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"With sylvan scenes, and hill and dale,
Others are pleased with adding art to nature; as in gardens, with their various ornaments: others with mere works of art; as buildings, and representations of nature, whether in statues or paintings. Many, likewise, find pleasure in beautiful apparel, or furniture of various kinds. But novelty must be added to beauty, as well as grandeur, or it soon palls upon the sense.
9. Are we to refer to the head of beauty, the pleasure which many take in a favourite animal? Suppose a sparrow, a parrot, a cat, a lap dog? Sometimes it may be owing to this. At other times, none but the person pleased can find any beauty at all in the favourite. Nay, perchance it is, in the eyes of all other persons, superlatively ugly. In this case, the pleasure seems to arise from mere whim or caprice; that is, madness.
10. Must we not refer to the head of novelty, chiefly, the pleasure found in most diversions and amusements; which, were we to repeat them daily but a few months, would be utterly flat and insipid? To the same head, we may refer the pleasure that is taken in collecting curiosities; whether they are natural or artificial, whether old or new. This sweetens the labour of the virtuoso, and makes all his labour light.
But it is not chiefly to novelty, that we are to impute the pleasure we receive from music. Certainly this has an intrinsic beauty, as well as frequently an intrinsic grandeur. This is a beauty and grandeur of a peculiar kind, not easy to be expressed: nearly related to the sublime and the beautiful in poetry, which give an exquisite pleasure. And yet it may be allowed that novelty heightens the pleasure which arises from any of these sources.
12. From the study of languages, from criticism, and from history, we receive a pleasure of a mixed nature. In all these, there is always something new; frequently, something beautiful or sublime. And history not only gratifies the imagination in all these respects, but likewise pleases us by touching our passions; our love, desire, joy, pity. The last of these gives us a strong pleasure, though strangely mixed with a kind of pain. So that one need not wonder at the exclamation of a fine poet,
"What is all mirth but turbulence unholy,
When to the charms compared of heavenly melancholy?"
13. The love of novelty is immeasurably gratified by experimental philosophy; and, indeed, by every branch of natural philosophy; which opens an immense field for still new discoveries. But is there not likewise a pleasure therein, as well as in mathematical and metaphysical studies, which does not result from the imagination, but from the exercise of the understanding? Unless we will say, that the newness of the discoveries which we make by mathematical or metaphysical researches, is one reason, at least, if not the chief, of the pleasure we receive therefrom.
14. I dwell the longer on these things, because so very few see them in the true point of view. The generality of men, and more particularly men of sense and learning, are so far from suspecting that there is, or can be the least harm in them, that they seriously believe, it is matter of great praise, to give ourselves wholly to them. Who of them,
for instance, would not admire and commend the indefatigable industry of that great philosopher, who says, "I have now been eight and thirty years at my parish of Upminster; and I have made it clear, that there are no less than three and fifty species of butterflies therein: but if God should spare my life a few years longer, I do not doubt but I should demonstrate, there are five and fifty!" I allow that most of these studies have their use, and that it is possible to use without abusing them. But if we seek our happiness in any of these things, then it commences an idol. And the enjoyment of it, however it may be admired and applauded by the world, is condemned by God as neither better nor worse than damnable idolatry.
15. The third kind of love of the world, the apostle speaks of under that uncommon expression, naha ovela T Bix This is rendered by our translators, the pride of life. It is usually supposed to mean, the pomp and splendour of those that are in high life. But has it not a more extensive sense? Does it not rather mean, the seeking happiness in the praise of men, which, above all things, engenders pride? When this is pursued in a more pompous way, by kings, or illustrious men, we call it, "thirst for glory;" when it is sought in a lower way, by ordinary men, it is styled, "taking care of our reputation." In plain terms, it is seeking the honour that cometh of men, instead of that which cometh of God only.
16. But what creates a difficulty here, is this: we are required, not only to "give no offence to any one," and to "provide things honest in the sight of all men," but to "please all men for their good to edification." But how difficult is it to do this, with a single eye to God? We ought to do all that in us lies, to prevent "the good that is in us from being evil spoken of." Yea, we ought to value a clear reputation, if it be given us, only less than a good conscience. But yet, if we seek our happiness therein, we are liable to perish in our idolatry.
