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we are actuated by him, our obedience to God according to the Gospel consists: Walk in the Spirit.' Gal. v. 16. To walk in the Spirit, is to walk in obedience to God, according to the supplies of grace which the Spirit administers to us; for so, it is added, we shall not fulfil the lusts of the flesh.' So we are said to be 'led by the Spirit,' (verse 18.) being actuated by him, and not by the vitious principles of our corrupt nature: Walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.' Rom. viii. 4. To. walk after the flesh, is to have the principles of indwel ling sin, actuating us to the production of actual sins. Wherefore, to walk after the Spirit is, to have the Spirit acting in us, to the effecting of all gracious acts; and we are commanded not to neglect his motions in us, bu comply with them in a way of diligence and duty set verse 14, 15. So we are enjoined to attend to particular duties through the Holy Ghost that dwelleth in us,' ( Tim. i. 14.) that is, through his assistance.
(2.) He is declared to be the author of all gracious act ings in us: The fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, meekness, temper ance. All these are wrought and produced in us by the Spirit, for they are his fruits; and not only the habit of them, but all their actings, in all their exercise, are from him. So in another place he adds an universal affirma tive, comprehending all instances of particular graces Ephes. v. 9. The fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth.'
(3.) Particular graces are assigned to his influences: We, through the Spirit, wait for the hope of righteous ness by faith.' The hope of the righteousness of faith is the thing hoped for thereby. All that we expect in this world or hereafter, is by the righteousness of faith. This we do not of ourselves, but through the Spirit We worship God in the Spirit. We love the brethren in the Spirit.' We purify our souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit, unto unfeigned love of the brethren.'
Thirdly. There are direct testimonies to the position as before laid down: It is God who worketh in you both to will and to do of his good pleasure.' Phil, ii. 13. The things thus wrought pertain to our obedience and salvation: Work out your salvation with fear and
trembling. Two things are necessary for such operations; and the actual exerce of the The whole work of grace consists in the after our wills, and external operations in surate outes therefore is incumbent on us, to rmt co grace we have received in and :: is pooper but it is so our duty, as that of ourses form it. It is God who worketh effect gracious acts of our wills, and all jer way of duty. Every act of our wils su is the act of the Spirit of God efficient us to will, or the very act of wing'I laboured abundantly; yet me God which was with me.' 1 Cor. x.
to declare his great labour is preaching the lest any one should think he astritet sme self, he immediately adds rEL THE be mistaken; it was not L. by my per it was all wrought in me by the free grace o God. "Not I, but grace," is the auste
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Mortification of Sin, and the Future and Lan
HE duties of holiness, we have viser, a kinds. (1.) Such as have the will use a prst commands for their object: and, 2. Sa
the vine prohibitions. The first, which we have ma on, concerns the improvement and practice if the pr ciple of grace; the second, which we now propose spects the weakening, impairing, and destroying the Sus trary principle of sin; and as the Spirit is every said to sanctify us, we ourselves are constay co ed to mortify our sins; for sanctification expresses p given and received in general; mortification pract proved to a certain end; and there are two things to be considered, (1.) The nature of the duty het; 2) Th
manner in which it is wrought in us by the Holy Ghost; which last, I principally intend.
It is well known, that this duty is frequently prescribed to us. Mortify therefore your members that are on the earth, fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry.' Col. iii. 5. By our members, we are to understand, not the parts or members of our natural bodies, as though they were to be destroyed, but our carnal affections; some of the fruits of which are mentioned, as fornication, &c. And these are on the earth; that is, they are earthly and sensual. They are called our members, because the whole principle of sin, and course of sin proceeding from it, are called 'the body of sin;' with respect to which, particular lusts are termed 'members.' These affections and lusts are used as naturally and readily by the old man, or depraved nature, as the body uses its members and, which adds efficacy to the allusion, by them it draws the very members of the body into a compliance with it, and service of it; against which we are cautioned by the apostle, 'Let not sin reign in your mortal bodies, that ye should obey it in the lusts thereof (Rom. vi. 12.); which exhortation he pursues (ver. 19.) As ye have yielded your members servants unto uncleanness and to iniquity, even so now yield your members servants to righteousness.'
And concerning this great duty, we may consider three things: 1. The name of it; 2. The nature of it; 3. The ways and means whereby it is effected.
