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4. "Let every action have reference to your whole life, and not to a part only. Let all your subordinate ends be suitable to the great end of your living. Exercise yourself unto godliness.' Be as diligent in religion, as thou wouldst have thy children that go to school be in learning. Let thy whole life be a preparation for heaven, like the preparation of wrestlers for the combat.
5. "Do not venture on sin, because Christ hath purchased a pardon. that is a most horrible abuse of Christ. For this very reason there was no sacrifice under the law for any wilful sin; lest people should think they knew the price of sins, as those do who deal in popish indulgences.
6. "Be nothing in your own eyes: for what is it, alas, that we have to be proud of! Our very conception was sinful; our birth painful; our life toilsome; our death we know not what! But all this is nothing to the state of our soul. If we know this, what excuse have we for pride?
7. "Consult duty; not events. We have nothing to do but to mind our duty. All speculations that tend not to holiness are among your superfluities: but forebodings of what may befall you in doing your duty, may be reckoned among your sins: and to venture upon sin to avoid danger, is to sink the ship for fear of pirates. Oh how quiet, as well as holy would our lies be, had we learned that single lesson, To be careful for nothing, but to do our duty, and leave all consequencess to God! What madness for silly dust to prescribe to infinite Wisdom! To let go our work, and meddle with God's! He hath managed the concerns of the world, and of every individual person in it, without giving cause of complaint to any, for above these five thousand years. And does he now need your counsel? Nay, it is your business to mind your own duty.
8. "What advice you would give another, take yourself the worst of men are apt enough to lay burdens on others, which if they would take on themselves, they would be rare Christians.
9. "Do nothing on which you cannot pray for a blessing. Every action of a Christian that is good, is sanctified by the word and prayer. It becomes not a Christian to do any thing so trivial, that he cannot pray over it. And if he would but bestow a serious ejaculation on every occurrent action, such a prayer would cut off all things sinful, and encourage all things lawful.
10. "Think, and speak, and do what you are persuaded Christ himself would do in your case, were he on earth. It becomes a Christian rather to be an example, than to follow one. But by imitating Christ, you become an example to all, who was, and is, and ever will be, our absolute pattern. Oh Christians, how did Christ pray, and redeem time for prayer! How did Christ preach, out of whose mouth proceeded no other but gracious words! What time did Christ spend in impertinent discourse!. How did Christ go up and down, doing good to men, and what was pleasing to God! Beloved, I commend to you these four memorials: 1. Mind duty: 2. What is the duty of another in your case, is your own: 3. Do not meddle with any thing, if you cannot say, The blessing of the Lord be upon it: 4. Above all, sooner forget your Christian name, than forget to eye Christ! Whatever treatment you meet with from the world, remember him and follow his steps, 'who did no
sin, neither was guile found in his mouth. Who when he was reviled, reviled not again: but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously.'"
SERMON CXI.-On Faith.
"Without faith it is impossible to please him," Heb. xi, 6.
1. BUT what is Faith? It is a divine "evidence and conviction of things not seen:" of things which are not seen now, whether they are visible or invisible in their own nature. Particularly, it is a divine evidence and conviction of God, and of the things of God. This is the most comprehensive definition of faith that ever was or can be given; as including every species of faith, from the lowest to the highest. And yet I do not remember any eminent writer, that has given a full and clear account of the several sorts of it, among all the verbose and tedious treatises which have been published upon the subject.
2. Something indeed of a similar kind has been written by that great and good man, Mr. Fletcher, in his Treatise on the various Dispensations of the Grace of God. Herein he observes, that there are four dispensations that are distinguished from each other, by the degree of light which God vouchsafes to them that are under each. A small degree of light is given to those that are under the heathen dispensation. These generally believed, "that there was a God, and that he was a rewarder of them that diligently seek him." But a far more considerable degree of light was vouchsafed to the Jewish nation; in as much as to them were entrusted" the grand means of light, "the oracles of God." Hence many of these had clear and exalted views of the nature and attributes of God; of their duty to God and man; yea, and of the great promise made to our first parents, and transmitted by them to their posterity, That "the seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's head."
