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totle in matters of taste. Not only, cy. His head is said to have been as it has been said, did he fet him- cloven afunder, and he had two felt and his fucceflors hors de page, other wounds, each of which was but he did the same by his king- mortal. He was interred with sodom. Without ftriking a blow on lemn pomp at Nancy; but seventybis own part, without incurring the three years after, his remains wer expenses or rinking the hazards of transferred to Bruges, to be depowar, he effected the destruction of fited in the fame tomb with those a rival more powerful and wealthy of his daughter Mary. Most of the than himself, namely, the above- Burgundian nobility, who had not mentioned duke of Burgundy; who, fallen at Granfon or Morat, were though valorous and high-minded, here either killed or taken ; and a and at the head of one of the first third Burgindian camp became the ftates in Europe, yet, by unskilful prey of the victorious enemy.' and headlong measures, brought Thus sell the duke of Burgundy; down ru on himself and his houle, and thus was brought about an and involved his subjects in endless event, the consequences of which calamities.
Europe feels to this very day. A Chap. III. of Book II. (the first fmall part of his territories went to of this volume) details the parti-' the secret author of his ruin; bat culars of the grand cabinet achieve the greater was conveyed by his ment of Lewis XI. and records the daughter, on her marriage, to the feats of Helvetic valour at Granson house of Austria, now growing to a and Morat, and the fall of Charles height of power inequalled since before Nancy. In the battle which the days of Charlemagne. It has takes its name from that city, the often been asked why Lewis XI. ill-fated prince, when he saw that did not secure the whole of the Burall was lost, resolved to engage in gundian territories, by marrying the person.
dauphin to the heiress; but it is not • He ruled among the comba- early to solve this question. Could tants with the fury of a lion, and he have foreseen what has happened slew many with his own hand; but since in Europe, with the bloodibed most of his people, especially the and calamities which thele procavalry, having now forsaken him, vinces were to occasion, we might and seeing himself entirely aban: have fuppufed that he facrificed the doned, he determined to consult lis interefis of his crown to the gratifown fafety, and rode full speed to- cation of his malignant feelings. wards the road that leads to Metz. What seeds of contention have these Being hard prefled by his pursuers, provinces nourished! Witness the he attempted to leap over a ditch; wars in which Spain exhausted the but his weary horle being unable to wealth of the Indies; in which our clear it, they both fell into the trench, Elizabeth displayed masterly policy; and here Charles met his fate from in which fo many great commanders hands unconscious of the importance gained immortal fame; and which of the life they were abridging. After employed the elegant pens of Benhaving been some time milling, his tivoglio and Strada. Witness the body was found among other dead repeated wars maintained by the in the ditch, and conveyed to Nan. different powers of Europe, to prerent Belgium from falling into the federacy and France, we lay before hands of France; wars in which the him the following extract: greateit generals of modern times • At length, however, on the have earned their dearly-bought lau- twenty-ninth of November, of the rels.
succeeding year, a general paciliThe IVth chapter relates the cation was concluded at Friburg, events of the fanguinary contest be- by which the French king; as duke tween the Helvetic confederacy, of Milan, ceded for ever to the and the Suabian league. This war cantons the poflession of the tranowed its origin to the attempts of salpine bailiwicks, and the provinces the imperial tribunals to renew their of Valteline, Chiavenna, and Borjurisdiction over Helvetia.
mio, to the Grisons, with an option, By the peace of Bane, which ter- however, of their surrendering their minated this most deiimnaive ftrug. principle castles in those diftricts to gle, the empire renounced all jurii- the French king for the sum of diction within the territories of the three hundred thousand crowns: ail confederacy; the independence of the privileges, that had erer been which was, therefore, at this time, held by the confederates in the virtually acknowledged, though this kingdom of France, were revived was noi formally done till the peace and confirmed: the payments fiio of Westphalia.
