropical Delights.-Insects are the curse of tropical climates. The hete rouge lays the foundation of a tremendous ulcer. In a moment you are covered with ticks. Chigoes bury themselves in your flesh, and hatch a large colony of young chigoes in a few hours, They will not live together, but every chigoe sets up a separate ulcer, and has his own private portion of pus. Flies get entry into your mouth, into your eyes, into your nose; you eat flies, drink flies, and breathe flies. Lizards, cock-roaches, and snakes get into your bed; ants eat up the books; scorpions sting you on the foot. Every thing bites, stings, or bruises; every second of your existence you are wounded by some piece of animal life, that nobody has ever seen before, except Swammerdam and Meriam. An insect, with eleven legs, is swiming in your teacup; a nondescript, with nine wings, is struggling in the small beer; or a caterpillar, with several dozen eyes in his belly, is hastening over the bread and butter! All nature is alive, and seems to be gathering all her entomological hosts to eat you up, as you are standing, out of your coat, waistcoat, and breeches. Such are the tropics. All this reconciles us to our dews, fogs, vapours, and drizzle; to our apothecaries, rushing about with gargles and tinctures; to our old British, constitutional coughs, sore throats, and swelled faces.-Rev. Sydney Smith.

To avoid catching Cold.-Accustom yourself to the use of sponging with cold water, every morning, on first getting out of bed. It should be followed with a good deal of rubbing with a rough towel. It has considerable effect in giving tone to the skin, and maintaining a proper action in it, and thus proves a safeguard to the injurious influence of cold and sudden changes of temperature: therefore, a person

who is in the habit of thus fortifying the skin, will be much less likely to suffer injury from heated rooms, and the change from a hot room to the cold air. Sir Astley Cooper says: "The methods by which I preserve my own health, are, temperance, early rising, and sponging the body every morning with cold water, immediately after getting out of bed; a practice which I have adopted for thirty years; and though I go from the hot theatre into the squares of the hospital, in the severest winter nights, yet scarcely ever have a cold."-T. S. Graham.

On the Vanishing of good old Customs. Day after day we linger in the past;

Yet whatsoe'er is ours of good and old, We look upon with aspect stern or cold, As we of what remains would mar the last: At our doings we should stand aghast,

Who deem our sires in innovation bold: Home-lights are quenched-home-rites more dear than gold,

And by degrees is sameness round us cast. Time! in thy records, often to us shew

Happy old England! in the passed time, Where blazing hearths forgot the winter-snow, Masquing with merry Christmas in her prime! Ere Love and Joy had lost their honest glow, Through Pride and Change, our country's curse and crime.

Dearden's Miscellany.

RICHARD HOWITT.

Immense Oak.-The great Oak at Eardisley, Hereford, may be ranked with some of the most stupendous monuments of Nature in the United Kingdom. It stands about half a mile north-east of the village, in a plot of ground once lying open, but now enclosed. The branches, (of which fifteen are as large as the usual run of trees to be met with in the neighbourhood,) shoot up from the trunk, at about ten feet from the ground, and form a circle of twenty-seven yards in diameter: the circumference of the trunk, at tour feet from the bole, is thirtythree feet six inches, and at the bole exceeds sixteen yards its height is about sixty feet: the trunk is hollow; and the principal limbs are partially destitute of foliage, during summer; which circumstance adds much to its picturesque appearance.From the Pioneer, a cheap Journal of Literature, Science, and Antiquities, published at Hereford; but which, we regret to see, has not "made its way,' or received encouragement commensurate with its merits.

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Beet-root Sugar.-In 1832, there existed in Russia only twenty manufactories of beet-root sugar; but their number subsequently increased to 100; when they annually produced sugar equal to one twelfth of the total quantity of sugar which Russia receives from foreign parts. The number of these manufactories is now 140; and the importation of sugar, which amounted to 1,555,357 pounds in 1839, amounted only to 1,269,209 pounds in 1837.-Times.

