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is not, for the present, necessary to November, when closely contemcall on the princes and states of the plated, cannot, all at once, inspire empire for their contingents, and full concedence in the new governthe discharge of the other duties ment. A part of the persons, into they owe to the constitution. A whose hands the fupreme power true German and patriotic heart, has fallen, are the members of forand an understanding enlightened mer councils, who, both by their by so much fad experience, can professed principles, and the whole never be led into fo great an error: of their public conduct, have sworn an error, which would deprive us eternal enmity and mortal hatred to of the only means of concluding a all states not constituted like their {peedy peace, on fair and proper own; several of which they have terms, and fuch as might be folid overthrown, and others of which, and lasting. It would be wrong, in the midst of perfect peace, they for a moment, to lose fight of the have perfidioully brought under maxim, that the most vigorous pre- their subjection. Nor is the spirit paration for war is the furest way that reigns in the publications of to obtain peace. This we all ac- France of the most pacific nature. quire both the sooner, and on the In there, it is often said, that the better terms, if the enemy Mall see late revolution has no other end in that we are in a state for continuing view, than to raise the republic to the war, in cale of his persisting in the rank which the ought to hold an imperious tone, and pretending in the scale of European nations, yet once more to prescribe a peace, The old directory, in those writings, accompanied with disgrace and is censured, not for having made Davery, or that should put it into war on their neighbours, but for his power to involve us in disgrace having made war unsuccessfully; for and Navery hereafter. We have not having made new conquests, been too often deceived by a pre- and for having lost provinces that cipitate hope of peace, on the part had been before conquered. The of France, to be lulled, by the late French proclamations set out always events, into a feep of fallacious with a discourse about victory, and security. It has been invariably speak of peace only in the last place: found, that every new faction in which thews that they do not yet France has talked a great deal about consider circumstances as sufficiently peace. The word peace has been favourable for pacification; and that always in their mouths, never in they have a mind, before the contheir hearts. By the plausible al clusion of peace, to try the chances furances of peace they only aimed of war. The minister of war anat drawing over public opinion to nounces openly, that he is bụsily their fide, and acquiring popularityemployed in recruiting the army, They have uniformly commenced and providing all things neceflary new wars. They have never shewn for its equipment and support. He a disposition to make peace on equal adds, that he will join it himself, terms. By peace, they mean no- and share its dangers, as soon as the thing more than the extermination season will admit the opening of the of their enemies.

campaign; and that he is preparing ** The revolution of the ninth of new (pretended) triumphs.

“ In the warlike preparations of measures of defence, and how ries France, there has been no remis- cessary it is to redouble our efforts fon, that can induce the Germans for a due augmentation of the troops, to admit of any relaxation in theirs; and to accomplish, with the greatest on the contrary, a new military activity, and, in the most ferious corps is to be formed in the four manner, the renewed decision of departments not united to the re- the diet, and the resolutions it enpublic. But, even on the suppo- tered into and confirmed, for the fition, that there is no reason for common defence; in order that we mistrusting the views and the pro. may have it in our power to oppose joets of the new rulers of France, an energetic mass of efforts, to the the late revolution' is not yet lufti- views of the enemy, whatever they ciently confirmed and consolidated may be. It is only by an imposing to afford any reafonable assurance military force that it is possible to that it will not be overthrown as hinder the enemy from new attacks the others have been. On the and devastations; to fiorten or to whole, the present question is not terminate the evils of war ; to imconcerning such a peace, as a con- prove the terms of pacification ; vention for a mort time, or 'an ar- and, in a word, to accelerate a mistice. The point in hand is, con- peace worthy of the name, and to ditions of perfect security; condi- compenfate the multiplied facrifices tions demanded by honour, dignity, by which, for so long a time, we liberty, the integrity of the Ger. have endeavoured 10 procure it." man empire, and the inviolability The court of Vienna fortified, as of the most sacred treaties. The we have seen, by pecuniary fupobject contended for, is a fit, juft, plies from England, and the acand permanent peace, according to cession of Bavarians, Wirtemburgthe sense of the decisions of the diet;, ers, and other German troops in such as shall secure religion, pro- British pay, and mindful of both perty, civil order, and the consti- the past and recent glory and contution of the German empire.” quells of the Auftrian arms, was

