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This was the more amiable in Her Majesty, as she was very particular in keeping that apartment as an inviolate sanctum sanctorum. The virgin bower of the youthful sovereign was never profaned by the scrutiny of vulgar curiosity. It was kept sacred from every eye, and was always sealed when Her Majesty left the castle.

[The two volumes are illustrated with portraits of Her Majesty and Prince Albert, and vignettes of the coronation and marriage.]

Scientific Facts.

GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY.

THIS magnificent and prosperous line has just been opened as far as Faringdon, thirty-eight miles from Cheltenham, and forty-one miles from Gloucester. In October, another advance will be made to Swindon, upwards of eighty miles from London; "and it is expected that the Cheltenham and Great Western Union

Railway Company will, very shortly after wards, open that portion of their undertaking which connects Swindon with Cirencester. When this takes place, the main stream of traffic to and from Gloucestershire and the westward—and, for a time, that of Bath and Bristol-will pass through Cirencester, and the journey from Gloucester to London be brought within the compass of four or five hours!* Within the memory of persons now living, it took four days to accomplish a journey, by coach, from this city to the metropolis: now even York is within ten hours dis

tance of Bow bells! These marvellous changes form curious subjects for speculation at this transition period." -Gloucestershire Chronicle.

The permanent rails are now lain from Bath nearly to the terminus at Temple Gate, Bristol, and the works there are in a very forward state.

"The Cheltenham and Great Western is, to Gloucestershire, the London line. It will embrace the county town, and intersect an important manufacturing and agricultural district. It will thus confer a most important public benefit upon its particular locality, by placing it on the same footing as almost all our great manufacturing districts now stand on; and there cannot be a question that the vantage ground at present possessed by the northern counties, with respect to facilities of internal communication, would progressively operate most unfavourably

The distance from Steventon to London, upwards of fifty-six miles, is, at present, performed in an hour and three-quarters, inclusive of stoppages.

on competing districts in the south. The line from Swindon to Cirencester has been leased to the Great Western Railway Company, at a rent of £17,000 per annum. The prospective traffic on the line, when complete, is very favourable, and it may be observed, that the traffic on all lines hitherto opened has very greatly exceeded the estimates; indeed, railways invariably produce a large traffic which did not exist prior to their formation."

The Gloucester and Birmingham Railway has been partially opened, by running five trains a-day between Cheltenham and Broomsgrove, about thirty-one miles; and upwards of £1,000 have been taken in six days.

Some important alterations have been made in the construction of the Great Western locomotive engines. The tenfeet wheels attached to them not being found to answer; in future, wheels of seven feet diameter are to be employed. The result has been the attainment of the speed of fifty-six miles an hour. Lately, the Firefly, a new engine manufactured Co., of the Viaduct Foundry at Newton, on this principle by Messrs. Jones and made an experimental trip from Paddington to Reading, and the following is a statement of her performance. She left the station at Paddington at thirteen minutes eighteen seconds past eleven, a.m., and reached Reading at fifty-nine minutes forty-three seconds past eleven, having passed the first mile-post at eleven hours fifteen minutes fifty-seven seconds, and minutes and forty-four seconds, which is the thirty-fifth at eleven hours fifty-eight equivalent to one mile in one minute and fifteen seconds and a half, or nearly fortyeight miles an hour. During the journey, one of the tender springs broke and caused some additional friction on the axles. The load was two carriages and one truck. At three hours nineteen minutes and two

seconds, the party started on their return to London with two carriages. They stopped to take in water at Twyford, which detained them fourteen minutes and

forty-four seconds, and finally arrived at Paddington at twenty-one minutes three seconds past four. The twenty-ninth mile-post from London was passed at three hours forty-four minutes fifty seconds, and the second at four hours sixteen minutes twenty-one seconds, which is equal to the speed of one mile in one minute eleven seconds and three-eighths, or an average of fifty miles and a half per hour. The greatest speed attained was from the twenty-sixth to the twenty-fourth milepost, which was done at the rate of fiftysix miles an hour. This is the greatest speed at present attained in the history of locomotive power.

