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evident in the historical, as in the ritual types. All the persons engaged in the former are mere mortals; but they represent the most exalted personages, and allude to the most perfect state of things. If we confine our present attention to the single one of the church or people of God, these taken collectively are an image or representation of the company of true believers, kept by their almighty Father and Friend, and enjoying the privileges of the assembly of the first-born; but in this life how imperfectly do they sustain this character! How humble is the portrait which they present of the flock of the Redeemer when collected into that one fold, and feeding under the care of that Shepherd who gave his life for the sheep of his pasture! How obscurely all the present graces and glories of her members shine, compared with the splendour with which they will hereafter appear! How far do the types presented in the sacraments fall below the antitypes which they represent, and to which they bear witness! What are the grapes of Eshcol, and the fruits of the promised land, to those of the paradise of God? What was the view of Canaan, as seen by Moses from the top of Pisgah, to the delights of that rest which remains for the people of God, and into which he was about to enter?
The typical, then, is a figurative mode of instruction, intended to convey by emblems or symbols, a knowledge of God and his will; his designs and purposes towards mankind; and this not in an exact model or representation of the things to come, but in shadows of them, numerously and variously presented, so as to impress the mind, and instruct the understanding; to excite attention, and a spirit of enquiry after those subjects which belong to our salvation. By means of this sort, the Holy Spirit, without whose influence no instruction can be effectual, enlightened and sanctified the hearts and desires of the worshippers of God, and taught them to know his perfections, the necessities of their state, and the means of obtaining future happiness.
But no period can exist to which such a mode of instruction is not suitable: we accordingly find it employed in every age of the church, but particularly in the early ones, when the means now most generally and extensively used were quite inapplicable.
Of the Types in Paradise.
ADAM, whilst in his state of spotless innocence, had need of daily instruction, as well as of such communications of strength, as might be necessary to enable him to run his godly course with success: the former was requisite to the worship of his Almighty Benefactor, whose service is founded on the knowledge of him, his perfections, and his will: the latter, that he might live in the practice of those duties, and the enjoyment of those privileges, which had been enjoined or conferred upon him.
The state of innocence in which he was placed could not of itself suffice to effect this; because holiness does not cause or create knowledge the latter must be communicated either intuitively, or by such means as are calculated, and are usually employed, to convey instruction to those, who, without such assistance, would remain in a certain degree of ignorance.
It cannot be doubted but God gave to our first parent, immediately on his creation, such knowledge as his situation required; but the progressive increase of this was to be promoted by means suited to the occasion, and for which his Creator made ample provision.
From the commencement of his existence, Adam was placed in a state of trial and probation; but such a state involves hope and apprehension: an expectation that something may be gained; a foreboding that it may be lost. It requires information of the reward that may be conferred in the one case, and the penalty to be suffered in the other. It demands a knowledge of the attributes and perfections of the Almighty, at least as far as the creature's happiness is concerned; and whilst it entirely consists with the revelation which God has made of himself, his wisdom, and goodness, that he should provide his servants with all the necessary means of improvement, and which, if faithfully applied, would cherish their holy affections, and strengthen them to fulfil more perfectly the duties to which they are called, it is quite inconsistent with every idea he has given us of himself and his government, to suppose that he should leave this, the last and best work of his creation, unsupplied with spiritual instruction, whilst he had so amply pro
vided for the temporal wants, not only of mankind, but all inferior creatures.
Grace, as spoken of under the second covenant, signifies either the pardon of our sins through the sacrifice and obedience of a surety, or such supply of active principles as may enable the heirs of salvation to live in obedience to the divine will, and in the enjoyment of those privileges which belong to this covenant. Grace, in this last acceptation, was necessary to man in his state of innocence; and, consequently, the means by which it might be strengthened and increased, as will appear from the following considerations.
The creation was the work of the Almighty; but to support and maintain it, required the exercise of the same power, nor could it proceed without it. Should this be suspended for one single moment, it is evident that the whole frame of nature must stand still. The highest, as well as the lower orders of created beings, are dependent on the divine care, protection, and support. The soul of man, as a spirit, requires spiritual nutriment; and as the supplies which God administers to his servants are scarcely, perhaps never, permanently provided without the use of such means as he has placed within our reach, we might have been assured, from that circumstance alone, if more explicit