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is visible, and therefore into a visible church; did abide still into the olive; so are the Gelfor (1.) -it is such an ingraffing as by it tiles graffed in with them. 4. As the the goodness of God was palpably seen. Jews shall again be graffed in, old and (2.) At the Jews cafting out, the Gentiles young, fo are we now. were ready to boast, verses i 8. 20. (3-) Having thas briefly given some clear. Their breaking off was known to Paul, ness unto these doubts, we lhall observe a and we hear nothing of his knowing this few things, and go on. only by revelation, and no way else. (4.) It. is such a church whereof the Jews were

OBSERVATIONS. natural branches; and this could not be I. In explaining points of truth, we may meant of the invisible church. (5.) It is make use of metaphors and fimilitudes, that church out of which many who are providing they be plain, obvious, and not really in, may be really out again ; but it is too far ftrained; such as the apostle doth not the invisible church that folks go out here make use of, when he says, As the and come in to. (6.) Their condition since first.fruits are holy, so is the lump, &c. they were cast out, is an exclusion out of II. Howbeit many a godly and gracious a visible church state.

parent may have unholy, profane, and As to these objections, it is answered graceless children, void of sanctification and thus: To the first, We shewed the mean- inward boliness; yet the issue, branches, ing of verse 15. before, to be only this, and children of such as are externally and That the gospel, which is the mean to re- outwardly in covenant with God, are with conciliation, came to the Gentiles. To them in covenant also; he taking into cothe second, Faith is here taken for the venant father and son, root and branch, profession of faith. To the third, This Gen. xvii. 12. Deut. vii. 8. and x. 15. Amos unbelief is open rejecting of the gospel. iii

. 2.: If the first-fruits be holy, so is the To the fourih, It will even be a work of lump: and if the root be holy, so are the God's power, to work them to a profesfion, branches. See Acts ii. 39.

To the fifth, To be in a church state, is to holiness be rare, yet all the members of be in a fair way to salvation, being to the visible church are holy to God, as finpartake of saving ordinances; and hence gularly separated and set apart for God it will come to pass, that many of them and his use, Deut. vii. 6. 7. and x. 15. Thall be saved in effect. To the sixth, ving his ordinances set up among them; They are elected to a visible church state, If the root be holy, so are the branches : Deut. vii. 7. 8. To the last, The privi. Thus holiness is attributed to all who are vilege of a church state is indeed a great externally in covenant, and members of mercy. But all these particulars shall be the visible church, be they young or old. further cleared as we go through.

IV. Whatever privileges children are Tenthly, There seemeth to be a parallel advanced to, and made partakers of, it is here between the Jews and the Gentiles, in and thro' their parents, by virtue of as to their church state, wherein doth that the covenant made with fathers and chilconfist?

dren; and so they stand not on their own I answer: In that, 1. As the Jews were bottom: If the root be holy, so are the in the stock, branch and iwig, old and branches. Children may, claiin church young, Ila. xliv. 3. and xviii

. 5. so are the privileges upon the account of their paGentiles. 2. As the Jews were broken rents, and reason themselves in covenant off, father and son, so are the Gentiles in by virtue of their parents, all being one graffed. 3. As the better part of the Jews I ftock, partaking of the same honours;

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for to reafon froin parents to children, tree, wert graffed in among them, and feenis to have been a known masim, and with them partakest of the root and fat, encontroverted, when the apostle said, ness of the olive tree; is the root be hjuly, fu are the branches. Bajt not against the branches; but if they

V. However many, yea, the “hule bulk boast, thou bearest not the root, but the and body of the branches of the Jewish rooi thie. ration, be cut off, and have been withering, as being without fap these many hun

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Efore the apostle proceed to any more dreds of years; yet there is licihness and

arguments, proving the future contap in the root: the covenant made with vertion of the Jews, he fpeaketh a word Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, is recent and of caution unto the Gentiles

, adviling them freth before the Lord, and is not buried not to insu't over the Jews, or wax proud and forgoten quiie : I be root is holy. because of their enjoyments; and this pur