Fine Arts.

ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS OF THE REIGNS OF ELIZABETH AND JAMES I. BY C. J. RICHARDSON, F. S. A. PART II.

THIS livraison completes the first volume of the most valuable Illustrations of Elizabethan Architecture that have yet been produced. The first portion was noticed, at some length, in the Literary World, vol. i. pp. 82-84; our critique being illustrated with an engraving from Mr. Richardson's elaborate view of Holland House, Kensington.

The present section is entitled even to higher praise than it was our duty to award its predecessor. The subjects are more richly decorated; and their execution is, altogether, of superior delicacy and finish. Indeed, we do not know a more accurate or effective means of representing olden architecture, than by tinted lithography, as in the drawings before us.

In a prefatory notice, Mr. Richardson explains that his volume is different, in many respects, from the more artistical publications of the present day, on the same subject. His series is intended "to afford illustrations, in a more professional manner, of the buildings erected during the best times of the Elizabethan period, both exterior and interior; and, especially, to lay before the architect and the man of taste correct copies of the elaborately ornamented designs, in the carving, the plaster-work, and the compositions of the painter, on a larger scale than has hitherto been attempted; and, at the same time, carefully avoiding all the second-rate performances of that period." This selection is important, since the Elizabethan style is occasionally in objectionable taste; its picturesqueness scarcely compensating for its overloaded and florid details, and want of that purity which is the distinctive characteristic of classic architecture.

The illustrations of this volume are, principally, the chef-d'œuvres of the architect John Thorpe, who was in high practice during the last half of the sixteenth century, as is proved by his building no less than six palaces for Queen Elizabeth's ministers; viz. Theobald's, Burghley, Wimbledon, Holdenby, Kirby, and Buckhurst. Of these, four are illustrated in the present Part. A volume, containing 200 drawings, by Thorpe's own hand, of the plans, elevations, &c. of his various buildings, is still in careful preservation, in the Soane Museum. Mr. Richardson is making a selection from these drawings; as he considers the publication of the entire collection too hazardous a speculation, which he, therefore, leaves to some established Society,

like the Antiquarian or Camden. Surely, such a labour would be more beneficial to the arts and public taste than the reprinting of nugæ antique-literature neglected from its uselessness-ever can be to the present active generation, There is, as Mr. Richardson observes, " a noble desire, now evidently prevalent amongst the British public, to revive and encourage both its ancient class of workmen and the ancient style of its native architecture;" and the publication of such works as the Remains, so long as they are conducted with that discrimination which they have hitherto evinced, merits the warmest encouragement.

The first plate in this Part, (IX. of the Series,) consists of Exteriors by John Thorpe: two elevations of the Manor-house at Godstone, with plans; and a border, made up of details from the Charter-house, St. Lawrence, St. Nicholas, and St. Helen's, churches, pilasters at Canonbury-house, &c.; the whole forming admirable specimens of the style which is now so generally introduced into every class of decoration; but especially in buildings and their interior fittings, as chimney-pieces, stoves, draperies, paper-hangings, furniture, &c. This plate is entirely from the original MSS. in Sir John Soane's Museum; and its elaborate beauty must be admired by every one. With such facilities of cost and finish as the lithographic art now presents, the publication suggested by Mr. Richardson ought to be undertaken without further delay.

Plate X.-Basement and Ground-floor Plans of Theobald's, in Hertfordshire, unaccompanied with elevations, are acceptable, in the absence of any satisfactory representations of this once famous place. It was commenced about the year 1570, by the great Lord Burghley, then Sir William Cecil, as a residence for his second son; and was, subsequently, enlarged by him to receive Queen Elizabeth. King James I. afterwards procured it in exchange for Hatfield; and he died here in 1625. The palace was destroyed by order of the Parliament, about 1650. These plans are bordered with ceiling ornaments.

