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guing would be lax: For, (1.) These two be said, that this place out of the Psalms righteousnesses are very far different, and is brought as another confirmation of the the one cannot be the other; and how prime thesis, and not of the last argushould we then know when the apostle is ment brought from Abraham's instance speaking of the one, and when of the o because that the thesis is set down de noua, ther? and except we know this, we shall verse 8. and so though here the rightesee no certainty in the apostle's dispute. ousness of Christ be understood, yet that If it be said, that where faith is not named, will not binder why faith may not be prothere the righteousness is Christ's righte- perly taken, when it is said to be imputed ousness, and so it will be clear. I answer, for our righteousness. I answer, int, I We find even that righteousness of Christ will not much contend about the analysis, called the righteousness of faith, verse 11. cho' to me it seemeth clear, that these for, I suppose, this is mainly sealed by the words, verses 6. 7. 8. be casten in, as it facrament. Farther, (2.) If we look ver. were, in a parenthesis, to confirm and il6th, we will find the business more clear, lustrate what he said laft, after which, and see, that when faith is imputed unto immediately, he returns to the instance of righteousness, it is the fame with righteouf Abraham, upon whom he spends all the nej's imputed without works ; for the apo- chapter. 2dly, But be it so, this will not atle is confirming what he said of Abraham, help the matter, for then the main thesis and the manner of his justification, by Da- must be this, We are justified thro' that vid's words, as is clear by these words, righteousness which God impureth witheven as. Now, what was he saying of out works; but then, I pray, how will Abraham? that faith, as his act or work, Abraham's instance prove this thesis, which was imputed to him for righteouiness, as only proveth that we are justified by faith fay our adversaries; and how doth Da- imputed for righteousness? If the main vid's words confirm this? Truly I cannot thesis be concerning the meritorious cause, fee: For, 1. The proofs, verses 7. 8. an argument only proving the conditional Blessed are they whose fins are forgiven, &c. cause, will not be conclusive; for they are Now, where is the connection, Abraham's iwo distinct questions : for what are we act of believing was counted to him for justified ? and by what, as a mean, conrighteousness, because the man is blessed dition, or instrument on our part, are who hath his fins forgiven?
we justified ? And if it be faid, that That which the apostle is about to prove is
is the apostle proveth the complex thesis, fer down, verse 6. Even as David aljo including both the meritorious and condescribeth the blessedness of the man; of ditional cause, viz. That we are justified by what man ? the man unto whom the Lord faith in Christ, or by the righteousness of imputeth righteousness without works: That Chrilt, applied and laid hold on by faith is, the man unto whom God imputeth the I answer, 11, That is true; but then an ar righteousness of Christ without works, and gument which only proveth the conditiona therefore this man must be a man like Ab- cause, will not prove the meritorious cause raham; this being brought farther to con And, 2dly, By Abraham's instance the a firm and illustrate the former instance of postle is mainly 'proving the meritoriou Abraham; so that the man that has his cause, saying. What shall we fay the faith counted to him for righteousness, that Abraham our father, as peitaining must be the man to whom God imputeth the flesh, hath found? and then excludiu righteousness without works; so that righ- works, which our adverfary will not teousness imputed, and faith imputed to clude from being the condition of justi righteousness, must be all one: for if it ication; and, withal, takes in faith ast
medium, or condition. Then, you will by faith, and not by works. Thus, Abfay, if what proveth the meritorious cause raham believed God, and that act of bis, will infer the conditional, so what prove closing with the covenant, and resting upon eth the conditional will infer the merito- the free grace of God therein held forth, rious. I answer, 1. Stri&tly neither will was accounted the way how, or whereby he infer the other. 2. Paul is proving both, was put in possession of that righteousness considered complexly. And, 3. Then faith, held forth in the covenant; therefore he was as our act, cannot be said to be imputed not justified by works. 