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thou art there if I go down to hell, thou art there also," verses 7, 8. If I could ascend, speaking after the manner of men, to the highest part of the universe, or could I descend to the lowest point, thou art alike present both in one and the other. "If I should take the wings of the morning, and remain in the uttermost parts of the sea: even there thy hand would lead me;" thy power and thy presence would be before me, "and thy right hand would hold me;" seeing thou art equally in the length and breadth, and in the height and depth of the universe. Indeed, thy presence and knowledge not only reach the utmost bounds of creation; but
"Thine omnipresent sight,
Even to the pathless realms extends
In a word, there is no point of space, whether within or without the bounds of creation, where God is not.
2. Indeed, this subject is far too vast to be comprehended by the narrow limits of human understanding. We can only say, the great God, the eternal, the almighty Spirit, is as unbounded in his presence, as in his duration and power. In condescension, indeed, to our weak understanding, he is said to dwell in heaven: but, strictly speaking, the heaven of heavens cannot contain him; but he is in every part of his dominion. The universal God dwelleth in universal space so that we may say,
"Hail, Father! whose creating call,
Jehovah, comprehending all,
Whom none can comprehend!"
3. If we may dare attempt the illustrating this a little farther: what is the space occupied by a grain of sand, compared to that space which is occupied by the starry heavens? It is as a cipher; it is nothing; it vanishes away in the comparison. What is it then to the whole expanse of space, to which the whole creation is infinitely less than a grain of sand! And yet this space, to which the whole creation bears no proportion at all, is infinitely less in comparison of the great God, than a grain of sand, yea, a millionth part of it, is to that whole space.
II. 1. This seems to be the plain meaning of those solemn words, which God speaks of himself: "Do not I fill heaven and earth?" And these sufficiently prove his omnipresence: which may be farther proved from this consideration: God acts every where; and, therefore, is every where: for it is an utter impossibility that any being, created or uncreated should work where it is not. God acts in heaven, in earth, and under the earth, throughout the whole compass of his creation; by sustaining all things, without which every thing would in an instant sink into its primitive nothing; by governing all, every moment superintending every thing that he has made; strongly and sweetly influencing all, and yet without destroying the liberty of his rational creatures. heathens acknowledged, that the great God governs the large and conspicuous parts of the universe; that he regulates the motions of the heavenly bodies, of the sun, moon, and stars; that he is
Mens agitans molem, et magno se corpore miscens:
But they had no conception of his having a regard to the least things as well as the greatest; of his presiding over all that he has made, and governing atoms as well as worlds. This we could not have known, unless it had pleased God to reveal it unto us himself. Had he not himself told us so, we should not have dared to think that "not a sparrow falleth to the ground, without the will of our Father which is in heaven;" and much less affirm, that even the very hairs of our head are all numbered!"
2. This comfortable truth, that "God filleth heaven and earth," we learn also from the psalmist above recited: "If I climb up into heaven, thou art there; if I go down to hell, thou art there also. If I take the wings of the morning, and remain in the uttermost parts of the sea; even there thy hand shall lead me." The plain meaning is, if I remove to any distance whatever, thou art there; thou still besettest me, and layest thine hand upon me. Let me flee to any conceivable or inconceivable distance; above, beneath, or on any side; it makes no difference; thou art still equally there: in thee I still "live, and move, and have my being."
3. And where no creature is, still God is there. The presence or absence of any or all creatures, makes no difference with regard to him. He is equally in all, or without all. Many have been the disputes among philosophers, whether there be any such thing as empty space in the universe; and it is now generally supposed, that all space is full. Perhaps it cannot be proved, that all space is filled with matter. But the heathen himself will bear us witness, Jovis omnia plena: “All things are full of God." Yea, and whatever space exists beyond the bounds of creation, (for creation must have bounds, seeing nothing is boundless, nothing can be, but the great Creator,) even that space cannot exclude him who fills the heaven and the earth.
4. Just equivalent to this is the expression of the apostle, Eph. ii, 23, (not as some have strangely supposed, concerning the church, but concerning the head of it :) "The fulness of him that filleth all in all;" Ta Taνta Ev Tαci: literally translated, all things in all things: the strongest expression of universality which can possibly be conceived. It necessarily includes the least and the greatest of all things that exist. So that if any expression could be stronger, it would be stronger than even that, the "filling heaven and earth."
