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and beautiful in its execution. Cardinal Beaufort, bishop of Winchester, the son of John of Ghent, duke of Lancaster, was lord chancellor and one of the guardians of King Henry VI. He possessed a most munificent spirit, which has cast a lustre on his character, and finished that part of Winchester Cathedral which had been left incomplete by his predecessor Wykeham; and also repaired Hyde Abbey, which had been founded by Alfred the Great. The cardinal refounded the celebrated hospital of Saint Cross, and erected at his own expence the greater part of the present building. He died the 14th of June, 1447.

The cardinal's monument is on the southern side of the presbytery; a sumptuous canopy covering the tomb and figure of this extraordinary prelate rests upon eight clusters of delicately-formed pillars, four at the angles of the monument, and two intermediate on each side.

Round the base is an open paneled stone fence enclosing the tomb. Each side of the monument has one large and two smaller arches; the latter, divided in height and width, contain the doors; but the former are open. These arches and pillars support a canopy of matchless elegance and beauty, with pinnacles rising to the ceiling of the presbytery. This, the most elaborate part of the design, consists wholly of an abundance of large tabernacles divided by smaller niches, with their intermediate compartments and other ornaments, supported by flying buttresses sometimes united, terminated by pinnacles proportioned to their size; the whole canopy rising in the centre in the same degree as the arched ceiling under which it is placed. The head and foot of the monument are united with the clusters of pillars supporting the arches of the aisle.

The extent of violence upon the more delicate enrichments of this superb monument has been such as to leave not a single niche and scarcely one pinnacle entire. The sculptured figure of Cardinal Beaufort rests on an altar tomb, which is paneled with quatrefoil compartments deeply cut, and having at the back a plate of gilt brass; he is represented with a placid and dignified countenance, and is properly habited; the feet of the figure rest against a stone bearing the arms of Beaufort, surmounted by a cardinal's hat.

The monument of Bishop Waynflete, the illustrious founder of

22 The cardinal accompanied King Henry into France, and performed the ceremony of crowning the young monarch in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, at Paris,

in 1431.

Magdalene College, Oxford, on the northern side of the presbytery, corresponds with Cardinal Beaufort's, and is of the same proportions, uniting in a similar manner with the arch and pillars of the Cathedral. The canopy of this monument is in the same manner raised upon eight piers by arches over them; but in the lower part is an additional screen of enclosure to the sides of the chapel, which interrupts the view of the tomb and figure of the prelate, and renders the design more complex. This is one peculiar difference between these monuments, and another is in the angular cluster of buttresses, each of which presents a large tabernacled niche, with a pedestal for a statue rising from the base. The upper part, or canopy of the tomb, unlike that of Cardinal Beaufort's, consists entirely of perforated compartments, highly enriched with crocketed pinnacles and finials. The form and arrangement of the design is on the same plan, with nearly the same proportions and number of compartments. There are indeed more ornaments, which are more minute, and it is on the whole less simply elegant than the other monument; but the details have not been designed with less care or executed with less skill.

Bishop William of Waynflete succeeded Cardinal Beaufort in the see of Winchester, and his enthronement was honoured by the presence of King Henry VI., who had employed him in affairs of critical importance, and who afterwards appointed him lord high chancellor. He resigned this office in 1460, a short time before the fatal battle of Northampton. On the accession of Edward IV., he was treated with respect in consequence of his high character and talents, and he lived to see the great union of the houses of York and Lancaster. Besides the foundation of Magdalene College, the largest excepting Christchurch, and the most perfect and beautiful in the University of Oxford, he established a free grammar school at Waynflete, his native town; and was a considerable benefactor to Eton College, Winchester Cathedral, and other places. His munificent spirit induced him to employ the ablest architects, and he himself was distinguished by profound and correct judgment in the art of design. The bishop died the 11th of August, 1486, and was buried in this chapel with great funeral pomp.