! I invite you to take all these not to be maken or diverted from objections into your most ferious its resolution of perfevering in war, confideration, according to the fen- by the offer of a negociation for timents of patriotism with which peace, by Buonaparte, on the geyou are inspired ; and, having done neral ground of the treaty of Campo so, you will undoubtedly agree with Formio. The imperial ministers reme, that prudence imperiously de- plied to the overtures of the first mands that you do not suffer your- consul, that the emperor would not felves to be thrown into a state of negociate for peace, but in coninaction, by rumours of approach- junction with his ally the king of

ing peace, and more moderate prin. Great Britain. Though the circles ·ciples; but to keep your arms in of the empire were not to be roufed your hands, and to preserve a mili- from that lethargic indifference to tary attitude until peace be actually the common prosperity and falety, figned. You will perceive, as I into which, from the prevailing do, how fatally imprudent it would luxury and sellihness of the age, be to let any languor creep into and the hope of fecurity and advantages of secret understandings with and particularly of their reje&ion France and with Prusia, they had by England. He addrelled a profallen; the Austrians, feconded by clamation, complaining of the ob the Englih, prepared for military ope- ftinate determination of the Englidi rations with great alacrity and vigour: to continue the war, and inviting notwithstanding the detection of the the French to furnish the subsidies Rullians, under marshal prince $u- and men, that were neceflary fur warrow,* and the opposition of a acquiring peace by force of arms, powerful party at court in favour of if it could not be regained by conpeace on any tolerable terms; in ciliatory measures, of which, howwhich number was the archduke ever, he laid, that he was not yet Charles, though he knew, as he without some hopes. It was also, declared, that it was only by pre. at the same time, decreed by the tenting an imposing: military force, consuls, that an army of reserve ready for action, that any tolerable mould be raised, to consist of sixty terms of peace were to be expected. thousand men, composed of conNor were the military preparations scripts, and to be asembled at Die of the French Nackened, as is truly jon, where the first conlul himself fiated in the archduke's letter, but was to take the command of it in more and more quickened, during person. The proclamation and dethe short period of the attempt at a cree of the firit consul were appronegociation for peace with the Aul- yed of by, the legillative body and trians and Englis. The insurrec- tribunate. A part of the new contions in the western departments, fular guard, amounting to thirtywhile they justified military con- fix thousand men, of the finest youth fcriptions and movements, to the of France, received orders to hold greatest lovers of peace, were only themlelves in readiness to march, a kind of a great military review on the twenty-fifth of March, to and rendezvous for assembling and Dijon, to join the army of reserve, exercising a vast body of troops to where different bodies of troops had be employed, as occasion might re- already assembled Bertier, minilquire, in any direction.

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ter-at-war, was to accompany the After the infiallation of the con- general-in-chief, and the ex-direcfuls, a ceremony which was per- tor, Carnot, was to take charge of formed with vast pomp, at the his department in his absence. Ber. 'Thuilleries, on the nineteenth of nadotte was also appointed to be February, and the final reduction one of his lieutenant-generals. of the rebellion in the west, an- While the French army of renounced to the French nation at the serve is drawing from different same period, the first contul gave parts of France to Dijon, the great official notice of the rejection of centre of military delign and operaof those overtures for peace, which tion, on the part of France, it will he had fendered to different powers, be proper to look back to the situa

As 1łated in our last volume. Prince Suwarrow, with the remains of his army, seturned to Ruffian Polard, through Bavaria and Bohemia. The chagrin he experienced from this reverse of fortune, at the end of lus brilliant career, occasioned, or at least precipitated, his death.

tion of military affairs at the end of pionet, retreating to his defensive the preceding campaign, fo fingu- pols in the maritime Alps, ftalarly complicated and extenfive, of tioned the principal part of his 1799.

troops between Savona and Genoa, The principal operations of that the ordinary atylum of the republican paign were closed with the fur cans, after their defeat. In the be. render of Coni by the French, on ginning of December he quitted the the third of December.' The affairs command which he had neither of Austria, in Italy, at this epoch, held with much reputation, nor wore a very favourable aspect. The with much success. It would not, road to victory, as formerly observed, however, be just to appreciate his had been opened by general Kray, talents by the relult of the three at Legnano and Magnan, and the last months of the campaign which field-marshal Suwarrow had im- he conducted: for his army was proved those advantages with all left in fuch total want of money, The decifion, energy, and genius of of provision, of clothing, and of his character: in lo much, that, at all camp and military equipage, that the end of 1799, the French por- he was, in fact, of neceflity, less sessed nothing in Italy but the city taken up with fighting, than with and small republic of Venice. All providing for the exittence of his the passes of the monnta ns that di- iroops, with preventing and vide France from Italy were in the peasing the discontents of his fólhands of the Austrians.

diers, with reprelling the excesses On the other hand, the French to which foldiers, almost dying of were in possession of the whole left hunger, and accustomed to pillage, bank of the Rhine, from its fource gave themselves up, and with proto where it falls, by divided streams, tecting them from the just ven. into the ocean: that is to say, from geance of the inhabitants of the Switzerland to Holland, both inclu- country: five.