Plates XI. and XII.-Burghley, Northamptonshire, one of the finest structures in Europe; erected by the illustrious Lord Burghley: and it has had the rare fortune of remaining to this time the seat of his descendants; the present noble owner being the Marquis of Exeter. It was finished about the year 1587. It is questionable whether the architect was Thorpe; but most accurate plans of the building are given in his collection. Very little of the interior remains in its original state: the entrance-hall and a curious stone stair

case are the principal portions. The exterior views are, the north front, and the approach to the mansion from the northwest, from Stamford: "after winding through a noble park, it suddenly opens upon the visitor; its singular chimneys, the variety of its turrets, towers, and cupolas, and the steeple of the chapel rising in its centre, giving it the appearance more of a small city than a single building." In Plate XVII. is a view of a summer-house in the garden at Burghley, with a beautiful pierced parapet, and twisted columns rising from the angles of the roof. The ornaments over the doorways remind one of a modern fanlight.

Plate XIII.-Rushton Hall, about three miles N.E. from Kettering, Northampton; commenced by Sir Thomas Tresham, who was attainted for his participation in the gunpowder plot, and died in the Tower of London. The building was afterwards completed by the Cockayne family. The views are, part of the hall, and a highlydecorated triangular hunting lodge, at the extremity of the grounds.

Plate XIV.-Coombe Abbey, Warwick shire; the seat of the Earl of Craven. "The garden porch and fire-place, represented in this Plate, form a portion of the alterations made by the Lord Harrington, in the reign of James I., for the reception of the Princess Elizabeth who remained here, under his tuition, till the year 1613. The above porch led from the end of the gallery on to a raised terrace, which had steps down to a small ornamented garden. The fire-place of the great chamber is exquisitely enriched; the panels are filled with tapestry; and the centre of the fine architectural composition above the fireopening is occupied with the royal arms, in fine, bold style. Even the fire-back is highly enriched.

Plates XV. and XVI.-Kirby, Northamptonshire; commenced by Thorpe, in 1570, for Lord Chancellor Hatton, by whose lineal descendant, the Earl of Winchelsea, the property is now possessed. It had braved neglect for nearly a century; but is now in a rapid state of decay. "The building is one of the most picturesque examples remaining-of solid construction. The approach is through a fine, triple avenue of trees, three quarters of a mile in length. The first court-yard is like that at Holdenby, a balustraded enclosure, with two grand archways; the external front of the building is by Inigo Jones. Passing through this, the visitor enters the principal quadrangle. (Plate XV.) The centre is profusely decorated with fluted columns and pilasters, the characteristics of "the revival" of Inigo Jones's period; and the parapets being surmounted with dragons,

each bearing, erect, a spear-headed vane, has a very grotesque effect. The garden side (Plate XVI.) has a fine series of enriched and pointed gables, and columnar chimneys-those "windpipes of hospitality." This front has its raised terrace, (now a corn-field;) the slopes and a few ornamental buildings still remaining.

Plates XVI., XVII., and XVIII.-Burton Agnes, Yorkshire; the seat of Sir Henry Boynton, Bart.; situated six miles southwest of Bridlington. It was built early in the reign of James I., but by what architect is unknown. Inigo Jones was employed here about 1625. The exterior (Plate XVI.) is less decorated than either of the specimens yet mentioned; but the interior is mostly in ancient style, and unsparingly enriched: some of the rooms are by Inigo Jones; and a few panels have landscapes, by Rubens: the carving is, in part, Italian. The staircase (Plate XVII.) is a singular example of carving, difficult to describe. The great gallery, (Plate XVIII.) with its semicircular ceiling of scroll-work and roses, is exquisite; and, as it may be copied in papier-máché, is detailed by Mr. Richardson. The chimney-piece, with its sculptured figures, is fine; and there are introduced a noble fire-back and dogs, and a superb cabinet, which are not the furniture of the mansion.