V Tho' a people may cut themselves pose he proficuteth unto verse 23. off by open and arowed breach of cove.. In these two verses the caution is set nant, and so may banish themselves and down, and some arguments enforcing it. many of their posterity from the rich and The caution is, verle 18. Boas not against excellent Blilings of the covenant; yet God the branches ;. tho' thou now be gruffed in at length may change bis dispensations to amongst them, or with them, or in room of that people, renew his old covenant after them, and as they of old, so thou noir many years, and raise it up again, tho'buried parlakest of the root, and of the fatness of and forgoten: the Jews had ouied them the olive-tree; that is, Tho' thou hart gotfelves and their posterity these many hun- en their place, and art admised to partake dred years, and yet that fame covenant of the fame privile, es, and external enwill God renew, in end, with that people: joyments and ordinances, by virtue of the }f the root be Loly, so are the branches. The covenant made with Abraham, which they Jap of that covenant shall yet be communi- enjoyed, and so art living as living memCated unto heni, and by virtue thereof Thall bers in a church. state, fucking the juice They grow up and bud into a church to Cod. , and fap of external covenant bleflings,

VII. The freshness and liveliness of this privileges and ordinances, from the oite root and covenant, which God nade with root and tree; yet miscarry not yourselves, Abraham, Ifaac and Jaceb, may ascertain be not proud of that, bui carry yourselves uis of the conversion of the Jews, and per- hambly, neither insult over these branches suade us that they shall yet revive; and ibai are now broken off: Aud the reason when they shall be bronght home, they is, 1. Because they are not all cut off

, ihall be admited to all church privileges there are some of the branches here and upon the old score, even upon the account there left uncut off, for only some of their of the old covenant made with Abraham, are cut off 2. Thou wast but a wild oliveIsaac and Jacob; For if the root be holy, tree by nature, having no natural affinity fo are the branches : This is his argument with this stock, and if God's free grace whereby he proveth, that the Jews fhall had not made a change on thee, thou badit Le converted, because the root is yet holy, not been graffed'in yet; speaking of the and by virtue thereof they shall become Gentiles here, wliere he callei h them a holy, and are at present radically and in wild olive; he understands the firit of the tentionally holy.

Genules, who were taken in and their

iftue, and not their iffue alone, for the VERSES 17. 18. And if some of the branches sprigs growing out of these branches which be lrikin of, and t.?cu, being a wild olive- were inoculated, do naturally partake of

the

the sap of the tree. 3. Thou wert graff 1 yet their interest fall remain sure, and til in amongit them; these who were lett they shall noc be cut oif; for here there were as highly privileged as thou, and was but some branches, that were broken ojf; inou but. partakest of the fame fap with the believing branches Itood and enjoyei them riho are Icft. And, 4. If trou boast, their privileges. tbou bearest not the root, but the root thee; IV. Before Christ came, the body of that is, Tliy insulting over the c!d branches the Gentiles were living in a wild conditireflects upon Abraham the root, and it is on, being without the bounds of the but folly for thee to inful over him, see-church, without the hedge; having no ing he beareth thee, and thou bearest not communion with the church of God, which hin; all the external privileges which was then only among the Jews, Deut. xxxii. thou art advanced. 10, thou hait then in 8. Pfal. Ixxvi. 1. 2. and so without God's and thro' Abrahain, theroct and the forefatherly care and protection, lfa. iv. 5. 6.. man in the covenant.

and xxxi. 4. 5. his culture, Isa. V. 2. 3:

the enjoyment of the ordinary means of OBSERVATIONS,

falvation, Pial. cxlvii. 19. the offers of I. Tho' such as are personally and inward- Christ, Eph. ii. 12. and of the covenants lý in covenant vith God, and braiches in of promise, ibid, and the privileges thereChrist, thro' a true and lively faith, shall of, and so out of all hope of mercy, and never be broken off, Jer. xxxi. 33: 34. Óc. possibility, in God's ordinary way of falIsa. liv. 13. John vi. 45. Jer. xxxii. 40. vation; hence they are called the wild olive: where it is called an everlasting covenant: The Jews then being the only church of God holding his hand still about these, Isa. God, and the Gentiles wholly without;. liv. 10. and lix. 21.; yet such as are only except some few proselites who were iaken visible and externally by profession, in co- in. venant, and thereby only in Christ, as V. How desperate like soever a peo-seeming branches, may be cut off: for fo ple's case may seem to be, yet when the was it here; fome of the Jews were cut off; time of love cometh, wherein he will shew And if some of the branihes be broken off. mercy, their former fad and finful conditi.

