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ments necessary for the object in view, while confined in the depôt. At the same time stores of arms and gunpowder were deposited at the residences of others of their accomplices, in convenient stations of the city. The whole of the conspiracy had, however, been nearly overthrown and developed by an explosion which took place in Patrickstreet. By the ability of the conspirators, or the security of their adversaries, the accident was overlooked, or at least represented as unconnected with any treasonable design. At length the preparations were complete, or the funds of the conspirators exhausted, and the 23rd of July was appointed for a general insurrection.† Though the persons immediately connected with Emmet, Dowdall, and Quigley, the principals in the plot, did not exceed from eighty to one hundred persons, they were so far misled as to the state of the public mind, that they expected the spirit of rebellion would pervade the kingdom. The stopping of the mail-coaches was to be the signal of revolt in the country. The immediate object of the insurgents in the metropolis was the castle, and the vicinity of the depôt in Thomas-street was calculated to favour the intended enterprise against this seat of the government. Various rumours had been afloat for a few days previous that a rising,' as it was termed, was intended; but the reports were so contradictory that the government was unable to take any measures of precaution, farther than the doubling of patroles in certain stations. Towards dusk on the 23rd of July, Emmet prepared for the anticipated action, by superintending the distribution of arms and ammunition (of which he had a large supply) amongst the multitude that

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matter, for throwing against wood-work, which, when ignited, would cause an instantaneous conflagration; sky-rockets and other signals, &c.; false beams filled with combustibles; with not less than twenty thousand pikes!"-Memoir of Robert Emmet.

*Two of his confederates were in the house when the explosion took place, one of whom, in endeavouring to throw open a window in order to escape suffocation, severed the artery of his arm-and thus disabled, the poor fellow bled to death. His companion was taken prisoner.

"The sensitive mind of Emmet was not only harrowed up by the terrible fate of his fellows, but apprehending that the explosion would lead to untimely disclosures, he, for the third time since embarking in the enterprise, changed the place of his concealment, by removing from the house occupied by him in Butterfield-lane to one of his depôts situate in Mass-lane. Here he strove to make, as far as possible, amends for the recent loss by increased exertion. So restless was he, that he sought no farther repose than that he derived from occasionally reclining upon a mattrass placed in the midst of the workmen, from which he could by night and day observe the progress of and direct and animate their labours."

† "To add still further to the perplexities of this unenvied position, Emmet was disquieted by the conflicting views which it gave birth to among his associates. Some advocated an immediate resort to arms; others, disheartened by the aspect of affairs, doubted the policy of this; and almost all of them had his individual opinion as to the most practicable mode of commencing operations. Seven days from the explosion were occupied in these deliberations, which ultimately terminated in the adoption of a proposal for attempting by surprise to gain possession of the arsenals in the vicinity of the city, and of the castle itself. Especial importance was attached to obtaining possession of the latter, as it was felt that to have command over the seat they might speedily secure the power of government.”—Ibid.

had congregated before the head-quarters of the projected rebellion. But we must not omit to mention that previous to the evening the ill-success of the enterprise had been omened forth, by the retreat of the Kildare men, who, after marching into the capital, were fortunately persuaded by their leaders to disband and return home. What ensued has been thus graphically described by one of Emmet's coadjutors :

"About six o'clock, Emmet, Malachy, one or two others, and nyself, put on our green uniform, trimmed with gold lace, and selected our arms. The insurgents, who had all day been well plied with whiskey, began to prepare for commencing an attack upon the castle; and when all was ready, Emmet made an animated address to the conspirators. At eight o'clock precisely we sallied out of the depôt, and when we arrived in Thomas-street the insurgents gave three deafening cheers.

“The consternation excited by our presence defies description. Every avenue emptied its curious hundreds, and almost every window exhibited half-a-dozen inquisitive heads, while peaceable shopkeepers ran to their doors, and beheld with amazement a lawless band of armed insurgents, in the midst of a peaceable city, an hour at least before dark. The scene at first might have appeared amusing to a careless spectator, from the singular and dubious character which the riot wore; but when the rocket ascended and burst over the heads of the people, the aspect of things underwent an immediate and wonderful change. The impulse of the moment was self-preservation-and those who, a few minutes before, seemed to look on with vacant wonder, now assumed a face of horror, and fled with precipitation. The wish to escape was simultaneous; and the eagerness with which the people retreated from before us impeded their flight, as they crowded upon one another in the entrance of alleys, court-ways, and lanes; while the screams of women and children were frightful and heart-rending.