The situation of the French army, General Melas having demolish- quartered in the territories of Geed the works constructed for the noa, was still more disastrous. The fiege of Coni, and left a garrison vessels of the allies constantlycruizing there, proceeded to established can- on the coasts of Genoa, prevented tonments of his advanced posts in or intercepted all fupplies of foreign the openings and passes of the Pied- grain, which is at all times necefmontese and maritime Alps. He fary for the maintenance of thatcounthen distributed the rest of his army try; and which was become much in winter quarters, throughout Pied- more lo from the additional number mont and Lombardy, fixing his of mouths. The scarcity of grain head-quarters at Turin. Cham- was at different times so excessive,

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This general, in his way back to France, fell fick, at Nice, and died, on the ninth of January, at Antibes, of an epidemic fever, which broke out atout the end of the campaign, and made great ravages in the lett divisions of his army, and also carried off a great number of the inhabitants of the frontier towns in Provence, Dauphine, and Franche Comté. Championet was the son of an innkeeper at Grenoble. The principal service which lie did the republic was in the war at Naples: the success of which has been attributed to general Macdonald, who served under him.

that

(173 that a real famine was to be dread, and the Scrivia, where there was cd, and the price of bread was al- ftill fome fighting. In a course ways exorbitant.

The wants of of actions between a part of the the French, as may easily be fupa French army, on the fourteenth, poled, were always the first sup- fifteenth, and fixieenth of Decemplied, and the people were left to ber, and the Austrian division, under the horrors of their fate. Several the generals Klenau and Hohentinlurrections broke out, not only in zollern, in which several hundreds the country, but even in Genoa ; of men were killed on each side. and the French, incapable of re- These skirmishes finally closed medying the evils which occafioned the compaign, and the corps of the them, under the pretext of defend- generals Klenau and Hohenzollern ing the town against the Imperia. on the one fide as well as those of lifts, declared it to be in a state of the French generals St. Cyr and Lege, that is to say, they fuspended Vatrin on the other, took up their the authority of government, and winter quarters. tubjected it to their own. The Li- The positions of the opposite argurian republic, thus reduced under mies, in the beginning of January, subjection to their ally, consoled 1800, were there :-The Austrian themselves by immitating, both in army of Switzerland ended at the June and November, the changes upper valley of the Tesino, and of government which took place, was there niet by the army of Italy, at those periods, in France. It was which had absorbed that of the in this state of things, not unlike Tyrol. General Davidovich occuthat in which he had left Switzer- pied Bellinzona, and his advanced land, ihat general Maslena took the posts extended as far as Ariolo, command of the army of Italy, in thus observing the openings of the place of Championet; and, ac- St. Gothard. That'of the Simplou cording to the custom of the French was guarded by a part of the corps commanders, announced himself which prince Victor de Rólian bad before hand, by a proclamation, in commanded in the valley of Oxfola, which he promised plenty and vic. on the frontier of the Upper Valais. tory.

The troops left in the valley of These engagements he found it Avlia by general Haddick, when at the more difficult to fulfill, not while the end of October, he went to rehis army was held in a state of inforce general Kray, were fiationblockade by an English fleet, under ed along the frontier of the Lower lord Keith at lea, the victorious Valais, and occupied the foot of the Auftrians were in poffeffion of all great and little St. Bernard. The the territories that environ thole of palings of the Maurienne, the foot the Genoeie republic.

of Mount Cenis, the valley of Suza, Though no armistice lind been till beyond Exiles, and that of Cluagreed on between the French and zun till beyond Fenestrelles, which Auftrians, the grand operations of was held in blockade, were guarded the war, in oiher quarters, were by different detachments, all unler falpended by the rigloor of the leg- the orders of gonera! Kaim, woo luns. Yet There were some paris, corrmuded at urin, where the such as the banks of thu Levante right of the army ended.

Ceritre,

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