1. The name of it, which is to mortify. Two words in the original are used for this purpose. The first, (vexparare, Col. iii. 5.) which signifies to mortify, destroy, or extinguish all that vigour of corrupt nature which inclines to earthly carnal things. It signifies a continued act in taking away the power of any thing, till it comes to be dead, to some certain ends and purposes. There is another word to the same purpose, (Javarre, Rom. viii. 13.) Which also signifies, to put to death.
The same duty, with relation to the death of Christ, as its efficient and exemplary cause, is expressed by crucifying Our old man is crucified with him.' Rom. vi. 6. I am crucified with Christ.' Gal. ii. 20,- By Jesus the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the
world.' vi. 14. This expression may intimate, that sin is mortified gradually, as a man dies on the cross; but it chiefly intends the relation of this duty to the death of Christ; whence we and our sins are said to be crucified with him, because we and they are so by virtue of his death and herein we always bear about in the body the dying of our Lord Jesus Christ;-representing the manner, and expressing the efficacy of it.
Secondly, We shall consider the nature of this duty : and we may observe, 1. Mortification of sin is a duty always incumbent on us. No man under Heaven can say, at any time, that he is exempted from it: and he who ceases from this duty, lets go all endeavours after holiness. As for those who pretend to absolute perfection, they are of all persons living the most impudent; nor do they ever open their mouths in this matter without giving themselves the lie. For,
2. This duty being always incumbent on us, argues undeniably the continuance of that principle of sin which is to be mortified. This the Scripture calls the sin that dwelleth in us;' the evil that is present with us ;' law of the members ;' and to this are ascribed the properties and actings of folly, deceit, rebelling, warring, and captivating.
3. Indwelling sin, which is the object of this duty of mortification, includes, (1.) The root or principle of sin, which by nature possesses all our faculties, and inclines, us to all evil: this is called the Old Man, in opposition to the New Man, which, after God, is created in righteousness and true holiness. (2.) There is the inclination, actual disposition, and operation of this principle, which is called the body of sin ;'--the affections and lusts of the flesh;' &c. (3.) There are the effects and fruits of these things, which are actual sins, whereby we serve sin:' and these are either internal, in the imaginations of the heart; or external, in actual sins; such as are enumerated by our apostle, Gal. v. 49, &c. All these together, make up the complete object of this duty of mortification. 4. This principle, its operations, and effects, are directly opposed to the principle, operations, and fruits of holiness. (1.) They are opposed in their principle; for the flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit against the and these are contrary the one to the other. These
adverse principles maintain that conflict in the souls of believers, which is so well delineated in the seventh chapter of Romans. (2.) They are opposed in their actings. The lusting or desires of the flesh, and the desires of the spirit; walking after the flesh, and walking after the spirit; living after the flesh, and living after the spirit, are all opposed to each other. By walking after the flesh,' I understand, not merely the commission of actual sins, but a compliance with the principle of sin; allowing it a supremacy in the heart. To' walk after the Spirit,' consists in our being given up to the rule and conduct, or walking according to the dispositions and inclinations of the spirit; the principle of grace implanted in us by him. And (3.) They are opposed in their external fruits and effects. For as actual sins, adultery, fornication, and the like, are mentioned by the apostle among the works of the flesh, Gal. v. 19-24, so among the fruits of the spirit, he insists on habitual graces, as love, joy, and peace.
5. There being this universal contention between grace and sin, mortification consist in a constant taking part with grace; for the residence of these contrary principles being in, and their actings being by the same faculties of the soul, as the one is strengthened and improved, the other must of necessity be weakened and decay. The mortification of sin, therefore, must consist in these three things: (1.) In cherishing the principle of grace by all the means which God has appointed; without which all the attempts of men to subdue their sins will be labour in vain. (2.) In frequent actings of the principle of grace, in all the duties of holy obedience; for where the inclinations of the soul are kept in constant and vigorous exercise, the contrary motions of the flesh are defeated. (3.) In a due application of the principle and actings of grace, by way of opposition to the principle and actings of sin. As the whole of grace is opposed to the whole of sin, so there is no particular lust; but there is a particular grace ready to make effectual opposition to it. In this consists the mystery of mortification; through ignorance of which many foolish ways have been invented, opposing external force to an inward depraved principle.
6. This great duty is called Mortification, or Putting to Death. (1.) Because sin, having a powerful and constant inclination, and working actually towards all evil, is said