The Appendix of two Plates of fire-places, and three of details, from the subjects described. Plate II. is a Fire-place in the Old Governor's Room, Charter-house, formerly the great chamber of the old mansion. It is a very fine specimen of the highly decorative art of the time of Charles I.; and is the work of Rowland Buckett, who received £50 for his performance. The general design is arabesque, painted on a gold ground. In the centre are the royal arms, with the initials C. R.; at the angles are four small circles, containing the evangelists, in gold outline on a black ground; the columns have the heads of the twelve apostles, in small, ornamented circles. The pedestals under them are adorned with very delicate representations in gold outline, of the Salutation, and the Last Supper. Between them are the arms of Sutton, with his initials. Immediately over the fire-place are three small tablets, with groups, of Faith, Hope, and Charity. With pleasure we find that, at the instance of the Rev. Archdeacon Hale, preacher of the Charter-house, this fire-place has lately been cleaned and repaired.

It only remains to be added, that the accuracy of Mr. Richardson's pencil has been beautifully transmitted to stone, by the press of Messrs. Daye and Haghe, who, in this superb work, have proved that zinc and stone may be made the means of

minutely representing the niceties of decorative art, as well as the bolder characteristics of architecture. And, it is hoped that the success of this volume will com

audience; in short, the whole of the internal arrangements were upon a scale of unprecedented simplicity and convenience, whilst the exterior boasted of the most characteristic theatrical façade in the metropolis, resembling more than one of the minor Parisian theatres, and the front of San Carlos, at Naples. Throughout the above examination, Mr. Whitwell maintained the cause of the accident to be "an

improper suspension of machinery and other heavy weights upon the tie-beams." Mr. Whitwell was the author of A Treatise on the Warming and Ventilating of Buildings. He was likewise the editor of The Magazine of Popular Science, 4 vols. 1836 and 1837; a work which succeeded beyond any contemporary journal, in furnishing the general reader with popular and connected views of the actual progress and condition of the physical sciences both at home and abroad. It abounded in the freshest facts, the most recent discoveries, and the latest intelligence, which an indefatigable examination of the products of scientific research was able to furnish; notwithstanding which first-class merits, the above journal extended only through two years-a success by no means complimentary to the vaunted scientific spirit

of the age.

pensate Mr. Richardson for his outlay of time and capital, over and above the addition to his professional fame, which this volume must certainly secure to him. His work is purely a national one'; so that there can be little or no doubt of the prosperity of the second volume of the Archi

tectural Remains.

Obituary.

DIED, lately, Thomas Steadman Whitwell, Esq., Civil Engineer, and a man of extensive attainments in various branches of science. Mr. Whitwell will be remembered as the architect of the ill-fated Brunswick Theatre, which was erected under his superintendence in 1827-8, within seven months; a rapidity of construction almost inconsistent with security. The design was distinguished by its novelty, propriety, and simplicity, and was highly creditable to the taste and talent of the architect. The roof was of cast-iron, and of a novel and beautiful construction; but the hanging to it of improper weights caused the fall of the whole building on February 28, three days after its opening for performances, by which catastrophe several persons were killed. The investigation of the cause of this accident excited great interest among scientific men, and much practical information was elicited during its progress. The inquiry commenced on March 5, and was protracted till April 10. Messrs. Nash and Smirke were of opinion that the principle upon which the roof was constructed was injudicious, unsafe, and improper for a theatre, that the walls were insufficient to support the weight of the roof, and that the flooring supports were weak. The above architects, also, maintained that the principles of the roof being all parallel, if one of them gave way, the whole would fall like a pack of cards; Mr. Nash considered that if no other cause had existed, the weights improperly appended to the roof would have accounted for the accident; and in the verdict of the jury, these weights are stated to have been so placed by order of the proprietors of the theatre, and in spite of many warnings; thus absolving the architect of the chief onus of the accident. The interior of the theatre is allowed to have been a triumph of ingenuity: all the stairs, staircases, passages, and vestibules, between every part of the spectatory, and connecting it with the street, were fire-proof, and it presented some novel applications of the principles of acoustics to the wants of an