Washing Bottles.-Not a few persons have been poisoned by shot left in bottles; to prevent which Mr. John Murray recommends the substitution of "Bohemian garnet," which may be purchased at 2d. per oz., and will serve the purposes of shot for cleansing bottles.

Musical Men.-Many persons imagine that no music can be composed without the aid of an instrument. Beethoven was deaf, yet he was the author of some of the most divine harmonies that ever were scored. A musical doctor of the present day—a countryman of our own-has been long bed-ridden; he has had a little table so constructed as to enable him to go on with his notation in bed. The doctor works with two pens, one in his right, and the other in his left hand: with one he notes his bass, with the other his tenor, &c. It is very laughable to see him, when the bass pen is dry, dip, unconsciously, the tenor pen, already full, into the inkstand, or vice versa. This is continued sometimes for a minute, until the enraged musician, unable to contain himself longer, throws both pens away. Another

musical genius of the present time, when composing, has been known to leave his table and deliberately dip his pen in the wash-hand basin. Both of these gentlemen compose "most eloquent music" without the help of any instrument.-Literary Gazette.

Ladies' Flower-gardens.-Of all kinds of flowers, the ornamental garden annuals are, perhaps, the most generally interesting; and the easiness of their culture renders it peculiarly suitable for a feminine pursuit. The pruning and training of trees, and the culture of culinary vegetables, require too much strength and manual labour; but a lady, with the assistance of a common labourer to level and prepare the ground, may turn a barren waste into a flower-garden, with her own hands. Sowing the seeds of annual flowers, watering them, transplanting them when necessary, training the plants by tying them to little sticks, as props, or by leading them over trellis-work, and cutting off the dead flowers, or gathering the seeds for the next year's crop, are all suitable feminine occupations, and have the advantage of inducing gentle exercise in the open air.-Mrs. Loudon's Ladies' Flower-garden of Ornamental Annuals.

Horticultural Society.-Ten thousand persons are stated to have attended the second fête of the Horticultural Society, given at Chiswick, on the 13th ult.

The Provost of Eton College is reputed to have been the confessor of Jane Shore; and upon this tradition rests the originality of a portrait preserved in the Provost's lodgings, and stated to be that of Jane. The forehead is large, but the features are small and uninteresting, and the hair auburn. Her only covering is a thin veil, thrown loosely over her shoulders.

Origin of the Term Conservative.-The name, Conservative, as distinguishing a party in the state, is of so recent an origin as January, 1830. The word was occasionally used, in its literal sense, by the elder writers, particularly by Sir Thomas Browne, but had become quite obsolete, when it was revived in the following sentence, which occurs in an article in the Quarterly Review, supposed to be written by Mr. Croker:-"We depise and abominate the details of partisan warfare; but we now are, as we always have been, decidedly and conscientiously attached to what is called the Tory, and which might, with more propriety, be called the Conservative party," &c.-Vol. xlii. p. 276. Having been thus first used in its present technical sense, the appellative was at once recognised as appropriate, and, in a short time, was universally adopted by the party to which it has since been applied.

Epsom Races.-Great surprise appears to have been somewhat unreasonably expressed at Little Wonder winning, "the Derby."

Vicissitudes of Mining.-Humboldt relates of a Frenchman, Joseph Laborde, that he went to Mexico, very poor, in 1743, and acquired a large fortune in a very short time, by the mine of La Canada. After building a church at Tasco, which cost him £84,000, he was reduced to the lowest poverty, by the rapid decline of those very mines from which he had annually drawn from 130,000 to 190,000 pounds weight of silver. With a sum of £20,000, raised by selling a sun of solid gold, which, in his prosperity, he had presented to the church, and which he was allowed, by the archbishop, to withdraw, he undertook to clear out an old mine, in doing which he lost the greatest part of the produce of this golden sun, and then abandoned the work. With the small sum remaining, he once more ventured on another undertaking, which was, for a short time, highly productive; and he left behind him, at his death, a fortune of £120,000.

LONDON: Published by GEORGE BERGER, Holywell Street, Strand. Printed by WHITEHEAD & Co. 76, Fleet Street, where all Communications for the Editor may be addressed.

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