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been called 66 a nation of travellers," and the phrase may be true as regards their locomotive propensities; but, for the experiences of travel, and its utmost beneficial results, commend us to a German, with the mental activity of Von Raumer, the rival of Heeren, the greatest historian of our times.

The work before us, in two convenient volumes, is richly stored with remarkable and authentic facts, contained in some 120 letters, addressed by the Author, while on his tour, to friends at home. It abounds with valuable statistics, which we have omitted to record among the characteristics of German industry; for a greater number of German authors than any others have written on this important department of political knowledge. The discursive plan of Von Raumer's work renders it peculiarly adapted for quotation, so that the selection of a few gems will be both pleasant and profitable. It should be observed, that the first letter is dated "Vienna, March 13, 1839," and the concluding one, "Munich, September 16"-the interval being a six months' tour through some of the most attractive countries of Europe.]

Vienna and Berlin compared.

I have not had leisure this time to see the curiosities and the collections of art, but Vienna itself has made upon me the same impression as formerly. Berlin, in comparison, appears as a mere upstart, that has built himself a smart house, and has fitted it up showily. Here everything seems to rest on a sounder foundation; the state is larger, the land more productive, the wealth far surpasses that of Prussia, and stands second only to that of England. We brag a great deal about one thing, our wit, because we feel that without it we should be nothing. There are those, however, who presume to question whether this article really abounds more in Berlin than in Vienna. Besides, have not many of those who announce themselves as guardians of the Prussian Zion done much, of late years, to check, cripple, clip, intimidate, and neutralize it?

View of Venice.

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On Tuesday the 26th March, at eleven in the evening, the steamer started with favourable weather from Trieste. After sound sleep, undisturbed by sickness, I was on deck at daybreak, and saw the sun rising from the sea, and making Venice glorious with his beams.

Three times already, and now for the fourth time, Venice has made a mighty, an irresistible impression upon me; one that baffles comparison. The objects that present themselves, and the thoughts and

feelings that they excite, are different here to what they are in any other place in the world. Heaven and earth, life and death, the tasteful and the tasteless, the past, the present, and the future, meet here in a way peculiar to the place. Much is out of all rule, much contrary to all rule, but then there is so much that is beyond all rule. When the stranger coming from the Lido sees the Palace of the Doge, the columns, the Piazzetta, the Campanile, the Orologio, and St. Mark's, with the many other marvels rising from the sea; who is there, that, in such a moment of joy, surprise, and enthusiasm, can descend to critisise columns and the position of windows? For my own part, at least, thank Heaven! I am no such stockfish; as little now, as twenty-two years ago.

The sun had sunk in purple magnificence behind Santa Maria della Salute, and the Canale Grande reflected more darkly and soberly the picture presented by the sky. In the east, the moon with her pale coronet of beams was just rising above Lido, while, by her side, Jupiter was glowing in all his brightness, and immediately over the Campanile, Venus was moving along at a measured pace. When I turned from this glorious spectacle above me, to look upon the ragged, screaming, wrangling crowd that moved around, a feeling of humiliation came over me.

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In the evening, having wrapped myself well up in furs, I went in a gondola to the Giudeca, and returned by the Canale Grande. Some of the buildings along the latter have been cleaned up, and wear a habitable look; but what are these compared with the many, for the maintenance of which the means are wanting! There was a time when palaces rose from the sea as if by magic; when they were adorned by countless works of art, and made brilliant by costly entertainments; and now, it is matter to be noticed, if a few broken windows are mended, or if an invalid door be replaced upon its hinges. A thousand causes are assigned for this; the chief, according to many, is the laziness of the population; and is not idleness the origin of every vice, and thus the first cause of poverty?

Game of Lotto, at Venice.

About 900 ladies and gentlemen were assembled at the game of Lotto, around the tombola. Of this game, 1 hear, they are passionately fond. Each person buys a tablet, marked with fifteen numbers, between one and ninety. The player, whose fifteen numbers are first drawn, receives a sum of money as a prize,

(yesterday, about forty florins ;) and the two following prizes consist of articles likely to be serviceable to ladies. At half past ten the drawing began, and by far the greater part of the ninety numbers had been drawn before any one of the players had covered the fifteen squares. In about an hour the last prize had been won and lost; for, of course, all lost, with the exception of three, and the emotions excited by the game developed themselves, when many covered twelve, thirteen, or even fourteen of their numbers, and yet in the end went empty-handed away. [The following is

Acute Criticism.]

