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any more weight in that which has been drawn from experience or matter of fact?
5. This is a point which may exactly be determined; and that with the utmost certainty. If it be asked, " Do any real apostates find mercy from God? Do any that have made shipwreck of faith and a good conscience,' recover what they have lost? Do you know, have you seen any instance of persons, who found redemption in the blood of Jesus, and afterwards fell away, and yet were restored, renewed again to repentance?' Yea, verily and not one, or a hundred only, but, I am persuaded, several thousands. In every place where the arm of the Lord has been revealed, and many sinners converted to God, there are several found, who "turn back from the holy commandment delivered to them." For a great part of these "it had been better never to have known the way of righteousness. It only increases their damnation, seeing they die in their sins. But others there are, who "look unto him they have pierced, and mourn," refusing to be comforted. And, sooner or later he surely lifts up the light of his countenance upon them : he strengthens the hands that hang down, and confirms the feeble knees. He teaches them again to say, "My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit rejoiceth in God my Saviour." Innumerable are the instances of this kind, of those who had fallen, but now stand upright. Indeed it is so far from being an uncommon thing, for a believer to fall and be restored, that it is rather uncommon to find any believers who are not conscious of having been backsliders from God; in a higher or lower degree; and perhaps more than once, before they were established in faith.
6. "But have any that had fallen from sanctifying grace, been restored to the blessing they had lost?" This also is a point of experience: and we have had the opportunity of repeating our observations during a considerable course of years, and from the one end of the kingdom to the other.
7. And, first, we have known a large number of persons, of every age and sex, from early childhood, to extreme old age, who have given all the proofs, which the nature of the thing admits, that they were sanctified throughout;""cleansed from all pollution both of flesh and spirit;" that they "loved the Lord their God with all their heart, and mind, and soul, and strength;" that they continually "presented" their souls and bodies" a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God:" in consequence which, they" rejoiced evermore, prayed without ceasing, and in every thing gave thanks." And this, and no other, is what we believe to be true, scriptural sanctification.
8. Secondly, It is a common thing for those who are thus sanctified, to believe they cannot fall: to suppose themselves "pillars in the temple of God, that shall go out no more. Nevertheless we have seen some of the strongest of them, after a time, moved from their steadfastness, Sometimes suddenly, but oftener by slow degrees, they have yielded to temptation; and pride, or anger, or foolish desires have again sprung up in their hearts. Nay, sometimes they have utterly lost the life of God, and sin hath regained dominion over them.
9. Yet, thirdly, several of these, after being thoroughly sensible of their fall, and deeply ashamed before God, have been again filled with his love, and not only perfected therein, but stablished, strengthened,
and settled. They have received the blessing they had before, with abundant increase. Nay, it is remarkable, that many who had fallen either from justifying or from sanctifying grace, and so deeply fallen that they could hardly be ranked among the servants of God, have been restored, (but seldom till they had been shaken, as it were, over the mouth of hell,) and that, very frequently in an instant, to all that they had lost. They have, at once, recovered both a consciousness of his favour and the experience of the pure love of God. In one moment they received anew, both remission of sins, and a lot among them that
10. But let not any man infer from this long suffering of God, that he hath given any one a license to sin. Neither let any dare to continue in sin, because of these extraordinary instances of divine mercy. This is the most desperate, the most irrational presumption, and leads to utter, irrecoverable destruction. In all my experience, I have not known one, who fortified himself in sin by a presumption that God would save him at the last, that was not miserably disappointed, and suffered to die in his sins. To turn the grace of God into an encou ragement to sin, is the sure way to the nethermost hell!
11. It is not for these desperate children of perdition, that the preceding considerations are designed; but for those who feel "the remembrance of their sins is grievous unto them, the burden of them is intolerable." We set before these an open door of hope: let them go in and give thanks unto the Lord. Let them know that "the Lord is gracious and merciful; longs uffering, and of great goodness." "Look how high the heavens are from the earth! so far will he set their sins from them.' "He will not always be chiding; neither keepeth he his anger for ever." Only settle it in your heart, I will give all for all, and the offering shall be accepted. Give him all your heart! Let all that is within you continually cry out, "thou art my God, and I will thank thee: thou art my God and I will praise thee." "This God is my God for ever and ever! He shall be my guide even unto death.”
SERMON XCII.-The Danger of Riches.
"They that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful desires, which drown men in destruction and perdition," 1 Tim. vi, 9.