II. Folks seeming profeffion' and fair on will not hinder him to manifeit his love outside and prerences, will not save them ing kindness, and mercies; for albeit the fron a sad unchurching stroke, when God | Gentiles being for so many, ages kept out is greatly provoked to anger, by their not of the church, and living in a-wild-conwalking answerable to their profession; for dition, without God, seemed to be alto-here some branches, tho'branches, are gether in a helpless condition; yet God in

due time did graff them in, according to III. However the Lord bring fad and his manifold promises, lsa. ii. 2. 3. Pfal. sore judgments upon a land, in general, xxii. 27. Isa. Ix. 1. 2. 3. 4. 11. Psal. ii. 8.9. and unchurch, or take the gospel and or- and lxxii. 7. 8.9, 10. Ia. xi. 10. xlix. 2 2. dinances from the whole land, where the and liv. 3. Thou being a wild olive tree art: same gospel has been abused, and contemo- graffd in. ed; yet will be have respect unto such as VI. Howbeit there was a long standing are mourning for the iniquities of the land, enmity betwixt Jew and Gentile, before and are imbracing the offers of a Mediator, Christ came, so that the one was within and closing with God in Christ: the cove. the church of God, and worshiped him.' nant relation betwixt God and then shall according to his own appointment; the. stand; and tho' others shall be cut off from ocher, except fone few proselites, was withthe stock they seemed to be graffed into, 1 out the church, and without all right way

broken off.

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of worshiping God, and despised by the tiles are graffed in with them, pariaking of other, Ephef. ii. 1 1.; yet now, fince Christ the fame root, and clive with them. is come, this enmity is removed, the very VIII. This covenant made with Abra ground of it being taken away by his death, ham, Isaac and Jacob, being a covenant of viz, the ceremonial law, Ephel. ii. 14. 15. grace, is full, fappy and rich, having proand Jews (so many of them as stood uncut mises of grace, reconciliation, pardon, aoff chro' misbelief) and Gentiles are united doption and fanctification here, see Jer. together in one covenant, under one head xxxi. 31, and Jer. xxxii. 40. and of glory and husband, making up one church to hereafter, to all such as believe, and to Christ; hence it is said that the Gentiles follow the steps of their father Abraham, are graffed in among them, or with them, and hence it is called, a covenant of prowho remained uncut off. See Eph. ii. 15. mise, Eph. ii. 12. and we hear of the

VII. Tho' the coverant which God blessings of Abraham, Gal. iii. 14. blessings made with Abraham had fome temporal promised to him and his believing feed, promises in it, as the promise of the land Gen. xxii. 18. and having many external of Canaan, &c. Gen. xvii. 8. which were privileges, mercies and church perogatives, only additional, added ex superabundanti, as the ordinances of life, and the leals of the like whereof are also added in the New this covenant, and the like, which are beTestament, Mat. vi..33. 1 Tim. iv. 8. and stowed on such as are external members, in the covenant which was made with Da- and profess themselves believing covenantvid, Pfal. Ixxxix. 2 Sam. vii. and Canaan ers: this olive has fatness; and partakeft of was held forth as a type of heaven, the the root and fatness of the olive. blessings of that 'land being promised to all 1X. Those church privileges which flow believers, Ezek. xxxvi. 25. 26. 30. 31. Jer. from the covenant, flow forth no less axxxi. 31. compared with verses 38. 39. 40. bundantly to the Gentiles, than they did 41. 42. 43. Heb. xiii. 5. 6.: And tho this to the Jews, and so flow forth to father covenant was adminiftred under types and and children; for there is no difference of facrifices, a way of administration suitable ingraffing, but the Geptiles are ingraffed for that age of the church, and so was with the