The progress of the arts, as of science and state-policy, is evident, and yet it is a mystery. How is it that the human mind, or how is it that a community of many human minds, after having attained, with much labour, to beauty, perfection, and taste, in the best sense of those words, can gradually wean themselves from it, and find delight in ugliness, distortion, the nauseous, and the insipid? Thus, for instance, I am at a loss to account for the series of Venetian churches, descending, during a succession of centuries, from the rich and fanciful St. Mark's to the craziest

tawdriness of embellishment, or to a naked bareness, that makes them fit for little else than stables and barns. Do we not, in our own age, behold the same, if not in painting and architecture, at least in poetry and music?

[Von Raumer is one of the intellectual writers upon what the French call La Physiologie du Gout: here is a specimen :] Good and Bad Cookery. Our friend H- shall explain to us, one of these days, why, after good wine and a good dinner, even though composed of a variety of dishes, I feel well and in good spirits, whereas a single plate of bad food puts me out of tune. He will, probably, assign a multitude of physiological causes; but I look at the matter from a refined and moral point of view. Good taste is in itself meritorious, and meets with its reward; but bad food reduces a man nearer to the level of a beast, and is punished accordingly.

[A letter on Trieste contains many valuable statistical details, as does also another on Venice, viewed in its relation

to Austria, and more particularly to Trieste. We pass on to the

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Aspect of Milan.]

Milan stands in a sea of green trees and meadows, as Venice in a sea of green In the latter everything reminds you of the past, as the great and import

waters.

ant period; here, on the contrary, the present is full of life, and all that belongs to antiquity, not excepting even the glorious cathedral, is thrown into the back-ground. The last-named building stands more detached than the Venetian St. Mark's, and appears to belong to the present, quite as much as to a bygone period. Besides, everything reminds one here that Milan is a great central point of wealth and activity. No signs of decay, no unoccupied people, unless in the upper classes, where the possession of fortune invites to the far niente, which, in Venice, goes hand-in-hand with wretchedness and want. In Venice, and also in Verona, each house, each palace, is built according to individual fancy or convenience; the greatest variety of architecture, and the most wanton deviations from all law, order, or harmony. Large windows by the side of small ones, and seldom one window immediately over another. In Milan, on the contrary, every building is perfectly symmetrical, scrupulously kept in repair, nowhere is the least sympton to be seen of a poor or declining population. The how the decay is to be arrested, and question, so difficult of solution in Venice,

whether it has reached its term? is here

quite superfluous, so evident is everywhere the progress of improvement.

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The pavement in the streets deserves to be mentioned. Not only are there side pavements of granite for the pedestrians, but in the middle, also, there are granite rails for the carriage-wheels to run along as easily as upon an iron railway, and with far less noise.

(To be continued.)

Scientific Facts.

WRECK OF THE ROYAL GEORGE.

[THE following statement is from the Times:]

"By far the most magnificent exhibition which has yet been witnessed of the enormous force of gunpowder, when exploded under water, took place on Wednesday, August 5, at Spithead. It is obvious that no extent of description could convey a just conception of so vast and novel an operation, but it may interest your readers to know, that, under circumstances apparently similar such very different effects should be produced. On the former occasions, when Colonel Pasley exploded his huge cylinders at the bottom of the sea, the water rose to the height of thirty or forty feet, and, generally, in a solid mass, in form like that of a haycock. But, on Wednesday it was forced to the amazing

height of at least eighty feet, in a sort of pyramid, or set of pyramids and jets, which not only dispersed the water far in the air above, but carried it to the distance of more than 100 yards on every side.

The charge, which consisted of twentyfive barrels, or 2,250 fb, was placed at the depth of eleven fathoms and a half, or about seventy feet under the surface, nearly over the original position of the fore-hatchway of the old ship. That expert diver, Mr. John Fullagar, of Chatham, having first carefully examined the spot, and made his report, redescended in company with the monstrous cylinder, which he placed in such a way, that, when the powder should be ignited, the mass of mud which obstructed the workmen might be driven away, or so loosened as to allow the tide to carry it off.