17. To which of the preceding heads is the love of money to be referred? Perhaps sometimes to one, and sometimes to another; as it is a means of procuring gratifications, either for "the desire of the flesh," for "the desire of the eyes," or for "the pride of life." In any of these cases, money is only pursued, in order to a farther end. But it is sometimes pursued for its own sake, without any farther view. One who is properly a miser, loves and seeks money for its own sake. He looks no farther, but places his happiness in the acquiring or the possessing of it. And this is a species of idolatry, distant from all the preceding; and indeed the lowest, basest idolatry, of which the human soul is capable. To seek happiness either in gratifying this, or any other of the desires above mentioned, is effectually to renounce the true God, and to set up an idol in his place. In a word, so many objects as there are in the world, wherein men seek happiness instead of seeking it in God, so many idols they set up in their hearts; so many species of idolatry they practise.
18. I would take notice of only one more, which, though it in some measure falls in with several of the preceding, yet, in many respects, is distinct from them all; I mean the idolizing a human creature. Undoubtedly it is the will of God that we should all love one another. It is his will that we should love our relations and our Christian brethren with a peculiar love; and those in particular, whom he has made par
ticularly profitable to our souls. These we are commanded to "love fervently;" yet still "with a pure heart." But is not this "impossible with man?" To retain the strength and tenderness of affection, and yet, without any stain to the soul, with unspotted purity? I do not mean only unspotted by lust. I know, this is possible. I know a person may have an unutterable affection for another, without any desire of this kind. But is it without idolatry? Is it not loving the creature more than the Creator? Is it not putting a man or woman in the place of God? Giving them your heart? Let this be carefully considered, even by those whom God has joined together; by husbands and wives, parents and children. It cannot be denied, that these ought to love one another tenderly: they are commanded so to do. But they are neither commanded, nor permitted, to love one another idolatrously. Yet how common is this! How frequently is a husband, a wife, a child, put in the place of God! How many that are accounted good Christians, fix their affections on each other, so as to leave no place for God! They seek their happiness in the creature, not in the Creator. One may truly say to the other,
"I view thee, lord and end of my desires." That is, "I desire nothing more but thee! Thou art the thing that I long for! All my desire is unto thee, and unto the remembrance of thy name." Now, if this is not flat idolatry, I cannot tell what is.
II. Having largely considered, what those idols are, of which the apostle speaks, I come now to inquire, (which may be done more briefly,) how we may keep ourselves from them?
1. In order to this, I would advise you, first, Be deeply convinced that none of them bring happiness; that no thing, no person under the sun, no, nor the amassment of all together, can give any solid, satisfactory happiness to any child of man. The world, itself, the giddy, thoughtless world, acknowledge this unawares, while they allow, nay, vehemently maintain, "no man upon earth is contented.' The very same observation was made near two thousand years ago :—
Nemo quam sibi sortem
Let fortune or let choice the station give
And if ro man upon earth is contented, it is certain, no man is happy. For whatever station we are in, discontent is incompatible with happiness.
2. Indeed not only the giddy, but the thinking part of the world, allow, that no man is contented: the melancholy proofs of which we see on every side, in high and low, rich and poor. And, generally, the more understanding they have, the more discontented they are. For,
"They know with more distinction to complain,
It is true, every one has (to use the cant term of the day, and an excellent one it is) his hobby horse! Something that pleases the great boy for a few hours or days, and wherein he hopes to be happy. But though
"Hope blooms eternal in the human breast;
Still he is walking in a vain shadow, which will soon vanish away! So that universal experience, both our own, and that of all our friends and acquaintance, clearly proves, that as God made our hearts for himself, so they cannot rest till they rest in him: that till we acquaint ourselves with him, we cannot be at peace. As "à scorner" of the wisdom of God," seeketh wisdom and findeth it not ;" so a scorner of happiness in God, seeketh happiness, but findeth none.
3. When you are thoroughly convinced of this, I advise you, secondly, Stand and consider what you are about. Will you be a fool and a madman all your days? Is it not high time to come to your senses? At length, awake out of sleep, and shake yourself from the dust! Break loose from this miserable idolatry, and "choose the better part!" Steadily resolve, to seek happiness where it may be found; where it cannot be sought in vain. Resolve to seek it in the true God, the fountain of all blessedness! And cut off all delay. Straightway put in execution what you have resolved! Seeing "all things are ready,"
acquaint thyself now with him, and be at peace."
