Imatges de pàgina

Ephori to return to Sparta, on pain of being declar- Xerxes. ed, in case of disobedience, a publick enemy and traitor to his country. He complied with the summons and went home, hoping he should still be able to bring himself off by dint of money. On his arrival he was committed to prison, and was soon afterwards brought again upon his trial before the judges. The charge brought against him was supported by many suspicious circumstances and strong presumptions. Several of his own slaves confessed that he had promised to give them their liberty, in case they would enter into his designs, and serve him with fi delity and zeal in the execution of his projects. But, as it was the custom for the Ephori never to pronounce sentence of death against a Spartan, without a full and direct proof of the crime laid to his charge, they looked upon the evidence against him as insuffi cient; and the more so, as he was of the royal fa mily, and was actually invested with the administration of the regal office; for Pausanias exercised the function of king, as being the guardian and nearest relation to Plistarchus, the son of Leonidas, who was then in his minority. He was therefore acquitted a second time, and set at liberty.

Whilst the Ephori were thus perplexed for want of clear and plain evidence against the offender, a certain slave, who was called the Argilian, came to them, and brought them a letter, writ by Pausanias himself to the king of Persia, which the slave was to have carried and delivered to Artabazus. It must be ob served by the way, that this Persian governor and Pausanias had agreed together, immediately to put to death all the couriers they mutually sent to one another, as soon as their packets or messages were delivered, that there might be no possibility left of tracing out or discovering their correspondence. The Argilian, who saw none of his fellow-servants, that were sent expresses, return back again, had some suspicion; and when it came to his turn to go, he opened the letter he was entrusted with, in which

Xerxes. Artabazus was really desired to kill him pursuant to their agreement. This was the letter the slave put into the hands of the Ephori; who still thought even this proof insufficient in the eye of the law, and therefore endeavoured to corroborate it by the testimony of Pausanias himself. The slave, in concert with them, withdrew to the temple of Neptune in Tenaros, as to a secure asylum. Two small closets were purposely made there, in which the Ephori and some Spartans hid themselves. The instart Pausanias was informed that the Argilian had fled to this temple, he hasted thither, to enquire the reason. The slave confessed that he had opened the letter; and that finding by the contents of it he was to be put to death, he had fled to that temple to save his life. As Pausanias could not deny the fact, he made the best excuse he could'; promised the slave a great reward; obliged him to promise not to mention what had passed between them to any person whatsoever. Pausanias then left him.

Pausanias's guilt was now but too evident. The moment he was returned to the city, the Ephori were resolved to seize him. From the aspect of one of those magistrates, he plainly perceived that some evil design was hatching against him, and therefore he ran with the utmost speed to the temple of Pallas, called Chalcieocos, near that place, and got into it before the pursuers could overtake him. The entrance was immediately stopt up with great stones; and history informs us, that the criminal's mother set the first example on that occasion. They now tore off the roof of the chapel: But as the Ephori did not dare to take him out of it by force, because this would have been a violation of that sacred asylum, they resolved to leave him exposed to the inclemencies of the weather, and accordingly he was starved to death. His corpse was buried not far from that place: But the oracle of Delphi, whom they consulted soon after, declared, that to appease the anger of the goddess, who was justly offended

on account of the violation of her temple, two statues Xerxes must be set up there in honour of Pausanias, which was done accordingly.

Such was the end of Pausanias, whose wild and inconsiderate ambition had stifled in him all sentiments of probity, honour, love of his country, zeal for liberty, and of hatred and aversion for the Barbarians: Sentiments, which, in some measure, were inherent in all the Greeks, and particularly in the Lacedæmonians.

