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ing the general principle of the fervation of the church of Scotland, measure, proposed eight articles, as by the union of England and Scotthe foupdations on which it might land. The sixth article provided be established, to the mutual benefit for a fair participation in comnierof both kingdoms.
cial privileges; for which end, howThe firit imported, that, on the erer, it was thought necessary to first day of January, 1801, the impose certain countervailing duties, kingdoms of Great Britain and Ire- The leventh left to each kingdom land mould, for ever after, be imi- the separate difcharge of its public ted into one kingdom, by the name debt already incurred, and ordain. of the united kingdom of Great ed, that, from twenty years from · Britain and Ireland. The second, the union, the national expense that the luccession to the imperial · lhould be defrayed in the proportion crown of tlie faid united kingdom, of fifteen parts for Great Britain, and of the dominions thereunto and two for Ireland.
The eight belonging, should continue limited ordained that the laws and courts of and settled in the same manner both kingdoms, civil and ecclefiaras it now stands limited and fettled, tical, nould remain as they were according to the union between Eng- bow established, lubject, however, Jand and Scotland. The third, that to fuch alterations, as the united lethe fame united kingilom be united gillatures might hereafter deem exin one and the same parliament. pedient --All laws, at present in The fourth, that four lords fpiritual force in either kingdom, whicly of Ireland, hy rotation of fellions, should be contrary to any of the and twenty-eight lords temporal of provisions that might be enabled by Freland, elected for life by the peers any act for carrying the above artiof Ireland, should be the number to cles into effect, from and after the fit and vote, on the part of Ireland, union, to be repealed. in the house of lords, in the parlia- In fupport of these propofitions, ment of the united kingdom. The the secretary displayed great ability, filth, that the churches of England sound fenfe, comprehensive views, and Ireland should be united into clear arrangement, and an easy flow one protestant episcopal church, to of eloquence. One of the most imhe called, “ The united church of portant and interesting points in England and Ireland," and that the question was the parliamentary recloctrine, worship, and discipline, of presentation of Ireland. On this the laid church, thould remain in hieac, bis lordship contended that full force for ever; and that the con- the proposed number of Irish legiltinuance and prefervation of the laid lators ought to satisfy every reasonunited church Mould be, for ever, able man, as it might be deemed a
a fundamental article of just proportion, under the combined the union. It appears fingular, at view of the respective population, first light, but the realon will quick- and future contributions of Great ly occur to every reader of history, Britain and Ireland. As many bothat the legislatures of the two cou- ronghs would be disfranchised, br tries, on this occation, thould recog- the new regulations, it would be nise particularly the laws already proper, he faid, to make compenmade for the continuance and pre- lation to such individuals as might
he injured by the lofs of their pre- priety of the financial system of the fcriptive privileges. By the new plan proposed for an union. This arrangements, he added, the quef- part of the arrangement, he said, tion of parliamentary reform would was more beneficial to Ireland than be luperfeded, as the present plan to Great Britain : but he entered a was a reform of the most popular strong caveat against any idea that kind.-With regard to the church, this pecuniary advantage was inanother important and a delicate tended as a compensation to the topic, and what had been frequent- foriner realin; for the lots of honour, ly a subject of acrimonious conteft, or of other interetis. The offer he expressed his conviction of the was made on the wide basis osa fair infecurity of that of Ireland, if it and mutual agreement. It were should continue separate from the greatly to be willied, he said, that English establishment; but, in event the two kingdoms should be so of an union, he had no doubt that completely incorporated, as not to the present ecclefiaftical establisi- have distinct revenues; but, in the thent, founded on the protestant preien circumstances of both realms, afcendency; would be stable and this point could not be satisłacpermanent. The catholics, who, torily adjufted, I was therefore trusting to their great fuperiority expedient to select a criterion of of numbers, were continually urg: relative ability, by which the sepaing claims against the minority, sate contributions could be reguwould be checked in their confi- lated. Lord Caflereagh, having dence and forwardness, and exhibit compared the exports and imports fewer marks of jealousy and mil- of Ireland with thole of Great traft; and their pretentions woul Britain, and the excited articles of be temperately difcuffed by an im- consumption in one kingdom with perial parliament, at a time when those of another, for the last three local circumstances would cease to years, estimated the ratio of abili y irrilate and inflame.