4. But do not either resolve or attempt to execute your resolution, trusting in your own strength. If you do, you will be utterly foiled. You are not able to contend with the evil world, much less with your own evil heart; and least of all, with the powers of darkness. Cry, therefore, to the Strong for strength. Under a deep sense of your own weakness and helplessness, trust thou in the Lord Jehovah, in whom is everlasting strength. I advise you to cry to him for repentance in particular, not only for a full consciousness of your own impotence, but for a piercing sense of the exceeding guilt, baseness, and madness of the idolatry that has long swallowed you up. Cry for a thorough knowledge of yourself; of all your sinfulness and guiltiness. Pray that you may be fully discovered to yourself: that you may know yourself as also you are known. When once you are possessed of this genuine conviction, all your idols will lose their charms. And you will wonder how you could so long lean upon those broken reeds, which had so often sunk under you.
5. What should you ask for next?
"Jesus, now I have lost my all,
Now let me see thee in thy vesture dipped in blood!
"Now stand in all thy wounds confest,
Hast thou not said, "If thou canst believe, thou shalt see the glory of God?" Lord, I would believe! Help thou mine unbelief. And help me now! Help me now to enter into the rest that remainech for the people of God. For those who give thee their heart, their whole heart. Who receive thee as their God, and their all. Oh thou that art fairer than the children of men, full of grace are thy lips! Speak that I may see thee! And as the shadows flee before the sun, so let all my idols vanish at thy presence!
6. From the moment that you begin to experience this, fight the good fight of faith: take the kingdom of heaven by violence! Take it as it were by storm! Deny yourself every pleasure that you are not divinely conscious brings you nearer to God. Take up your cross daily: egard no pain, if it lies in your way to him. If you are called thereto,
scruple not to pluck out the right eye, and to cast it from you. Nothing is impossible to him that believeth: you can do all things through Christ that strengtheneth you. Do valiantly; and stand fast in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made you free. Yea, go on in his name, and in the power of his night, till you "know all that love of God that passeth knowledge:" and then you have only to wait till he shall call you into his everlasting kingdom!
SERMON LXXXIV.-On Dissipation.
-that ye may attend upon the LORD without distraction,"
"This I speak1 Cor. vii, 35.
1. ALMOST in every part of our nation, more especially in the large and populous towns, we hear a general complaint, among sensible persons, of the still increasing dissipation. It is observed to diffuse itself more and more, in the court, the city, and the country. From the continual mention which is made of this, and the continual declamations against it, one would naturally imagine that a word so commonly used was perfectly understood. Yet it may be doubted whether it be or no. Nay, we may very safely affirm, that few of those who frequently use the term, understand what it means. One reason of this is, that although the thing has been long among us, especially since the time of king Charles the second, (one of the most dissipated mortals that ever breathed,) yet the word is not of long standing. It was hardly heard of fifty years ago; and not much before the present reign. So lately has it been imported and yet it is so in every one's mouth, that it is already worn threadbare; being one of the cant words of the day.
2. Another reason why it is so little understood, may be, that among the numberless writers that swarm about us, there is not one (at least whom I have seen) that has published so much as a sixpenny pamphlet concerning it. We have, indeed, one short essay upon the subject: but exceeding few have seen it, as it stands in the midst of a volume of essays, the author of which is little known in the world. And even this is so far from going to the bottom of the subject, that it only slightly glances over it; and does not so much as give us one definition of dissipation, (which I looked narrowly for,) from the beginning to the end.
3. We are accustomed to speak of dissipation, as having respect chiefly, if not wholly, to the outward behaviour; to the manner of life. But it is within, before it appears without it is in the heart, before it is seen in the outward conversation. There must be a dissipated spirit, before there is a dissipated manner of life. But what is dissipation of spirit? This is the first and the grand inquiry.
4. God created all things for himself; more especially all intelligent spirits. (And indeed it seems that intelligence, in some kind or degree, is inseparable from spiritual beings; that intelligence is as essential to spirits, as extension is to matter.) He made those more directly for himself, to know, love, and enjoy him. As the sun is the centre of the solar system, so (as far as we may compare material things with spiritual) we need not scruple to affirm, that God is the centre of spirits. And as long as they are united to him, created spirits are at rest: they