SECT. XVI. Themistocles, being pursued by the Athe-
nians and Lacedæmonians, as an accomplice in Pausa-
nias's conspiracy, flies for shelter to king Admetus.
*THEMISTOCLES was also charged with being

an accomplice to Pausanias. He was then in exile.
A passionate thirst of glory, and a strong desire to
command arbitrarily over the citizens, had made him
very odious to them. He had built, very near his
house, a temple in honour of Diana, under this title,
To Diana, goddess of good counsel; as hinting to the
Athenians, that he had given good counsel to their
city and to all Greece; and he also had placed his
statue in it, which was standing in Plutarch's time.
It appeared, says he, from this statue, that his phy-
siognomy was as heroick as his valour. Finding that
men listened with pleasure to all the calumnies his
enemies spread against him, to silence them, he was
for ever expatiating, in all publick assemblies, on the
services he had done his country. As they were at
last tired with hearing him repeat this so often, How
says he to them, are you weary of having good offices
frequently done you by the same persons? He did not
consider, that putting them so often in mind of


Thucyd. 1. i. p. 89, 90. Plut. in Themist. c. cxxiii, cxxiv. Corn. Nep. in Themist. c. viii.

Hoc molestum est. Nam isthac commemoratio quasi exprobratio est immemoris beneficii. Terent. in Anar.

Xerxes. his services, was in a manner reproaching them with their having forgot them, which was not very obliging; and he seemed not to know, that the surest way to acquire applause, is to leave the bestowing of it to others, and to resolve to do such things only as are praiseworthy; and that a frequent repetition of one's own virtue and exalted actions, is so far from appeasing envy, that it only inflames it.

Themistocles, after having been banished from Athens by the ostracism, withdrew to Argos. He was there when Pausanias was prosecuted as a traitor, who had conspired against his country.' He had at first concealed his machinations from Themistocles, though he was one of his best friends; but as soon as he was expelled his country, and highly resented that injury, he disclosed his projects to him, and pressed him to join in them. To induce his compliance, he showed him the letters which the king of Persia wrote to him; and endeavoured to animate him against the Athenians, by painting their injustice and ingratitude in the strongest colours. However, Themistocles rejected with indignation the proposals of Pausanias, and refused peremptorily to engage in any manner in his schemes: But then he concealed what had passed between them, and did not discover the enterprize he had formed; whether it was that he imagined Pausanias would renounce it of himself, or was persuaded that it would be discovered some other way; it not being possible for so dangerous and ill-concerted an enterprize to take effect.

After Pausanias's death, several letters and other things were found among his papers, which raised a violent suspicion of Themistocles. The Lacedæmonians sent deputies to Athens to accuse and have sentence of death passed upon him; and such of the citizens who envied him, joined these accusers. Aristides had now a fair opportunity of revenging him

y Plut. in Themist. p. 112.

self on his rival, for the injurious treatment he had Xerxes. received from him, had his soul been capable of so cruel a satisfaction, but he refused absolutely to join in so horrid a combination; as little inclined to delight in the misfortunes of his adversary, as he had before been to regret his successes. Themistocles answered by letters all the calumnies with which he was charged; and represented to the Athenians, that as he had ever been fond of ruling, and his temper being such as would not suffer him to be lorded over by others, it was highly improbable that he should have a design to deliver up himself, and all Greece, to enemies and Barbarians.

In the mean time the people, too strongly wrought upon by his accusers, sent some persons to seize him, that he might be tried by the council of Greece. Themistocles, having timely notice of it, went into the island of Corcyra, to whose inhabitants he formerly had done some service: However, not thinking himself safe there, he fled to Epirus; and finding himself still pursued by the Athenians and Lacedæmonians, out of despair he made a very dangerous choice, which was, to fly to Admetus king of Molossus for refuge. This prince having formerly desired the aid of the Athenians, and being refused with ignominy by Themistocles, who at that time presided in the government, had retained the deepest resentment on that account, and declared that he would take the first opportunity to revenge himself. But Themistocles, imagining that in the unhappy situation of his affairs, the recent envy of his fellow-citizens was more to be feared than the an cient grudge of that king, was resolved to run the hazard of it. Being come into the palace of that monarch, upon being informed that he was absent, he addressed himself to the queen, who received him very graciously, and instructed him in the manner it was proper to make his request. Admetus being returned, Themsitocles takes the king's son in his arms, seats himself on his hearth amidst his household gods, and there telling him who he was, and the



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