5. For the farther to us for righteousness, but faith must be explaining of these words, it was imputed understood with relation to its object, to him for righteousness, take notice of the Christ; and so the meaning should be, word imputed; and for clearing this, in Christ laid hold on by faith is imputed to thort, know, That the words in the orius for righteousness: and this is that which ginal Hebrew and Greek, rendered to imwe say. Lastly, Let it be granted that pute, hath various significations, as, to faith is here taken properly for our act, think, devise, repute, compute, esteem, conyet it will not follow, that it is imputed clude ; but ordinarily, to cast up an account, to us as our righteousness : nor is this and find out the summa totalis, or the quorighteousness to be taken for that which tient; and properly, (as to our matter in they call our evangelic righteousness, but hand) to account, repute, 'or reckon unto any raider for Christ's righteousness, which man any thing to be his, or him to be the they call our legal righteousness; and that cause of it, be it good or evil, whether it be because the words run thus, And his faith o or not. Sins are said to be imputed justwas imputed to him unto righteousness, | ly, when the man is indeed guilty, as Heb. add not for righteousness; for the pre- xvii. 4. Rom. v. 18. and unjustly, when the position e's which is used in all the places man is not guilty; so good things are imof this chapter, where this business is fpo- puted unjustly, as when the wicked are ken of, doth not fignify for, (nor any acquited, or justly, as Psalm cri. 31. and where else, so far as I know) but unto, fo is every thing impured which is of due according to the parallel place, Rom. 8. 10. debt; but so it is not tåken here, but for With the heart man believeth unto righte- an imputation of good by" grace, when cufness, and with the mouth confesion is what is imputed is no way deserved, but made unto salvation: where it is clear, that an act of free grace; and to the righteousbelieving is not called our righteousness, nefs here imputed is made over to believe but the way and mean whereby we appre- ers, and they accepted for that cause, as hend righieousness, and by which the if it were there own; as the cautioner's righteousness imputed, or the righteous- payment of the debt is made over to the ness of Christ, becomes ours, even as con principal debtor, and he therefore acquitfeffion with the mouth is the way and mean ed as if he had paid the debt himself.: this of salvation, and no other way imputed is an imputation of grace not unjust, being for salvation. And so here when faith is upon relevant grounds and confiderations. faid to be impured unto righteousness, the 6. Righteousness
, here, must not be taken meaning is, that faith is looked upon as the for a particular righteousness of any paronly way whereby righteousness becometh ticular fact, as was that of Phineas, Pialm ours, and for that end is imputed to us as cvi. which would have appeared to be
Now, as this will be granted to be unjust and unlawful, because he was but e truth, so we think it will no way be un- a private person, and therefore it being suitable to the apostle's scope, but will done in zeal the Lord did approve thereclearly prove, that Abraham was justified of, and in this sense it is said to have been imputed to him for righteousness, or as himself, and look for it in another, his a righteous act; but for universal righte- pride may fall, and his glorying may be ousness, seeing he is speaking of a righte- at an end; for the apostle confirmeth that qusncls in the matter of justification. Abraham had nothing to glory of before
God, he faith, that he had righteousness OBSERVATIONS.
imputed to him; fo that the more a man 1. The Spirit of God speaking in the look for in himself, the greater is his pride, fcriptures, being the final judge and de- and true humility will carry a man quite terminer of controversies, and that being a
out of himself. solid ground on which we may rest, as
VI. As it is for the righteousness of touching truth held forth in it, ministers should be careful to confirm their affertions and by faith that this righteousnefs is apfrom the scripture, seeing that is only able plied to us as ours; fo the best way for to fatisfy conscience; and people ought such as are unclear touching their estate, to rest upon the verdiet of the scripture to get it helped, is, to flee in of new to as fufficiently satisfactory, and therefore Christ, and grip the promile by faith, fee. ought to be well acquainted with the ing it is not cnly true at the first, but eWord: all which we are taught by the ven afterward, that faith is imputed for apostle's faying, What saith the scripture? righteousness; the righteousness of Christ
Il. Faith, whereby we are justified, re- is always the meritorious cause, and faith ceiveth the word of the Lord as his word, the mean whereby it is applied : for tho' and believes it because it is his word, Abraham was a believer before, and fo i Theff. ii
. 13. and fiducially confides in, was justified, yet it is now said, that he and refteth upon God, and cleaveth to believed God, and it was imputed to him him, as faithful and able to make good all for righteousness. his promises; fo Abraham believed in God, VII. How beit faith may not be looked or upon God.