On July 30, in the fifty-fourth year of his age, William Venables, Esq., Alderman of the Ward of Queenhithe, London. Mr. Venables was, for many years, an active member of the Corporation: he was elected alderman in the year 1821, and Lord Mayor in 1826; and was returned to "the Reform Parliament" for the city of London. He was chairman of the City Watch and Ward and Police Committees, and was indefatigable in this and other branches of civic administration, as well as in its charities. His mayoralty is commemorated in an account of a civic excursion to Oxford, written con amore by his chaplain, and filling an octavo volume, now become scarce and dear.

Varieties.

Domestic Character.
HER Sweet humour

was as easy as a calm, and peaceful;
All her affections, like the dews on roses,
Fair as the flowers themselves, as sweet and gentle.
Beaumont and Fletcher.

Grief for the Dead.-Immoderate grief, if it does not exhaust itself by indulgence, easily assumes the character of superstition or weakness, or takes a type of insanity.

British Museum.-Mr. Hallam, in his Constitutional History, observes: "Nothing is more unEnglish than the innovation, of long standing, of placing sentinels at the door of the British Museum. It proceeded from vanity; but it were to be wished that vanity had chosen some mode of exhibition

less unbecoming." Now, Mr. Hallam is a trustee of the Museum, and it is to be hoped will endeavour to remove the absurdity he complains of. The Museum grant from Parliament, for the ensuing year, is £29,953.

Court Painter.-M. E. Heinrich, the Hanoverian court painter, died lately at Paris, at the age of nearly eighty years. He was once deservedly celebrated as a caricaturist and humourist. The editor of a Hamburgh paper complains that Heinrich "lived too long, and worked too long and too much, to retain his reputation to the end of his days." Poor fellow! he should have retired ere tittering youth had pushed him from the stage: but we suspect that most caricaturists live too long!

As a newly-married couple from down east were one night lying in bed, talking over "matters and things," a heavy thunder-storm arose. The loud peals of thunder and vivid flashes of lightning filled them with terror and fearful apprehensions. Suddenly a tremendous crash caused the loving couple to start as though they had received an electric shock. Jonathan, throwing his arms around his dear, exclaimed-"Hug up to me, 'Liz, let's die like men!"

Why is a lady's hair like the latest news? Because, in the morning, we always find it in the papers.

A chemist in Albany, a few days ago, expatiating on the late discoveries in chemical science, observed that snow had been found to possess a considerable degree of heat. An Irishman present, at this remark, observed, "that truly chemistry was a valuable science," and (anxious that the discovery might be made profitable) inquired of the orator what number of snow-balls would be sufficient to boil a tea-kettle.

"I won't take a stump," as the girl said when she was asked to marry a short man.

Family Physician.-In Burmah, when a young woman is taken very ill, her parents agree with the physician, that if he cures the patient, he may have her for his trouble; but if she dies under his medicines, he is to pay them her value. It is stated that successful physicians have very large families of females, who have become their property in this

manner.

Munchausen.-They write from Tiflis, in Georgia, on the 15th of January: "A Cossack of the line, named Slavouski," says a letter in the Constitutionnel, "was riding, early in January, from Schirmille to Linkoram, when a tiger sprung from the ground upon the back of his horse. With the most cool resolution, the brave soldier made a well-directed back stroke with his sword, and clove the head of the beast in twain. He then alighted, and, having extinguished all remaining life in the animal, by firing both his pistols close to its body, flayed off the skin, and carried it in triumph to Linkoram. It measured five yards from the muzzle to the tip of the tail! The bold fellow received a reward of five hundred rubles."

Oriental Proverb.-A beautiful Oriental proverb runs thus: "With time and patience the mulberry leaf becomes satin."