pulated by the convention of Dijon Chap. V. narrates the transactions were ratilied, with the addition of of Milan, froin its first invation by a free gilt of three hundred thouLewis XII. to the battle of Biccoca. fand crowns to the whole Helvetic Few human minds are altogether body, and an annual lublidy of two free from national prejudices; and thouland livres to each of the canthe present philofophic and candid tuns, to the Valais, and to the Grihiftorian fhews bimtell, in this chap- fon leagues. This compact was deter, to be not a little bialled by clared to be perpetual, and has in their influence. The Swits achieve. fact been the basis of the many ment at Novarra is related as if leagues that have ever after been within the regular course of events; made between the crown of France but when we come to Marignan, and the Helvetic confederacy.' where the author's countrynien are The Vith chapter treats of the defeated, the event in his view of affairs of the confederacy during it is a phænomerion of most difficult the period of the reformation; the folution. A great number of parti- character of which is well drawn in culars are brought together, in or- the short pallage here quoted : der to explain and account for the Religious diflenfions untheathed prodigy; and he appears to conti- the sword, and gave rise to animoder these preliminaries as necessary, lities and calamities, which for many in order to render it credible that years perplexed and tormented a the French were victorious in a bat- large portion of the human race; ile with the Swiss.
and armed men against each other, That the reader may form some who, had they been inQuenced by idea of the connection which so long the charity which was the batis of fubfifted between the Helvetic con- their faith, would have reconciled their jarring opinione with foothing firmed them in the perfuafion, that toleration, and left the world at the bells travelled every prou peace."
week to Rome lo receive from lepo What was the fate of that infi- tilm; and ibat the crocilme of delity of which we hear so many priests could affected by dix complaints, in the thirteenth and warms of loris, and all market fourieenth centuries, at the era of of infects. Whers, at an ailembly the reformation? How für did those of the clergy in the Volais, menton go, no preceded liber, and were was made of the Bible, only one of advocates of reformation, yet were the prietis ha erer heard of fcele deenieria found members of the a book : ani leveral, an other acchurch? We are of opinion that the calors, did not fcruple to declare, inveftigation of thele points might that it would be an advantage 10 throw lome new light on this great religion if no gospel were e tant; event, often and ably as it has been and that the study of the Greek and treated; and certain's by no one Hebrew languages greatly favoured hetter than by the incomparable of bereli' Sleidan. Mi. Planta agrees with of the fate of morals, the folthofe who have precedded liim, as to lowing extract will give an idea: the causes which brought about this • All men must feel a painful fingular revolution in human affairs; conviction when they learn, from the chief of which were, the op- the charges that were brought by prerions exercised by the Romish the citizens of Lausanne agairn hierarchy, the wealth and power their clergy, that the priests ofed which ii lind amalied, the claims often, even in the churches, and is which it arrogated, and the igno. the midst of divine service, to fire sance and bad lives of its clergi._ the persons to whoin they bore il A fpecimen of the ignorance of that will, fome of whom lad acina!' body will be found in the following died of their wounds: that they pallage:
walked the fireets at night, dilo • The generality of the pricit- guiled in military elrefies, brand:thhood did not fcruple to acknowledge ing naked fwords, and indung te their deficiency in the moft elemen- peaceful inhabitants : and that the tary parts of learning. Tlie carrons frequent rapes, violences, and inof the collegiate church of Zuric sults they committed were never having to notify an election to the punished' or eren restrained. The bishop of Contince, confefied that following are the words of the eile they tranfmitted it in the hand teenth article: “ We have allo to writing of their potary, becaule fe- complain of the carons, that they veral of the could not write. In reduce the profits of our town bir the examinations for holy orders, it thel, several of them carrying an was deemed amply fufficient that the (rafie of prostitution in their the candidate could read, and tole- Oin houses, whici iney bron raviy comprehend what he read: open to new comes of ail letripeven after the reformation had tions." luis so small corroboroties made fonje progrels, the people of the merited clamour stiled again firmly believed, and the priests con- the clergy, that their own gainus
advocate and protector, Charles already prosperous city. This relithe fifth, publicly declared to them, gious feparation was by no means, that if their lives had been less re- in all cales, topographical; the inproachable, they would never have habitants of different persuasions in had to contend with a Martin Lu- many places living promiscuously ther.'