5. Indeed, this very expression, "Do not I fill heaven and earth?" (the question being equal to the strongest affirmation,) implies the clearest assertion of God's being present every where, and filling all space for it is well known, the Hebrew phrase, "heaven and earth," includes the whole universe; the whole extent of space, created or uncreated, and all that is therein.
6. Nay, and we cannot believe the omnipotence of God, unless we believe his omnipresence, for seeing as was observed before, nothing can act where it is not; if there were any space where God was not present, he would not be able to do any thing there. Therefore, to deny the omnipresence of God, implies, likewise, the denial of his omnipotence. To set bounds to the one is, undoubtedly, to set bounds to the other also.
7. Indeed, wherever we suppose him not to be, there we suppose all his attributes to be in vain. He cannot exercise there, either his jus
tice, or mercy; either his power, or wisdom. In that extra mundane space, (so to speak,) where we suppose God not to be present, we must, of course, suppose him to have no duration; but, as it is supposed to be beyond the bounds of the creation, so it is beyond the bounds of the Creator's power. Such is the blasphemous absurdity, which is implied in this supposition!
8. But to all that is or can be said of the omnipresence of God, the world has one grand objection: they cannot see him. And this is really at the root of all their other objections. This our blessed Lord observed long ago: "Whom the world cannot receive, because they see him not.' But is it not easy to reply, "Can you see the wind ?" You cannot. But do you, therefore, deny its existence, or its presence? You say, No: for I can perceive it by my other senses. "But by which of your senses do you perceive your soul?" Surely you do not deny either the existence or the presence of this! And yet it is not the object of your sight, or of any of your other senses. Suffice it then to consider, That God is a spirit, as is your soul also. Consequently, "him no man hath seen, or can see," with eyes of flesh and blood.
III. 1. But allowing that God is here, as in every place, that he is "about our bed, and about our path," that he "besets us behind and before, and lays his hand upon us ;" what inference should we draw from hence? What use should we make of this awful consideration? Is it not meet and right to humble ourselves before the eyes of his majesty? Should we not labour continually to acknowledge his presence, "with reverence and godly fear?" Not, indeed, with the fear of devils, that believe and tremble: but with the fear of angels; with something similar to that which is felt by the inhabitants of heaven, when
"Dark with excessive bright his skirts appear,
Yet dazzle heaven, that brightest seraphim
Approach not, but with both wings veil their eyes."
2. Secondly, If you believe that God is about your bed, and about your path, and spieth out all your ways, then take care not to do the least thing, not to speak the least word, not to indulge the least thought, which you have reason to think would offend him. Suppose that a messenger of God, an angel, to be now standing at your right hand, and fixing his eyes upon you; would you not take care to abstain from every word or action that you knew would offend him? Yea, suppose one of your mortal fellow servants, suppose only a holy man, stood by you, would not you be extremely cautious how you conducted yourself, both in word and action? How much more cautious ought you to be, when you know, that not a holy man, not an angel of God, but God himself, the Holy One" that inhabiteth eternity," is inspecting your heart, your tongue, your hand, every moment; and that he himself will surely bring you into judgment, for all you think, and speak, and act, under the sun!
3. In particular: if there is not a word in your tongue, not a syllable you speak, but he "knoweth it altogether;" how exact should you be in "setting a watch before your mouth, and in keeping the door of your lips!" How wary does it behove you to be in all your conversation; being forewarned by your Judge, that, "by your words you shall be justified, or by your words you shall be condemned!" How cautious,
lest" any corrupt communication," any uncharitable, yea, or unprofitable discourse, should "proceed out of your mouth;" instead of," that which is good to the use of edifying, and meet to minister grace to the hearers !"
4. Yea, if God sees our hearts, as well as our hands, and in all places; if he understandeth our thoughts, long before they are clothed with words; how earnestly should we urge that petition, "Search me, oh Lord, and prove me; try out my reins and my heart; look well if there be any way of wickedness in me, and lead me in the way everlasting!" How needful is it to work together with him, in "keeping our hearts with all diligence," till he hath "cast down imaginations," evil reasonings," and every thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and brought into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ!"