The sculptured figure of Bishop Waynflete lies on an elevated tomb within the chapel, which is supported at the angles by wreathed

pillars, having the ends and sides paneled, and enclosing within quatrefoils branches of lilies, his favourite device. The head of the bishop is represented supported on cushions, his eyes raised to heaven, his hands closed as in prayer with a heart between them, in allusion to the sursum corda of the liturgy. He is exhibited in much humbler attire than Bishop Wykeham, but has jewels on his gloves, a ring on the middle finger of the right hand; his pastoral staff is of singular form, and the mitre is richly ornamented. At his feet is an angel bearing a shield charged with his arms, impaled with the see of Winchester, and within the garter; they are also sculptured on the middle compartment of the ceiling. It is probable that the three niches, divided by tiers of open arches, yet remaining at the eastern end of the chapel, were intended for statues of Saint Mary Magdalene, the patron saint, and Saint Peter and Saint Paul, as on the seal of his college at Oxford, and that an altar once stood beneath them.

This chapel, an interesting example of Bishop Waynflete's elegant taste, is kept in fine preservation by the president and fellows of Magdalene College, Oxford. The last reparation in 1828 was made under the skilful direction of Mr. Buckler. 23

Between the chantries of Beaumont and Waynflete is the monument of one of the family of De Foix, lord of Wineall, near this city.

Three chapels, enclosed by screens, form the eastern extremity of the Cathedral ; that in the centre, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, was originally built by Bishop de Lucy, but was extended to a greater length by Priors Hunton and Silkstede, whose initials and rebuses appear on the groining of the ceiling. The walls on each side the Lady Chapel, from the altar to the space occupied by the stalls, are covered with legendary paintings; the subjects relate to different miracles wrought by the intercession of the Virgin Mary. The battle between the renowned Guy, earl of Warwick, who was devoted to the Blessed Virgin, and Colbrand, the Danish champion, represented on the walls of this chapel, is nearly defaced, as well as many others, under the idea of their idolatrous tendency. The

23 According to the statutes the college was to be called Saint Mary Magdalene College, to the honour and praise of Christ crucified, the Blessed Virgin his mother, Saint Mary Magdalene, Saint John the Baptist, the apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, the glorious confessor Saint Swithin, and other patrons of the Cathedral of Winchester.

inscriptions that accompany these paintings, have at the end, in several instances, a reference to an account formerly extant."

On the southern side of the Lady Chapel is Bishop Langton's chapel, profusely enriched with carvings in oak of armorial subjects, vine branches, &c. The vine is represented growing out of a tun, denoting Winton, his see. Amidst these ornaments, the bishop's motto, Laus tibi Christi, is frequently repeated. In the middle of the chapel is the tomb of Bishop Tbomas Langton, the predecessor of Bishop Fox, who died in 1500.

The northern chapel, at the eastern end of the Cathedral, is supposed to have been a chantry of Adam de Orlton, who was bishop of Winchester for eleven years, and died in 1345, but there is no monument to his memory at present existing. In the chapel on the northern side is a monument of Dr. Peter Mews, a bishop of Winchester, who had served as a captain in the royal army during the civil war, and who signalized himself at the battle of Sedgemoor, where he commanded the artillery.

He died in 1706. On the opposite side of the chapel is a monument of Richard Weston, earl of Portland, K. G., lord treasurer, who died in 1634, with his figure in armour, of bronze.25

Bishop Morley, who died in 1684, is buried in the northern aisle of the nave;" and Sir George Pretyman Tomline, Bart., D. D., bishop of Winchester, who died on the 14th of November, 1827, æt. 77, at Kingston Hall, Dorsetshire, is 'buried near the western end of the southern aisle. His successor, Charles Richard Sumner, D. D., is the present bishop of Winchester, &c.

24 The subjects are engraved in “Carter's Specimens of Ancient Sculpture and Painting.” One is the Annunciation. Others occur in credible historians; but they are chiefly derived from unauthenticated legends, and at present are only valuable for the information they convey concerning the customs of former times.

25 A fine portrait of the Earl of Portland, by Vandyck, is at Gorhambury, in Hertfordshire, and his character is given in “ Pennant's Journey from Chester to London."

26 The ancient palace of the bishops of Winchester in Southwark, having been dilapidated during the civil war, an act of parliament was passed in 1663 to enable George Morley, bishop of Winchester, to lease out the houses in Southwark for other purposes, together with two parks and other demesnes at Bishop's Waltham, in Hampshire ; and by the same act a mansion at Chelsea, built by James, duke of Hamilton, was purchased as a residence for the bishops of this see, and called Winchester House. George Tomline, bishop of Lincoln, who was translated to Winchester in 1820, obtained an act of parliament to enable him to sell the episcopal palace at Chelsea, belonging to this see, and in 1821 it was sold for 6,0001.


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