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"Colonel Pasley's operations have been carried on, of late, with so much activity by Lieutenant Symonds and his party at Spithead, that almost all the wreck not quite buried, has been dislocated by small charges of powder, and drawn up to the surface. One day last week, a huge mass of the kelson, which lies just above the keel, was recovered. This evidence of the operations, having reached very nearly to the lowest part of the wreck, gave great spirits to all concerned; but such were the quantity and the tenacity of the mud, that the labour of extracting the fragments became excessive, and this prodigious explosion was resolved upon, less with a view of tearing asunder the remaining beams, timbers, and planking, than of sweeping out the mud in which they lay imbedded. It may be further remarked, that while, as a mere engineering operation, it would be very disgraceful not to remove every particle of the wreck, that part of the anchorage would be now almost as inconvenient or useless as it formerly was if the dislocated and dispersed fragments were allowed to lie in the way of ships' anchors. All this expense and trouble, therefore, have become absolutely necessary, if we wish to have the finest anchorage in the kingdom, we had almost said in the world, rendered in all its parts fit for Her Majesty's ships to ride in, in all weathers.

trumpet sounded, the hubbub was instantaneously stilled, and all eyes were turned to the launch in which Lieutenant Symonds stood, with the ends of the connecting wires of the voltaic battery in his hands. Scarcely had the word been given to "Fire!" and the trumpet sounded, when the whole area was shaken as if by an earthquake, the surface became ruffled like the top of a glacier, and in the next instant, literally in less than two seconds, the water bulged up and rose to the height of about twenty feet, after which a sort of second burst, or bulge, occurred, which projected the sea in huge masses, as already said, high into the air.

"Such was the violence of this effort, that the spray was thrown completely over all the adjacent vessels in a drenching shower, accompanied by a violent gust of wind radiating from the centre. Immediately such a shout was raised as I never heard before; and when this first involuntary expression of satisfation was over, three deliberate joyful cheers from the vast crowd saluted the gallant officer whose successful perseverance has afforded them so extraordinary a treat.

"The day was fine, and the collection of yachts and pleasure vessels, of every size and rig, exceeded all that had been drawn together before, so that Spithead, for a circuit of half a mile round the Royal George, was one dense mass of shipping, row-boats, cutters, yawls, schooners; and last, not least, immense steam-boats, crowded halfway up their funnels with strangers from a distance.

"When Colonel Pasley's preparative

"Various estimates were formed as to the height of the column or columns of water. Some went as far as 100 feet, and some as low as fifty; but I feel sure that the mass of water could not have been projected less than eighty feet into the air. The commotion in the water, and the ocean of mud, dead fish, and other symptoms of violence, which spread far and near, gave every promise that the operation will answer the purpose which Colonel Pasley has in view."

Fine Arts.

ART-UNION OF LONDON.

THIS Society has now been established about four years; and has unquestionably extended, to a very considerable degree, the love of the arts of design within the United Kingdom, and given encouragement to artists beyond that afforded by the patronage of individuals." The plan of the Society is briefly this: every member, for each guinea subscribed, is entitled to one chance of obtaining some work of art at the annual distribution. The drawers of the prizes are entitled to select, each for himself, works of art of equivalent value, from any of the following public exhibitions in London, of the current year; viz., the Royal Academy; the British Institution; the Society of British Artists; the Society of Painters in Water Colours; or the New Society of Painters in Water Colours. The chosen

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One each at sixty pounds, eighty pounds, £100, £150, and £200. Each year, the chosen pictures are exhibited to the members and their friends; and, Saturday last, there was a private view of the prizes for the present year. They are forty-three in number, and include twelve pictures from the late Royal Academy Exhibition. The £200 prize is The Tired Huntsman, by C. Landseer, a very graceful illustration of Scott's song: "Huntsman, rest." The second, or £100 prize, is A Scene from the Legend of Montrose, by F. Stone, in which Annot Lyle, of Darnlinvarach, charms, by her minstrelsy, the dark spirit from Allan Macaulay, whilst Lord Menteith leans over her chair: a picture of very considerable merit. The third prize, of £80, is the The Hencoop, by J. Înskipp; and the fourth, A View on the Banks of the Stour, near Canterbury, by T. S. Cooper; a very charming picture, price £100; the amount of this prize being only seventy-five pounds, the winner, Mr. J. Marshall, has added the balance, twenty-five pounds; which circumstance well illustrates the collateral advantages of the Art-Union to the encouragement of painters. The fifth picture is a prize of £75, View on the Medway, by J. Stark, a truly English scene, beautifully painted. The preceding five pictures are from the Royal Academy

Exhibition.

We have not space to particularize the several works in this small collection,which, notwithstanding the lowness of price of some of the pictures, (as the ten pound

and fifteen pound prizes,) contains but little mediocrity of performance. Among the remainder are two pictures by Inskipp, from the British Institution: River Scene, by J. Tennant, price seventy-eight pounds fifteen shillings; amount of prize, fifty pounds; the winner, Mr. C. Adlard, paying the balance. In one instance, the amount of the prize is only ten pounds, and the picture chosen, Prometheus bound by Force and Strength, by W. E. Frost, forty-two pounds. A few of the prizes are in water colours; as, The Hard Word, by W. Hunt, thirty-one pounds ten shillings; and The Stormy Evening, by G. Barrett, eighteen pounds eighteen shillings.