5. On the other hand, if you are already listed under the great Captain of your salvation, seeing you are continually under the eye of your Captain, how zealous and active should you be, to "fight the good fight of faith, and lay hold on eternal life;" "to endure hardship, as good soldiers of Jesus Christ;" to use all diligence, to "war a good warfare," and to do whatever is acceptable in his sight! How studious should you be to approve all your ways to his all seeing eyes; that he may say to your hearts, what he will proclaim aloud in the great assembly of men and angels, "Well done, good and faithful servants!"
6. In order to attain these glorious ends, spare no pains to preserve always a deep, a continual, a lively and a joyful sense of his gracious presence. Never forget his comprehensive word to the great Father of the faithful: "I am the Almighty [rather, the All Sufficient] God; walk before me, and be thou perfect!" Cheerfully expect that he, before whom you stand, will ever guide you with his eye, will support you by his guardian hand, will keep you from all evil; and, "when you have suffered a while, will make you perfect, will stablish, strengthen, and settle you ;" and then " preserve you unblamable, unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ!"
Portsmouth, August 12, 1788.
SERMON CXVII.-The Rich Man and Lazarus.
"If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead," Luke xvi, 31.
1. How strange a paradox is this! How contrary to the common apprehension of men! Who is so confirmed in unbelief, as not to think, "If one came to me from the dead, I should be effectually persuaded to repent?" But this passage affords us a more strange saying, ver. 13: "Ye cannot serve God and mammon." "No! Why not? Why cannot we serve both ?" will a true servant of mammon say. Accordingly, the Pharisees, who supposed they served God, and did cordially serve mammon, derided him, eğeτngov: a word expressive of the deepest contempt. But he said, verse 15, "Ye are they who justify yourselves before men; but God knoweth your hearts: and that which is highly esteemed among men, is [very commonly] an abomination before God:"
a terrible proof of which our Lord subjoins in the remaining part of the chapter.
2. But is the subsequent account merely a parable, or a real history? It has been believed by many, and roundly asserted, to be a mere parable; because of one or two circumstances therein, which are not easy to be accounted for. In particular, it is hard to conceive, how a person in hell could hold conversation with one in paradise. But, admitting we cannot account for this, will it overbalance an express assertion of our Lord: "There was," says our Lord, "a certain rich man.”Was there not? Did such a man never exist? "And there was a certain beggar, named Lazarus."-Was there, or was there not? Is it not bold enough, positively to deny what our blessed Lord positively affirms ? Therefore, we cannot reasonably doubt, but the whole narration, with all its circumstances, is exactly true. And Theophylact (one of the ancient commentators on the Scriptures) observes upon the text: "That, according to the tradition of the Jews, Lazarus lived at Jerusalem."
I purpose, with God's assistance, first, To explain this history: secondly, To apply it: and, thirdly, To prove the truth of that weighty sentence with which it is concluded; namely, "If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.”
I. 1. And, first, I will endeavour, with God's assistance, to explain this history. "There was a certain rich man :" and, doubtless, on that very account, highly esteemed among men.-"Who was clothed in purple and fine linen :" and, consequently, esteemed the more highly, both as appearing suitably to his fortune, and as an encourager of trade. "And fared sumptuously every day." Here was another reason for his being "highly esteemed,"-his hospitality and generosity, both by those who frequently sat at his table, and the tradesmen that furnished it.
2. "And there was a certain beggar;" one in the lowest line of human infamy; "named Lazarus," according to the Greek termination; in Hebrew, Eleazar. From his name we may gather, that he was of no mean family, although this branch of it was, at present, so reduced. It is probable, he was well known in the city and it was no scandal to him to be named." Who was laid at his gate;" although no pleasing spectacle; so that one might wonder he was suffered to lie there;" full of sores;" of running ulcers ;-" and desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table." So the complicated affliction of poverty, pain, and want of bread, lay upon him at once! But it does not appear that any creature took the least notice of the despicable wretch! Only "the dogs came and licked his sores:" All the comfort which this world afforded him!
3. But see the change! "The beggar died." here ended poverty and pain :—“ and was carried by angels;" nobler servants than any that attended the rich man ;-" into Abraham's bosom :" so the Jews commonly termed what our blessed Lord styles paradise; the place "where the wicked cease from troubling, and where the weary are at rest;" the receptacle of holy souls, from death to the resurrection. It is, indeed, very generally supposed, that the souls of good men, as soon as they are discharged from the body, go directly to heaven; but this opinion has not the least foundation in the oracles of God: on the contrary, our Lord says to Mary, after the resurrection, "Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father," in heaven. But he had been