Two sorts of Blessings." It is a great blessing to possess what one wishes," said some one to an ancient philosopher; who replied, "It is a greater blessing still, not to desire what one does not possess!'

Shakspeare's Cymbeline.-Walpole terms this play "absurd and tiresome," observing that it appeared to him as long as if everybody in it really went to Italy, in every act, and came back again.

An Old Slave.-Died, in Friedland, at the residence of Lieut. George M. Tooe, U. S. N. in King George county, Va., lately, the faithful slave Bacchus, aged 110 years. The deceased had been in the family of his late owner more than forty years. He was employed as a teamster during the war of the Revolution, and was in attendance with his

team at the glorious and final siege of Yorktown. He saw General Braddock as he passed on to his defeat, and could give a succinct account of that sanguinary action. The evening previous to his death, he was walking about the farm, in the full possession of all his faculties of mind and body.

The late Mr. Drummond.-Subscriptions to the amount of £1,666 have been received for the erection of a monument to the memory of the lamented Mr. Drummond.

Mrs. Siddons.-Sir F. Chantrey is engaged upon a marble statue of Mrs. Siddons, to be placed in Westminster Abbey.

Revenues of the Crown.-In the beginning of Elizabeth's reign, her Customs rented for £20,000 per annum; her lands at Penton Ville, and in the other vicinities of her capital, rented for one shilling per acre; the greatest estates in the kingdom did not exceed £2,000 per annum; and the city of London did not contain one brick house. The pacific reign of James I. enabled his subjects to establish several manufactures; and the greatest designs were executed in the infancy of, or previous to, the Funding System. The Customs at the Revolution exceeded, as forty to one, those of Queen Elizabeth.

The Funds.-Among the many benefits accruing to society from the operation of the public Funds, it has been stated that herein the orphan, the widow, the aged, the infirm, and all other descriptions of capitalists, place their money with the most perfect ease and security. The interest, invariably paid with the most scrupulous regularity, immediately circulates through the body politic, as generally and beneficially as the blood through the human frame. If the Funds did not exist, those wealthy descriptions could not invest one-fourth of their money in mortgages; and if so placed, the interest, in the very nature of things, would seldom be regularly paid; and this would prove as disadvantageous to the creditors, as to the commerce and revenues of the kingdom.

American Expedition.-In March last, the United States ships, Vincennes and the Peacock, arrived at Sydney, the latter having been successful in her researches in the south. The Peacock obtained soundings in a high southern latitude; but the Vincennes, more fortunate in escaping injury, completed the discovery, and ran down the coast from 154° 18' to 97° 45' east longitude, about 1,700 miles, within a short distance of the land, often so near as to get soundings with a few fathoms of line, during which time she was constantly surrounded with ice islands and bergs.-Times.

"Those dear eyes of thine," as the old gentleman said when he bought his wife a pair of dollar specs.

Late one night, that most miserable of all human beings, a drunken husband, after spending his whole time at his club, set out for home. "Well," said he to himself, "if I find my wife up, I'll scold her: what business has she to sit up wasting fire and light, eh? and if I find her in bed, I'll scold her: what right has she to go to bed before I get home?"

A Mrs. Boots, of Pennsylvania, has left her husband, Mr. Boots, and strayed to parts unknown. We presume that the pair of Boots are rights and lefts. We cannot say, however, that Mrs. Boots is right; but there is no mistake that Boots himself is left.

Consultation of Physicians.-A man much addicted to drinking, being extremely ill with a fever, a consultation was held in his bed-chamber, by three physicians, how to "cure the fever and abate the thirst." "Gentlemen," said he, "I will take half the trouble off your hands; you cure the fever, and I will abate the thirst myself."

LONDON: Published by GEORGE BERGER, Holywell Street, Strand. Printed by WHITEHEAD & Co. 76, Fleet Street, where all Communications for the Editor may be addressed.

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