3. But above both the heathen and Jewish dispensation was that of John the Baptist. To him a still clearer light was given; and he was himself 66 a burning and a shining light." To whom it was given, to "behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world." Accordingly our Lord himself affirms, that" of all which had been born of women," there had not till that time arisen a greater than John the Baptist." But nevertheless he informs us, "He that is least in the kingdom of God," the Christian dispensation, "is greater than he." By one that is under the Christian dispensation, Mr. Fletcher means, one that has received the Spirit of adoption; that has the Spirit of God witnessing "with his spirit, that he is a child of God."
In order to explain this still farther, I will endeavour, by the help of God,
First, To point out the several sorts of faith: and, secondly, To draw some practical inferences.
I. In the first place, I will endeavour to point out the several sorts of faith. It would be easy, either to reduce these to a smaller number, or to divide them into a greater. But it does not appear that this would answer any valuable purpose.
1. The lowest sort of faith, if it be any faith at all, is that of a materialist: a man who, like the late lord Kames, believes there is nothing but matter in the universe. I say, if it be any faith at all; for, properly speaking, it is not. It is not an evidence or conviction of God," for they do not believe there is any neither is it "a conviction of things not seen;" for they deny the existence of such. Or if, for decency's sake, they allow there is a God, yet they suppose even him to be material. For one of their maxims is, "Jupiter est quodcunque vides.” "Whatever you see, is God." Whatever you see! A visible, tangible god! Excellent divinity! Exquisite nonsense!
2. The second sort of faith, if you allow a matcrialist to have any, is the faith of a deist. I mean, one who believes there is a God, distinct from matter; but does not believe the Bible. Of these we may observe two sorts: one sort are mere beasts in human shape, wholly under the power of the basest passions, and having" a downright appetite to mix with mud." Other deists are, in most respects, rational creatures, though unhappily prejudiced against Christianity. Most of these believe the being and attributes of God: they believe that God made and governs the world; and that the soul does not die with the body, but will remain for ever in a state of happiness or misery.
3. The next sort of faith is the faith of heathens, with which I join that of Mohammedans. I cannot but prefer this before the faith of the deists; because though it embraces nearly the same objects, yet they are rather to be pitied than blamed for the narrowness of their faith. And their not believing the whole truth, is not owing to want of sincerity, but merely to want of light. When one asked Chicali, an old Indian chief, "Why do not you, red men, know as much as us, white men ?” he readily answered, "Because you have the great Word, and we have not!"
4. It cannot be doubted, but this plea will avail for millions of modern heathens. In as much as to them little is given, of them little will be required. As to the ancient heathens, millions of them likewise were savages. No more therefore will be expected of them, than the living up to the light they had. But many of them, especially in the civilized nations, we have great reason to hope, although they lived among heathens, yet were quite of another spirit; being taught of God, by his inward voice, all the essentials of true religion. Yea, and so was that Mohammedan, an Arabian, who, a century or two ago, wrote the life of Hai Ebn Yokdan. The story seems to be feigned; but. contains all the principles of pure religion and undefiled.
5. But, in general, we may surely place the faith of a Jew above that of a heathen or Mohammedan. By Jewish faith I mean, the faith of those who lived between the giving of the law and the coming of Christ. These, that is, those that were serious and sincere among them, believed all that is written in the Old Testament. In particular, they believed that, in the fulness of time, the Messiah would appear, "to finish the transgression, to make an end of sin, and bring in everlasting righteousness."
6. It is not so easy to pass any judgment concerning the faith of our modern Jews. It is plain, "the veil is still upon their hearts," when Moses and the prophets are read. The god of this world still hardens their hearts, and still blinds their eyes, "lest at any time the light of
the glorious gospel" should break in upon them. So that we may say of this people, as the Holy Ghost said to their forefathers: "The heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they closed, lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their hearts, and should be converted, and I should heal them," Acts xxviii, 27. Yet it is not our part to pass sentence upon them, but to leave them to their own Master.
7. I need not dwell upon the faith of John the Baptist, any more than the dispensation which he was under; because these, as Mr. Fletcher well describes them, were peculiar to himself. Setting him aside, the faith of the Roman Catholics in general, seems to be above that of the ancient Jews. If most of these are volunteers in faith, believing more than God has revealed, it cannot be denied, that they believe all which God has revealed, as necessary to salvation. In this we rejoice on their behalf: we are glad that none of those new articles which they added at the council of Trent, to "the faith once delivered to the saints," does so materially contradict any of the ancient articles, as to render them of no effect.