on as our righteousness, in whole or in III. Sincere and lively faith will cause part, as if it were accepted of God as a man fit Gilent in the dust, and be quiet, making up any part of the price due to so as not to question whatever the Lord justice, yet can we not be justified without promiseth, be it never fo contrary to sense it; there is such & ftraft tie berwixt the and reason, but will certainly expect the righteousness of Christ, and faith whereby accomplishment; so did Abraham, in the it is made ours, or applied to us, that the one cited place, believe, even when the Lord is put for the other ; therefore faith is had promised what seemed most unlikely, said to be imputed, for, the righteousness of viz. "That his feed should be as the stars Christ applied by faith. for multitude, even then he believed God. VIII. Albeit man did owe to God, his
IV. The best that steps being defiled Creator, rational obedience, and God was with sin, have nothing in themselves for no way in justice obliged to have rewarded which they may expect to be accepted of the same with life, man doing but his dury God; whatever righteousness it be for and when he had done all, was but an unwhich they are accepted, it is not ground profitable servant ; yet it pleased the Lord ed upon any thing in themselves; for even to condescend so far as to be a debtor coAbraham has need to have a righteousness venant-ways unto man, and, of free grace, imputed to him, and so he has none of his own. to bind himself by promise, to reward him
V. Seeing man, as to the attaining of according to his work which he was to do a righteousness for which he will be juf- in his own strength, being put into a caţified before God must go wholly out of pacity to have acted, and so to make a pro
portion betwixt his work and his wages, | Phil. iii. 9. And be found in him, not having to as Adam was to have wrought fo much, mine own righteousness, &c. For to him and then to have had right unto the bire, that worket b the reward is not reckoned of of wages : And the more any look to them- grace, but to him that believeth his faith selves, and expect good from God for any is counted to him for righteousness. thing in themselves, the more they turn XII. Man being now plunged in guilt, from the way of grace, and betake them
and betake them hath nothing of his own wherewith to to the old way of works : for to bim that make satisfaction unto the justice of God, worketh, that is, to him that looketh and but is altogether born in fin, filthy and untrusteth to his works, is the reward reckon. clean, John ix. 34. and cannot please God, ed not of grace, but of debt.
Heb. xi.6. and whatever they do is sin, Prov. IX. Whatever course we take, where- xxi. 4. 27. yea, he cannot so much as preby we think God, in strict justice oblige pare and dispose himself for justification; ed to reward us, and accept of us, is he can do nothing which may merit justia course diametrically opposite unto the fication; for justification, when cometh. way of justification which the Lord has findeth the finner liable to condemnation, now carved out, seeing that is a way of and in a state of lin; for he justifieth the free grace: for to him that worketh, the ungodly. reward it not reckoned of grace.
XIII. Albeit man, when God comes to I. The way now, after man's fall
, of justify him, be lying in fin, under guilt, acquiring a righteousoess, is not by any in sensu diviso ; yet thing which we can do, but by faith going any person in sensu composito, that is, None out to Christ for the same; for to him that abiding in their natural condition, and in waketh not, but believeth on him that juf actual rebellion, are made partakers of this tifteth the ungodly, his faith is counted to privilege; but ere a finner can be justified bim for righteousness.
