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ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

A

POPULAR DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS, AND

BIOGRAPHY.

A NEW EDITION;

INCLUDING

A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES

IN

AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY;

ON

THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE GERMAN

Conversations-Lexicon.

EDITED BY

FRANCIS LIEBER,

ASSISTED BY

E. WIGGLES WORTH.

VOL. III.

BOSTON:

BAZIN AND ELLSWORTH.

18 5 9.

AE5 6333 1950

vi 3

EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, to wit : VE IT REMEMBERED, that on tho tenth day of August, in the fifty-fourth year of tho Independence of the Apited States of America, A. D. 1829, Carey, Lea & Carey, of the said district, have deposited in this odiod the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit:

“Encyclopædia Americana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics and Biography, brought down to the present Timc; including a copious Collection of Original Articles in American Biography'; on the Basis of the seventh Edition of tho German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Francis Lieber, assisted by E, Wigglesworth'

In conformity to tho act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, “ An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of mups, charts and books to the authors and propriotors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned ;” and also to tho act, entitled, “ An Act supplementary to an act, entiileu,

An Act for ho encouragement of learning, by securing tho copícs of maps, charts and books to the authors end proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned; and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints.

D CALDWELI,
Clerk O the Eastern District of Pennsylvania

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ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

Catholic EPISTLES; a name given to to his connexion with the old soldiers of . seven epistles of the New Testament, be- Sylla, by means of whom he kept in awe cause written to Christians in general, and the towns near Rome, and even Rome not to believers of some particular place. itself. At the same time, he numbered They are, one of James, two of Peter, among his adherents not only the worst three of John, and one of Jude.

and lowest of the riotous populace, but CATHOLICISM. (See Roman Catholic also many of the patricians, and men of Church.)

consular rank. Every thing favored his CATILINE, Lucius Sergius, was just audacious scheme. Pompey was pursuentering on the age of manhood when ing the victories which Lucullus had preRome became a prey to the rage of Ma- pared for him; and the latter was but a rius and Sylla. Of patrician birth, he feeble supporter of the patriots in the attached himself to the cause of the senate, who wished him, but in vain, to latter, had some share in his success, and put himself at their head. Crassus, who still more in his proscriptions. Murder, had delivered Italy from the gladiators, rapine and conflagration were the first was now striving, with mad eagerness, deeds and pleasures of his youth. His after power and riches, and, instead of influence on the fortunes of the disorder- opposing, countenanced the growing ined republic became important. He ap- fluence of Catiline, as a means of his pears to have served in the army with own aggrandizement. Cæsar, who was reputation. He was peculiarly danger- laboring to revive the party of Marius, ous and formidable, as his power of spared Catiline, and, perhaps, even en dissimulation enabled him to throw a couraged him. Only two Romans reveil over his vices. Such was his art, mained deternined to uphold their falling that, while he was poisoning the minds country-Cato and Cicero; the latter of of the Roman youth, he gained the whom alone possessed the qualifications friendship and esteem of the severe Cat- necessary for the task. The conspirators ulus. Equally well qualified to deceive were now planning the elevation of Catithe good, to intimidate the weak, and to line and one of his accomplices to the inspire his own boldness into his deprav- consulship. When this was effected, they ed associates, he evaded two accusations hoped to obtain possession of the public brought against him by Clodius, for crim- treasures and the property of the citizens, inal intercourse with a vestal, and for under various pretexts, and especially monstrous extortions, of which he had by means of proscription. It is not probbeen guilty while proconsul in Africa. able, however, that "Catiline had promisHe was suspected, also, of having mur- ed them the liberty of burning and plun. dered his first wife and his son. A con- dering Rome. Cicero had the courage federacy of many young men of high birth to stand candidate for the consulship, ir and daring character, who saw no other spite of the impending danger, of the means of extricating themselves from extent of which he was perfectly aware. their enormous debts, than by obtaining Neither insults, nor threats, nor even rithe bighest offices of the state, having ots and attempts to assassinate him, debeen formed, Catiline was placed at their terred hinn from his purpose; and, being heal. This emninence he owed chiefly supported by the rich citizens, he gained

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