in the different kingdoms, as one to On the lubject of trade; lord seven and a half. And to shew the Calilereagh observed, that the cir- operation of this proportion, he cumstances of the two countries did ftated the respective expenditures not admit a complete incorporation of the tivo countries in the last of conimercial interests, because year, and compared that of Ireland fone of the Irisļi manufactures were with what it would have been, acnet hufficiently advanced to proper cording to the alleged ratio; fo aš without protecting duties; and the to prove that nearly a million fterdisparity of the hurthens borne by ling would have been saved by the the British manufactures, in confe- weftern realm. Ireland would quence of a greater Mare of taxı- another achranlage in a participation, rendered it impracticable to tion of a proprictary right in ile adjust this part of ihe lyft:m, on territorialrercnueof Britain, whence any other principle than that of me would derive two-filieenins of a full freedom of export between the lum annually paid to governo
nent by the Fait-india company. The noble fecretary of state pro- This projeci, or plan for an ceeded next to maintain the pru- union, was opposed' by rarions
speakers, from, no doubt, various March, fir John Parnell, withing motives; some of them private, to have the sense of the nation more some of them public. Mr. Grattan, decisively ascertained than it could a pensioned tribune of the Irish na- be in the present parliament, moved tion, and a true orator as well as that the king mould be requested acute reasoner, was, as might be to disolve it, and convoke another, expected, one of the warmest and and a kind of convention parliathe most impreslive opposers of the ment. Mr. Saurin, a barrifter, union, in the houle of commons.- diftinguished himfelf greatly, by his The vehemence of his zeal and eloquence and spirit in support of oratory exposed him to an attack the motion, and strongly urged an from Mr. Corry, the chancellor of appeal to the people. The solicithe Irish exchequer, whole recom- tor-general accused Mr. Saurin of mendations of the union he an- “ unfurling the bloody flag of reTwered in terms fo bitter and offen- bellion ;" Mr. Egan infinuated that five, that a challenge ensued. Mr. the solicitor and other members of Corry was wounded in a duel; but administration, " bad unfurled the Mr. Grattan escaped uuhurt. fag of prostitution and corruption."
In the Irish house of peers, the The motion was negatived, after a man who signalized his zeal against long and animated debate, by a the union, above that of all the great majority. After some altera. peers, in opposition to the union, tions of dre articles, the plan of the was the marquis of Downthire.-' union, as was foreleen by the BriHe oppoled it with indefatigable tish government, was approved by induftry and perseverance, with the lame parliament, which the moderate eloquence, but with the year before had rejected it. And weight of a fair and unblemillied an addrels was voted by the two character, and the reputation of houfes, on the twenty-seventh of being fincerely and faithfully at- March, informing liis majesty of the tached to Jiis native country.
result of their deliberations. In Neither his exertions nor those of that address, they confidered the other lords were of any arail. The resolutions of the two houses of the measure of the union was agreed Britih parliament as wisely calcuto, in the Irish house of lords, by a lated to form the basis of an incorgreat majority. Yet a protest poration of Great Britain and Ireland against a legislative union with into one kingdom, under his majes. Great Britain was entered on the ty's auspicious government, by a comjournals of the Irish house of lords, plete and entire union of their legilby twenty peers; for an account lature. They had adopted them of whom, and of the grounds of as their guide in the measures they their protest, as well as for a more had pursued, and they now felt it particular account of the articles of their duty to lay before his majesiy the union, we must reler our readers the resolutions to which they had to the State Papers in this volume. agreed, and which, if they thould
The most interesting debates on be approved by the two houles of the union took place, as was to the parliament of Great Britain, be expected, in the Irish houle of they were ready to confirm and raOn the thirteenth of tify, in order that the fame might
be established for ever by mutual engines of corruption in that coun. consent of both parliaments.” This try, the last of places, were still to address, with the resolutions of the remain, and their influence brought lords and commons of Ireland, con- to bear; not on three hundred letaining the terms proposed by them gislators as formerly, but on one for an entire union between the hundred, which obviously must add two kingdoms, was communicated to the influence of the crown.by his majesty to the British parlia- Lord Grenville expressed his furment, on the second of April, and prize at being called on, this day, became the chief subject of their de. io support the general principle of leberations from the twenty-first of a question which had been repeatthat month to the twelfth of May. edly, recently, and almost unaniThe great measure of the union, mously recognized by both houses its principle, conditions, and ten- of parliament. He defended the dency, having been amply discused measure, as beneficial to the two in the parliamentary proceedings kingdoms, and as being carried or, of 1799, fully ftated in our last not as lord Holland had contended, rolume, it would be unneceffary, by corrupt, or intimidating, but by and might appear tedious to give fair and constitutional means. With an account of all the questions, ar- regard to the argument of the noble guments, oblervations, and adjourn- lord, that the introduction of one ments that arose in the various dif- hundred members into the house of cussions it underwent, in the differ- cominons, and thirty-two into that ent stages through which it was of