he must believe in Chrift; and thus his XI. Howbeit faith be necessary as a faith is counted to him for righteousness. mean, whereby Christ's righteousness, the XIV. Such is the freedom of God's rich oals meritorious cause of our justification, grace in welcoming of sinners, that his becometh ours, and it, laying hold on Christ; | hands are stretched out to all without exc; his righteousness laid hold on by it, is ception, who will come and believe in him,
od to be imputed unto us; yet it cannot whatever foul and sinful persons they have befo imputed, as if we were thereby for- been before; wherefore he is said to jufmally or meritoriously justified, nor fo as tify the ungodly indefinitely. £ it were accepted of God, thro' his mere XV. Sense of former guilt should be, Frace and gracious acceptilation, as our so far from scaring poor finners from couplete and perfect righteousness, whe- coming to Christ, when called to come her without the satisfaction made by Christ, in the gospel, that they should so much with it, so as that Christ only purchas- the rather step forward, considering how ense that faith should be accepted for our it is only such whom God justifieth, and kaplete righteousness, and instead of per- no other; so as their guilt renders them á fulfilling of the law; for fo faith and not uncapable of justification, but rather, orks should not be opposed, nor should being now mourned for, the soul flying mr righteousness be complete, our faith in to Christ, doth nearly capacitate them
sving many defects; nor is Christ any therefore. And true sincere justifying bere said to die, that faith might be fo faith looks out on God, and takes him up coated; and thus we should be justified to be one who is willing and ready to ac-. sour own righteousness , contrary to cept of finners, and to welcome all that
come, be what they will; for it is said work, or that the act of faith is here meant liere, -..--believeth on him that justifieth to be our righteousness ? So then the the ungodly; which is a description of the righteousness here fpoken of, must be the object of justifying faith, and to faith must righteousness of another, even the rightetake him up under that notion.
oufness which faith lays hold on, a righteousness whereof works make up no part;
therefore it is said to be without works. VERSES 6. 7. 8 Even as David also de- Now, his argument proving this, is taken firibeth the blessedness of the man unto
from the free remiffion of fins which is whom God imputeth righteoufness with- granted in justification, to this purpose: out works,
If in justification we have remission of fins Şaying, Blessed are they whose iniquities freely granted, our iniquities be covered,
are forgiven, and wife fins are covered. and lin be not impured to us, then righ.Bleset is the man to whom the Lord will teousness is imputed without works. The nat impute fin.
truth of this is founded on these two: 1.
That free remillion excludes all merit by THis that the apostle faid last of the works on our part, for what we purchase
instance of Abraham, viz. that he by our own works is not freely given. was justified by faith without works, or And, 2. That imputed righteousness and that his faith was counted to hin for pardon are inseparable, and are so nearly righteouinets, seeing he believed God, he conjoined, that the one may be concluded farther cleareth and confirmerh from the or gathered from the other; for to whomwords of the prophet David, out of Psalm foever the Lord imputeth righteoufiefs, to xxxii. (which also serveth to confirm his these he doth not impute fin, whether that main thesis touching justification by faith, be the ground of this or not, is not very without the works of the law) to this pur- material to determine. So then this bepose: David beareth witness to the truth nefit of remiffion of fins is here set down of this, and therefore it must be a truth: according to the words of the Pfalmist, and so he first sets down the proposition Pfalm xxxii
. 1. in three several expressions: he is about to confirm, verse 6. Even as 1. Blessed are they whose iniquities are forDavid als defcribeth the blessedness of the given; where, as in other places, the apoman unto whom God imputeth righteousness Itle followeth the Seventy, for the Hewithout works : where we see that God's brew word here rendered forgiven, will imputing righteousness without works, is signify to lighten, or take off, so that the all one with faith's being imputed unto meaning will be, Blessed is the man who is righteousness, so as the righteousness here eafed or exonerate of bis transgressions ; said to be imputed, must be another righ- but all is one, for the remission of fin is teousness than the act of faith, for faith in the taking of it away;
and this holds forth this fenfe is a work, and so righteousness sin to be a debt that must be forgiven, or should not be impured without works in- a heavy burden that is unsupportable, and definitely, but his meaning should be, righ must be taken off; or both, a grievous teousness is imputed without all works ex- burdensom debt that cannot be born, but cept faith, which would cross all the apo. of necessity we must be eafed of. 2. W boje stle's arguments ; beside that, the argu. fins are covered; and this holdeth forth in ment from the Psalms would no way be to be a filthy loathsome thing that must suitable unto this purpose; for how will be covered from the eyes of the Lord. the non-imputation of sin, or free remis- 3. Not imputing of fin, which pointeih Lion, prove the imputation of faith as our forth fin to be a guile making men liable