1. How innumerable are the ill consequences which have followed from men's not knowing, or not considering, this great truth! And how few are there even in the Christian world, that either know or duly consider it! Yea, how small is the number of those, even among real Christians, who understand and lay it to heart! Most of these too pass it very lightly over, scarce remembering there is such a text in the Bible And many put such a construction upon it, as makes it of no manner of effect. "They that will be rich," say they, that is, will be rich at all events; who will be rich, right or wrong; that are resolved to carry their point, to compass this end, whatever means they use to attain it; they "fall into temptation," and into all the evils enumerated by the apostle. But truly if this were all the meaning of the text, it might as well have been out of the Bible.
2. This is so far from being the whole meaning of the text, that it is no part of its meaning. The apostle does not here speak of gaining riches unjustly, but of quite another thing: his words are to be taken in their plain obvious sense, without any restriction or qualification whatsoever. St. Paul does not say, that they will be rich by evil means, by theft, robbery, oppression, or extortion; they that will be rich by fraud or dishonest art; but simply, "they that will be rich:" these, allowing, supposing the means they use to be ever so innocent, "fall into temptation, and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful desires, which drown men in destruction and perdition."
3. But who believes that? Who receives it as the truth of God? Who is deeply convinced of it? Who preaches this? Great is the company of preachers at this day, regular and irregular; but who of them all, openly and explicitly, preaches this strange doctrine? It is the keen observation of a great man, "The pulpit is the preacher's strong hold." But who even in this strong hold has the courage to declare so unfashionable a truth? I do not remember that in three score years, I have heard one sermon preached upon this subject. And what author, within the same term, has declared it from the press? At least in the English tongue? I do not know one. I have neither seen nor heard of any such author. I have seen two or three who have just touched upon it: but none that treats of it professedly. I have myself frequently touched upon it in preaching, and thrice in what I have published to the world: once in explaining our Lord's sermon on the mount, and once in the discourse on the " mammon of unrighteousness:" but I have never yet either published or preached any sermon expressly upon the subject. It is high time I should;—that I should at length speak as strongly and explicitly as I can, in order to leave a full and clear testimony behind me, whenever it pleases God to call me hence.
4. Oh that God would give me to speak right and forcible words; and you to receive them in nonest and humble hearts! Let it not be said, "They sit before thee as my people, and they hear thy words: but they will not do them. Thou art unto them as one that hath a pleasant voice, and can play well on an instrument: for they hear thy words, but do them not!" Oh that ye may "" not be forgetful hearers, but doers of the word," that ye may be "blessed in your deed!" In this hope I shall endeavour,
I. To explain the apostle's words. And,
II. To apply them.
But, oh! "who is sufficient for these things?" Who is able to stem the general torrent? To combat all the prejudices not only of the vulgar, but of the learned and of the religious world? Yet nothing is too hard for God! Still his grace is sufficient for us. In his name then, and by his strength, I will endeavour,
I. To explain the words of the apostle.
1. And, first, let us consider, what it is to be rich? What does the apostle mean by this expression?
The preceding verse fixes the meaning of that; "Having food and raiment," (literally coverings; for the word includes lodging as well as clothes,) "let us be therewith content." "But they that will be rich;" that is, who will have more than these; more than food and coverings.It plainly follows, whatever is more than these, is in the sense of the
apostle, riches; whatever is above the plain necessaries, or, at most, conveniences of life. Whoever has sufficient food to eat, and raiment to put on, with a place where to lay his head, and something over, is rich.
2. Let us consider, secondly, what is implied in that expression, "they that will be rich." And does not this imply, first, they that desire to be rich; to have more than food and coverings: they that seriously and deliberately desire more than food to eat, and raiment to put on, and a place where to lay their head; more than the plain necessaries and conveniences of life? All, at least, who allow themselves in this desire, who see no harm in it, desire to be rich.
3. And so do, secondly, all those that calmly, deliberately, and of set purpose, endeavour after more than food and coverings; that aim at and endeavour after, not only so much worldly substance as will procure them the necessaries and conveniences of life, but more than this, whether to lay it up, or lay it out in superfluities. All these undeniably prove their desire to be rich, by their endeavours after it.