Jews, and partake of the fat of bat accidental as to the substance of the the olive with them, or instead of there, covenant; yet that covenant made with who were broken off; the river of farness Abraham was the same for substance, with is not dried up to the Gentiles, nor is the that which is now made with the church root sending less sap to them, than it did under the gospel, having the fame Medi- to the Jews before, but rather more, feeator, Heb. xiii. 8. i Cor. x. 1. to 7. John it is filed a better covenant, in some respects, , viii. 56. in whom it was made, Gal. iii. 16. Heb. vii. 22. and viii. 7.10 13. and fo if 17. 18. 29. falvation then, as well as now, | infants then being in covenant had right to being by grace, A&s xv, 11. and by faith, circumcision, Gen. xvii. 12. and to the Rom. iv. 3. 4. 5. Acts 8. 43. Heb. xi. 1. 2. means of salvation, fo far as they were ca3. 4. 13. &c. without works, Rom. iv. 1. 2. pable, Gen. xviii. 19. Deut. vi. 6. 7. why 3. 4. 5. and so one way of justification, not infants now? Children must not be the Rom. iv. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Gen. xv. 6. Psal. worse for the coming of a better covenant xxxii. 1. 2. for it is the same root and the X. It is no easy matter to walk under same olive which Jew and Gentile stand the receipts of mercy and favours from on; and the Gentiles now under the gospel God, and not wax proud and infolent: are graffed into that same stock, and taken Corruption makes the weed of pride bud into that same covenant, which was made most after the sweetest May-shower; when with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; the Gen- God's favours thould humble us, they off

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work the contrary way; for the Gentiles it from the root; and since the root was having received a rare favour, of being able to send lite and fap to thee who were graffed in, are now ready to milken them no branches thereof, why muy it not allo lives, to boast and insult over the Jews; fend fap to such as are now withered ? Boat not thyself against the branches. XV. Unthankfulness or forgetfulness.

XI. Tho' God in his just judgment be of the benefits which we have received, as removing favours from others, and in mer. it is a great fia in itself, so it ulhereth in cy be bestowing them on us, in a rich other sins, and makes a soul not only mismeasure; we Mhould not the more of that ken its benefactors, but even to offer ininfult over such as are aflicted of the Lord, dignitiesto them, and also to wax insolent feeing merçy should be shown to such; but and proud, and insult over others; so was : pity and commiserate the case and conditi- | it here intimated; Boaft not against the on of such, and help forward their good | branches: or if thou do, thou beares not all we can: he will not have the converted the root, but i he root thee: If thou boast Gentiles insulting over the poor afflicted against the branches, thou wilt also reflect outcast Jews;, Boast not thyself against the upon thy benefactors; and the root of all branches.

will be, thy forgeting that the root bear. XII. Right thoughts of our former con eth thee; for if thou called it this to mind, dition, while we were in nature, and of our it would help all. unworthiness of mercy, will help to keep XVI. Serious minding of our own natuus low and humble under our present en ral condition, and of our way of standing joymenis, Ezek. xx. 43. and also provoke in the condition we are io, would help us to have compassion upon, and pity others us to keep calm; and that which pufferh us who are in the condition which we were once up, is, we forget the balis we stand upon; into, Tit. iii. 2: 3. and for this cause the If thou boast, thou bearest not the rout, apolile, that he may keep the Gentiles but the root thee, humble, and from insulting over the outcast Jewis, minderh them of what they once VERSES 19. 20. Thou wilt say then, The. were, and sayeth, Thou being a wild olive

branches were broken off, that I might be wert graffed in, and thence infereth, Boast graffed in. at tbydelf, &c.

Well, because of unbelief they were broken Xill. Thoughts of God's rare and un of, and thou standest by faith. Be nob deferved mercies towards us, should serve

high-minded, but fear. as a bridle to bear dowa corruption and pride in us. Therefore, to keep the Gen OR further clearing of this, he proliles from boasting against the branches, he poseth an objection, which he saw the tells them, that they are now graffed in, insulting Gentiles wouid have made use of, and partaking of the root and of the fatness and answereth it; and withal presseth them of the dive.

to humility, from a new argument. Hc XIV. The insulting over the off-cast had faid, ver 1 2. that the fall of them was Jews, as if they were never to be taken in the riches of the world; and ver. 15. that: again, is a reflecting on the root Abraham, the casting away of them was the reconciling and the covenant made with him, as tho' of the world; and from this he saw the it were not able to fend up fap to make Gentiles would be ready to gather some those rotten and blasted branches to bud ground to encourage them to boast; and so again; Boat not against the branches, for he says, Thou wilt fay then, Tbe branches Thou beare't not the root, but the root thee; were broken off, that I might be graffed That is, all the good thou hast, thou hast I in; that is, The Jews were cast out of

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