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with the principles of both, will prepare and qualify the students, for prosecuting thosc additional improvements in language, to which they may be properly directed.
On the utility and importance of the study of Grammar, and the principles of Composition, much might be advanced, for the encouragement of persons in carly life to apply themselves to this branch of learning; but as the limits of this Introduction will not allow of many observations on the subject, a few leading sentiments are all that can be admitted here with propriety. As words are the signs of our ideas, and the medium by which we perceive the sentiments of others, and comy municate our own; and as signs exhibit the things which they are intended to represent, more or less accurately, according as their real or established conformity to those things is more or less exact; it is evi. dent, that in proportion to our knowledge of the nature and properties of words, of their relation to each other, and of their established connexion · with the ideas to which they are applied, will be the certainty and case, with which we transfuse our sentiments into the minds of one another; and that, without a competent knowledge of this kind we shall frequently be in hazard of misunderstanding others, and of being misunderstood ourselves. It
indeed be justly asserted, that many of the differences in opiņion amongst men, with the disputes, contentions, and alienations of heart, which have too often proceeded from such différences, have been occasioned by a want of proper skill in the connexion and meaning of words, and by a tenacious misapplication of language.
One of the best supports, which the recommendation of this study can receive, in small compass, may be derived from the following sentiments of an eminent and candid writer* on language and composition. "All that “ regards the study of composition, merits the higher
4 attention upon this account, that it is intimately con. “ nected with the improvement of our intellectual powers, " For I must be allowed to say, that when we are employ« ed after a proper manner, in the study of composition, “ we are cultivating the understanding itself. The study « of arranging and expressing our thoughts with proprie"ty, teaches to think, as well as to speak accurately.”
Before the close of this Introduction, it may not be superfluous to observe, that the author of the following work has no interest in it, but that which arises from the hope, that it will prove of some advantage to young persons, and relieve the labours of those who are employed in their education. sie wishes to promote, in some degree, the cause of virtue, as well as of learning ; and with this view, he has been studious, through the whole of the work, not only to avoid every example and illustration, which might have an improper effect on the minds of youth ; but also to introduce, on many occasions, such as have a moral and religious tendency. His attention to objects of so much importance will, he trusts, meet the approbation of every well-disposed reader. If they were faithfully regarded in all books of education, they would doubtless contribute yery materially to the order arrd happiness of society, by guarding the innocence, and cherishing the virtue of the rising generation.
Holdgate, near York-1795.
TO THE NINTH EDITION.
The eighth edition of this grammar received considerable alterations and additions : but works of this nature admit of repeated improvements; and are, perhaps, never complete. The author, solicitous to render his book more worthy of the encouraging approbation bestowed on it by the public, has again revised the work with care
and attention. The new edition he hopes will be found much improved. The additions, which are very considerable, are, chiefly, such as are calculated to expand the learner's views of the subject ; to obviate objections ; and to render the study of grammar both easy and interesting. This edition contains also a new and enlarged system of parsing ; copious lists of nouns arranged ac, cording to their gender and number ; and many notes and observations, which serve to extend, or to explain, par. ticular rules and positions.*
The writer is sensible that, after all his endeavours to elucidate the principles of the work, there are few of the divisions, arrangements, definitions, or rules, against which critical ingenuity cannot devise plausible objections. The subject is attended with so much intricacy, and admits of views so various, that it was not possible to render every part of it unexçeptionable ; or to accommodate the work, in all respects, to the opinions and prepossessions of every grammarian and teacher. If the author has adopted that system which on the whole, is best suited to the nature of the subject, and conformable to the sentiments of the most judicious grammarians ; if his reasonings and illustrations, respecting particular points, are founded on just principles, and the peculiarities of the English language ; he has, perhaps, done all that could reasonably be expected in a work of this nature ; and he may warrantably indulge a hope, that the book will be still more extensively approved and circulated.
* The author conceives that the occasional strictures, dispersed through the book, and intended to illustrate and support a number of important grammatical points, will not, to young persons of ingenuity, appear to be dry and useless discussions. He is persuaded that, by such persons, they will be read with attention.
And he presumes that these strictures will gratify their curiosity, stimulate application, and give solidity and permanence to their grammatical knowledge.
Holdgate, near York, 1804.