together, and many large families In Chap. VII. which brings having divided into branches, whose down the affairs of Helvetia to the contradictory belief and stern fanapresent century, we learn that, ticism have frequently proved the after the agitations of the reforma- fource of destructive feuds and tion had subliced, the following be- great calamities.' came the religious fate of the The affair of the Valteline, mencantons :
tioned in this chapter, was Four of the cantons, and among event in the history of Europe on these the two principal of them, lad which much depended. It is not adopted the reformation ; feven re- to be thoronghly understood withmained firmly addicted to the faith out an intimate acquaintance with of their ancestors; and two admit- the Itate of the court of France ted both religions into their coun- during that period; many of the try as 'well their senates. Of the proceedings in which are only to be three-and-twenty lubject districts, comprehended by connecting them only Morat and Granfon became with the bigotry of the queen mowholly protestant; fixteen retained ther, with the weak counsels which their former creed, and five be- prevailed in the carly part of thre came mixed. Among the allies, reign of Lewis XIII, and with the Geneva, Neuchattel, Bienne, Mul employment furnished to the great hausen, and the town of St. Gallen, "Hatcman Richelieu, by hoftile courrenounced the doctrines of Rome; tiers, and the ever-restless prowhile the diminutive republic of tefiants. Girfau, and the abbey of Engelberg, In the fucceeding pages, we have persisted in their former worship. In an account of the horrible massacre • the Grifon leagues, after great dif- of the Valteline; from whicliit apturbances, and many fluctuations, pears that the difciples of modern
both creeds were at length admitted French philofophy have not greatly - by public authority. The reforma- furpautted in exceles the difciples tion had at one time made confider- of a bellr canse, though the staable progress in the Valais, the bility of the cause, fupported by the Valteline, and the Italian baili- former, is an even hitherto unparalwicks: bat popery at lait prevail- lelud in history, ed; and at Locarno, thote who Speaking of the peace of Weftrefuled to adhere to the established phalia, the author afcribes to the doctrines were compelled to quit the Helvetic States an active intertecountry; on which occafion no le's rence, in order to obtain an than lixty families, among whom kuowledgement of their indepenwere several of considerable note, dence. Other historians say that withdrew to Zuric, and contributed these stales did not move in the huessentially to promote both the finess, till then were excited by the commerce and manufactures of that Swedes and Frenci, who in.lified
that the enpire should make that theatre, to have descended to fro concellion,
ture ages as the most intrepid of On die occasion of Lewis XIV. patriot martyrs. The annals of seizing Franche Compté, the Hel- Nero or Domitian prelent nothing velic Defenfional, or the military more foul, than the muckery of code for the defence of the country, justice carried on by a republican was devised and settled; and about magiftracy, in consequence of wbich the same time the Formula Conjen- this brave man suffered death. Jus, or the Helvetic proteftant con- The subject of Chap. X. and feffion of faith, was established, lalt, is the late overthrow of the
Lord Clarendon says, that a man- Helvetic confederacy by the French. date of Cromwell put an end to the This transaction is 100 recent for perfecution of the protestants in history. The feelings of the moPiedmont; but Mr. Planta reduces ment will not allow the writer to this fplendid interference to the aflign to each canle its due fiare common act of lending money to of influence, nor to view each the fufferers. If the noble historian event in its true light. Indignation mil-fiated the fact, which, to favour on the one hand, and commileraCromwell, he was not likely to tion on the other, are too busy in do, the error thould have been the bosom, to suffer history to alproved; if he was founded in what sume her claim and dispassionate he alierted, the present author character; and it is impoflible to (perhaps, without intending it) has prevent the pen from running into been unjuft not only to the memory
endlels invective on one fide, and of Cromwell, but to the honour patbetic declamation on the other. of the Englifh nanie.
Infiead of arraigning the prefent Chap. VIII. gives a statistic view writer for his want of impartiality, , of the fingular country to which we wonder that he has not failed this work relates. The author di. more in that quality. vides its governments into three We must now dismiss this work ; classes ; the aristocratic, the aristo- offering our fincere congratulations democratic, and the democratic.- to the author, on the service which In the firít clats, whereof that of he has rendered to letterson tbe Berne stands foremost.
obligations under which he has laid Chap. IX. gives the modern his his native and adopted countries tory of Geneva, with all the in- and on the memorial of his induftry, terest and fidelity which belong to general information, found judgethis author. Fatio, though little ment, and impartiality, which he known to history, appears to have has thus erecied, and which will been a very striking character; and so honourably transmit his name to from the account here given, he future times. Seems only to have wanted a wider