peers, would endanger the Briagain carried, after it was remitted, tifh conftitution, by increasing the lightly altered, and approved by influence of the crown; he oblerved the Irish parliament. The measure that the mode chalked out for the of the union, in the house of peers, election of members was such, was oppoíed by lord Holland, who, under the genuine principles of the among other arguments against it, British conftitution, as would render urged its probably unhappy effects them as free from any imputation on the British conftitution. The as that suggested, as could poflibly introduction of one hundred Irish be done; as was allo the mode of members into the houle of com- electing the peers, by rendering mons, and thirty-two into that of their leats as secure and indepentheir lordirips, must add, he dent as that of any individual peer thought, considerably to the influ- in that house, namely, for their ence of the crown, This innova- lives. Ireland, he contended, would tion in the frame of the house of be best governed through the me. commons naturally involved the dium of a joint legislature, to which question of parliamentary reform. Ireland houid send her full and fair The great ground on which this proportion of repreintatives. The was objecled 10, heretofore, was measure of the union was formed on innovation. That place being now principles fimilar to those furnished done away, he knew not with what chiefly by the precedent of the consistency they could reluse re- Scorch union. The effect of the form. Though the parliament of Ire- whole system was tuch as to infure land was to be abolished, yet all the a permanent and confirleraisle in
crease of wealth and prosperity to He admitted that a respectable Ireland, but on principles of reci- party in Ireland, and a number of procal benefit to both countries; well-intentiones persons, were hofwhich must ultimately tend to con- tile to the union : but the greater folidate the connection, and ang. part of this hofiility, he said, proment the firengih and resources of ceeded from prejudice, want of inthe empire. With regard to the formation, or the influence and exidea that parliamentary reform could crtions of the evil-minded and de. not, atier an union with Ireland, ligning : but all the traiterous, and be reasted, on the ground of inno- dilaffected in that country were, to vation, Lord Grenville said, that a man, oppoled to the union, and parlian/entary reform should always for an obvious reafon—that it wondd be relisted by him, as it ever had annihilate their lyftem, and rendes been, on account of its general all things abortive. dangerous tendency, and its hofti- Lord King considered the mea. lity to the genuine and vital prin- fure in queltion, carried as it had ciples of the British constitution; been, rather as a species of conwhich, as experience had proved, quest in Ireland, where not only was fully adequate to all its pur- the means of corruption had been poles.
uled, but intimidation alio. The The marquis of Townshend ap- introduction of the thirty-two peers proved of an union with Ireland, as and one hundred commoners into the most effeciual means of educa- the united parliament would, he ting and civilizing the natives of thought, materially increase the insome part of that country. Even fuence of the minister, which in certain parts in England they would be much strengthened by the were not a little deficient in educa- circunstance of the Irish excbequer tion and civilization, but in none and establifurents being k-pt lepa. so ignorant and barbarous as in some rate from those of this country: parts of Ireland.
Lord Darmley apfwered, in a himself knew a place there, where very able márner, the principal an attorney and a publican, the objections to the union. With restewards of the landlord, railed gard to the great objection of its what contribations they could, with being likely to make the British .out returning a sourth part to the conftitution, lie laid, that no polije proprietors, and oppressed the poor ble plan, of fome parliamentary people who had no magistrate to representation for Ireland, could interfere for them.
have been deviled fo confonant The carl of Weftmoreland took to popular principles, or that bea general view of the distractions, före the house, which felected from relixious and political, which, for 'the present Iridla koule of commons fome years pali, had agitated Ire. all the members for counties, with laud. Thele, he thought, were a few only for the principal cities alm oft una cidable, under the ex- and towns, and made the eleclion ifting form of government in that of peers for life. country, and, of course, to be re. in the houles of commons, Mr. mo ed unly by the expedient of a Pitt, in the course of a long (peech, leg lative union with this country, in defence and conunundation of