Altogether, as regards variety of subjects, and talent, the exhibition-room was well filled. Among the company, we were happy to see the Duke of Cambridge, who has ever been a zealous patron of art.

the Art-Union succeeded à merveille, in In conclusion, not only has the plan of London, but in various other parts of the kingdom. In Scotland, are two similar societies, whose funds, during last year, amounted to £5,521. Art-Unions have, likewise, been established in Liverpool, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Norwich, Bath, and Bristol; and, in Ireland, where, up to this time, the arts have been grievously neglected, a similar association has been formed, and is proceeding, it is said, with good success.

THE UNGKA-PUTI.*

THIS very interesting creature will, (as the Court Newsman would say,) leave town, on her return to Clifton, on Monday, the 17th inst.; so that her last "public day" will be Saturday the 15th. We are happy to learn that her exhibition in the metropolis has been by no means unprofitable. This circumstance indicates a growing taste for zoology; since the majority of the Ungka-puti's visitors have been attracted by her rarity and structural peculiarities; for, among the vulgar, an individual specimen, however rare, could not compete with the united attractions of a whole menagerie.

A few days since, a gentleman called at the Egyptian Hall, and identified the Ungka-puti, Lucy, to have been his property about six years since, when she was not larger than his double fist. She had, at that time, a brother alive; and both were then tame and playful. They were brought with their mother from the forests in the interior of Malacca, (not Sumatra, as supposed at page 274,) where the natives state the Ungka-puti to be of difficult cap

*For an Engraving of the Ungka-puti, see Literary World, No. 71.

ture, from its extreme agility, or flying leaps from tree to tree, of which the specimen at the Egyptian Hall affords such amusing exhibitions. The male Ungka died teething; and the mother becoming vicious, was shot by her keeper. The young female, Lucy, was next given by the gentlemen above stated, to his father, who is the proprietor of a large aviary at Macao; and who sold her to Captain Smith, as already related at page 274 of the present volume.

During the brief stay of the Ungka-puti

ALLEGRETTO.

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"The peculiar quality of the Gibbon's voice, renders it difficult to determine, for a certainty, which E in the scale it begins upon; and it is thought to be, in reality, an octave higher than that set in the notes. In order to give an idea of the whooping of the Gibbon, (so far as the music is concerned, but not as regards the quality of the sound,) it has been compared to the tuning of a harp; first beginning with an E string, repeating the note at short intervals; stopping a short time, and beginning again. Then two strings are, as it were, struck, E and E sharp. The scale is now gradually ascended by the second string to the extent of one octave; but the progress is never greater than half a note at a time: the E and F natural, or E and F sharp, E and G natural, &c. being struck nearly together. When the second string has arrived at the octave E, (the animal going through a chromatic scale, though in a more or less irregular manner,) we are to suppose it to be very rapidly let down by half notes, and the two strings to be as rapidly struck. The rapidity of this descending chromatic passage is equal to that of an extremely rapid shake; and two notes are emitted at a time, as described in the music.

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"This being completed, the animal remains quiet for a moment, after which follow two barks, each of which is com

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posed of the low and high E sounded nearly at the same time. It appears that, in ascending and descending the scale, the intervals are always exactly half notes; and the highest note of the animal's voice, are exact octave to the lowest. The quality of the notes is very musical; and it is thought that an expert violinist would be able to give a very good idea (on the fourth string) of the Gibbon's composition; but not of the great power of her voice, which is certainly much more powerful than that of any singer ever heard; and this is written with a perfect recollection of the extraordinary capability of Signor Lablache.

"The Gibbon is usually a long time (perhaps ten minutes) before she comes to the rapidly descending chromatic passage; but when she has once done it, she soon runs through the preliminary part of her composition, and again comes to it."

Varieties.

Chatsworth. The following Latin inscription has just been put up in the painted hall at Chatsworth, composed of a tablet of white marble, with red marble letters:-" Ædes has paternas dilectissimas anno libertatis Anglicæ MDCLXXXVIII institutas Gul. S., Devoniæ dux, anno MDCCCXI hæres accepit: anno mærens MDCCCXL perfecit." Translated-"William Spencer, Duke of Devonshire, received as heir, in 1811, these most beautiful hereditary buildings,

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