4. Must we not, thirdly, rank among those that desire to be rich, all that, in fact, "lay up treasures on earth?" a thing as expressly and clearly forbidden by our Lord, as either adultery or murder. It is allowed, 1. That we are to provide necessaries and conveniences for those of our own household: 2. That men in business are to lay up as much as is necessary for the carrying on of that business: 3. That we are to leave our children what will supply them with necessaries and conveniences after we have left the world: and, 4. That we are to provide things honest in the sight of all men, so as to owe no man any thing" but to lay up any more when this is done, is what our Lord has flatly forbidden. When it is calmly and deliberately done, it is a clear proof of our desiring to be rich. And thus to lay up money is no more consistent with a good conscience, than to throw it into the sea.
5. We must rank among them, fourthly, all who possess more of this world's goods, than they use according to the will of the donor: I should rather say, of the proprietor; for he only lends them to us as stewards; reserving the property of them to himself. And, indeed, he cannot possibly do otherwise, seeing they are the work of his hands; he is, and must be, the possessor of heaven and earth. This is his unalienable right; a right he cannot divest himself of. And together with that portion of his goods, which he hath lodged in our hands, he has delivered to us a writing, specifying the purposes for which he has intrusted us with them. If, therefore, we keep more of them in our hands, than is necessary for the preceding purposes, we certainly fall under the charge of desiring to be rich:" over and above we are guilty of burying our Lord's talent in the earth; and on that account are liable to be pronounced wicked, because unprofitable servants.
6. Under this imputation of "desiring to be rich," fall, fifthly, all "lovers of money." The word properly means, those that delight in money; those that take pleasure in it; those that seek their happiness therein; that brood over their gold and silver, bills or bonds. Such was the man described by the fine Roman painter, who broke out in that natural soliloquy;
"Populus me sibilat, at mihi plaudo Ipse domi quoties nummos contemplor in areâ."
If there are any vices which are not natural to man, I should imagine this is one as money of itself does not seem to gratify any natural desire or appetite of the human mind; and as, during an observation of sixty years, I do not remember one instance, of a man given up to the love of money, till he had neglected to employ this precious talent, according to the will of his Master. After this, sin was punished by sin; and this evil spirit was permitted to enter into him.
7. But besides this gross sort of covetousness, the love of money, there is a more refined species of covetousness, mentioned by the great apostle;
soveğia which literally means, a desire of having more; more than we have already. And those also come under the denomination of, "they that will be rich." It is true that this desire, under proper restrictions, is innocent; nay, commendable. But when it exceeds the bounds, (and how difficult is it not to exceed them!) then it comes under the present censure.
8. But who is able to receive these hard sayings? Who can believe that they are the great truths of God? Not many wise, not many noble, not many famed for learning; none, indeed, who are not taught of God And who are they, whom God teaches? Let our Lord answer : If any man be willing to do his will, he shall know of the doctrine whether it be of God." Those who are otherwise minded, will be so far from receiving it, that they will not be able to understand it. Two as sensible men as most in England, sat down together, some time since, to read over and consider that plain discourse on, "Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth." After much deep consideration, one of them broke out, " Positively, I cannot understand it. Pray do you understand it, Mr. L.?" Mr. L. honestly replied, "Indeed, not I. I cannot conceive what Mr. W. means. I can make nothing at all of it." So utterly blind is our natural understanding touching the truth of God!
9. Having explained the former part of the text, "They that will be rich," and pointed out, in the clearest manner I could, the persons spoken of; I will now endeavour, God being my helper, to explain what is spoken of them: "They fall into temptation, and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtfu' desires, which drown men in destruction and perdition."
"They fall into temptation." This seems to mean much more than simply, they are tempted. They enter into the temptation: they fall plump down into it. The waves of it compass them about, and cover them all over. Of those who thus enter into temptation, very few escape out of it. And the few that do are sorely scorched by it, though not utterly consumed. If they escape at all, it is with the skin of their teeth, and with deep wounds that are not easily healed.
10. They fall, secondly, into" a snare," the snare of the devil, which he hath purposely set in their way. I believe the Greek word properly means a gin, a steel trap, which shows no appearance of danger. But as soon as any creature touches the spring, it suddenly closes; and either crushes its bones in pieces, or consigns it to inevitable ruin.
11. They fall, thirdly, "into many foolish and hurtful desires ;" avontuus: silly, senseless, fantastic; as contrary to reason, to sound understanding, as they are to religion: hurtful, both to body and soul, tending to weaken, yea, destroy every gracious and heavenly temper: destructive of that faith which is of the operation of God; of that hope