8. The faith of the Protestants, in general, embraces only those truths as necessary to salvation, which are clearly revealed in the oracles of God. Whatever is plainly declared in the Old and New Testament, is the object of their faith. They believe neither more nor less, than what is manifestly contained in, and provable by the Holy Scriptures. The word of God is "a lantern to their feet, and a light in all their paths." They dare not, on any pretence, go from it, to the right hand or to the left. The written word is the whole and sole rule of their faith, as well as practice. They believe whatsoever God has declared, and profess to do whatsoever he hath commanded. This is the proper faith of Protestants: by this they will abide and no other.
9. Hitherto faith has been considered chiefly as an evidence and conviction of such or such truths. And this is the sense wherein it is taken at this day in every part of the Christian world. But in the mean time let it be carefully observed, (for eternity depends upon it,) that neither the faith of a Roman Catholic, nor that of a Protestant, if it contains no more than this, no more than the embracing such and such truths, will avail any more before God, than the faith of a Mohammedan or a heathen; yea, of a deist or materialist. For can this "faith save him?" Can it save any man either from sin or from hell? No more than it could save Judas Iscariot: no more than it could save the devil and his angels; all of whom are convinced, that every tittle of holy Scripture is true.
10. But what is the faith which is properly saving; which brings eter nal salvation to all those that keep it to the end? It is such a divine conviction of God, and the things of God, as, eveu in its infant state, enables every one that possesses it to "fear God and work righteousness." And whosoever in every nation believes thus far, the apostle declares, is accepted of him." He actually is, at that very moment, in a state of acceptance. But he is at present only a servant of God, not properly Meantime let it be well observed, that "the wrath of God" no longer "abideth on him."
11. Indeed nearly fifty years ago, when the preachers, commonly called Methodists, began to preach that grand scriptural doctrine, sal
vation by faith, they were not sufficiently apprized of the difference between a servant and a child of God. They did not clearly understand, that even one "who feareth God, and worketh righteousness, is accepted of him." In consequence of this, they were apt to make sad the hearts of those whom God had not made sad. For they fre"Do quently asked those who feared God, you know that your sins are forgiven?" And upon their answering, "No," immediately replied, "Then you are a child of the devil." No; that does not follow. It might have been said, (and it is all that can be said with propriety,) "Hitherto you are only a servant, you are not a child of God. You have already great reason to praise God that he has called you to his honourable service. Fear not. Continue crying unto him, and you shall see greater things than these.'
12. And indeed, unless the servants of God halt by the way, they will receive the adoption of sons. They will receive the faith of the children of God, by his revealing his only begotten Son in their hearts. Thus, the faith of a child is, properly and directly, a divine conviction, whereby every child of God is enabled to testify, "The life that I now live, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me." And whosoever hath this, "the Spirit of God witnesseth with his spirit, that he is a child of God." So the apostle writes to the Galatians: "Ye are the sons of God by faith. And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father :" that is, giving you a childlike confidence in him, together with a kind affection towards him. This then it is, that (if St. Paul was taught of God, and wrote as he was moved by the Holy Ghost) properly constitutes the difference between a servant of God, and a child of God. "He that believeth" as a child of God, “hath the witness in himself." This the servant hath not. Yet let not man discourage him: rather, lovingly exhort him to expect it every moment!
13. It is easy to observe, that all the sorts of faith which we can conceive, are reducible to one or other of the preceding. But let us covet the best gifts, and follow the most excellent way. There is no reason why you should be satisfied with the faith of a materialist, a heathen, or a deist; nor indeed with that of a servant. I do not know that God requires it at your hands. Indeed, if you have received this, you ought not to cast it away you ought not in any wise to undervalue it, but to be truly thankful for it. Yet in the mean time, beware how you rest here: press on till you receive the Spirit of adoption. Rest not, till that Spirit clearly witnesses with your spirit, that you are a child of God. II. I proceed, in the second place, to draw a few inferences from the preceding observations.
1. And I would first infer, in how dreadful a state, if there be a God, is a materialist! One who denies not only the "Lord that bought him," but also the Lord that made him. "Without faith it is impossible to please God." But it is impossible he should have any faith at all;any conviction of any invisible world; for he believes there is no such thing; any conviction of the being of a God; for a material God is no God at all. For you cannot possibly suppose the sun or skies to be God, any more than you can suppose a god of wood or stone. And farther, whosoever believes all things to be mere matter, must of course believe, that all things are governed by dire necessity! Necessity that