"To the castle!' cried our enthusiastic leader, drawing his sword, and his followers appeared to obey-but when we reached the markethouse, our adherents had wonderfully diminished, there not being more than twenty insurgents with us.

"Fire the rocket!' cried Malachy.

"Hold awhile,' said Emmet, snatching the match from the man's hand who was about applying it. Let no lives be unnecessarily lost. Run back and see what detains the men.'

"Malachy obeyed; and we remained near the market-house, waiting their arrival, until the soldiers approached."

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“The conspirators assembled previously in the depôt did not exceed the number of fifty, but pikes and other weapons were liberally dispersed among the mob, and the number of the insurgents soon swelled to the amount, it is said, of about five hundred. The night was dark, and the scene is described as tremendous; groups of pikemen, and other insurgents, were dispersed in various parts of the vicinity of the

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scene of action, while others were calling out for arms, and led in crowds to the grand depôt."

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"It was during the height of the insurrection that the venerable magistrate, accompanied by his daughter, Miss Wolfe, and his nephew, a clergyman, arrived in Thomas-street, in his way from his countryhouse to the castle. Lord Kilwarden, and Mr. Wolfe, his nephew, were inhumanly dragged from the carriage, and pierced with innumerable mortal wounds by the pikemen.* Before he expired he was rescued by a party of the military and of the police; and hearing some violent expression employed as to the punishment of the rebels, he had only time, before he breathed his last, to prefer a petition that no man might suffer but by the laws of his country.' Such a death was more honourable than that of a commander who dies in the arms of Victory, and who possibly acts a part to secure a posthumous reputation. Miss Wolfe, by the humanity (if such wretches can be suspected of it) or the heedlessness of the mob, effected her escape, and, on foot and unattended, was one of the first who arrived at the castle to give notice of the horrors of the night. Colonel Browne, a gentleman greatly respected, was another victim of the multitude, and was assassinated in the same brutal and cowardly manner. On the first alarm he repaired to join his regiment, but, uninformed of the precise station which was occupied by the rebels, he unfortunately, in the darkness of the night, fell in with the main body; he received a shot from a blunderbuss, and was almost immediately hewn to pieces.

"Every casual passenger, who was not murdered, was forced to join

* The following story in connection with this action was also for some time subsequently current among the "lower orders" of Dublin :

"In the year 1795, when Kilwarden was attorney-general, a number of young men (all of whom were between the age of fifteen and twenty) were indicted for high treason. Upon the day appointed for their trial they appeared in the dock, wearing shirts with tuckers and open collars, in the manner usual with boys. When the chief justice of the Queen's Bench, before whom they were to be tried, came into court and observed them, he called out, Well, Mr. Attorney, I suppose you are ready to go on with the trials of these truckered traitors?' The attorney-general was ready and had attended for the purpose; but indignant and disgusted at hearing such language from the judgment-seat, he rose and replied, No, my lord, I am not ready; and,' added he, in a low tone, to one of the prisoners' counsel who was near him, if I have any power to save the lives of these boys, whose extreme youth I did not before observe, that man shall never have the gratification of passing sentence upon a single one of these truckered traitors.' He performed his promise, and soon after procured pardons for them all, upon condition of their expatriating themselves for ever; but one of them obstinately refusing to accept the pardon upon that condition, he was tried, convicted, and executed." Thus far the fact upon creditable authorities: what follows is given as an authenticated report. After the death of this young man, his relatives, it is said, readily listening to every misrepresentation which flattered their resentment, became persuaded that the attorney-general had selected him alone to suffer the utmost severity of the law. One of these, a person named Shannon, was an insurgent on the 23rd of July; and when Lord Kilwarden, hearing the popular cry of vengeance, exclaimed from his carriage, "It is I, Kilwarden, chief justice of the King's Bench!" Then,' ," cried out Shannon, "you're the man that I want!" and plunged a pike into his lordship's body.

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