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interest we have felt in the tale, or from the enervating power of the work over the mind, we are now altogether indisposed to say much on the subject. Here indeed is the evil. These writings are like opiates: every one knows that laudanum is not good taken in large and frequent doses, but when it is taken it produces such feelings of composure, that the patient is unwilling to say any thing against it, and it is well if he does not fall into the habit of taking it too frequently. Now we would recommend it to our friends never to touch a volume that is calculated to lull the energies of the soul into a state of slumber, from which it can only be roused by extraordinary excitements. As for ourselves, we formed this resolution several years ago, but as servants of all work" to the public, we are obliged sometimes to sacrifice our best resolutions with a view to the promotion of their good.

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As to the work before us, it is written in a neat and correct style, printed on good paper, and embellished with a beautiful frontispiece; and justice requires us to say that the object of the writer appears to have been commendable; his representations of the way of salvation are correct, and the temptations to "Procrastination," in matters of eternal importance, with its awful and impending dangers are faithfully pourtrayed. But while we say this, we must also add, that it has about it too much of the Novel character; some of its circumstances are improbable, and the intelligent reader cannot but wish that the talents of the writer had been employed on a work more solid, and calculated to be more lastingly useful.

less certain that a knowledge of it will be found to throw great light upon many parts of the sacred writings which to us, in this remote age, at first sight appear obscure. In perusing the Old Testament, in particular, it is not easy, as Dr. Harris remarks, to determine with any degree of certainty and precision, many of the objects of natural history which are there treated of; and our ignorance of the various beasts, birds, and plants, which are expressly mentioned or incidentally referred to by the inspired writers, prevents us from discovering the propriety of many allusions to their nature and habits, and conceals from us the beauty of many similies, which are founded on their characteristic qualities.

The celebrated Linnæus, about the middle of the last century, in one of his botanical lectures, remarked, that “ we were less acquainted with the natural history of Palestine, than with the remotest parts of India; and though the natural history of this remarkable country was the most necessary for divines and writers on the scriptures, who had used their greatest endeavours to know the animals therein mentioned, yet they could not, with any degree of certainty, determine which they were, before some one had been there, and informed himself of the natural history of the place." Hasselquist was the first to supply this important desideratum, but after spending two years in Egypt and the Holy Land, in prosecuting his scientific pursuits, he died in the midst of his useful labours. His papers, however, were published by Linnæus in 1757, and they contain many articles which throw much light on the Natural History of the Bible.

Much, however, has been effected of late years, by the writings of intelligent travellers, such as Dr. Shaw, M. Nieburh, Russell, Bruce, and others, towards making us better acquainted with this subject: and Dr. Harris has compressed into the volume before us, much of the information that is to be found scattered through a number of elaborate and expensive works composed in various languages. It is a work of great merit, displaying extensive learning and profound research, replete with information, and well meriting a place in the library of every one who would become acquainted with the meaning, and especially with the beautiful and stri

The Natural History of the Bible; or a
description of all the Quadrupeds, Birds,
Fishes, Reptiles and Insects, Trees,
Plants, Flowers, Gums, and Precious
Stones, mentioned in the Sacred Scrip-
tures. Collected from the best autho-
rities, and alphabetically arranged, by
THADDEUS MASON HARRIS, D. D.
of Dorchester, Massachusetts. Lon-
don, Thomas Tegg, Cheapside, pp. 462
8vo. pr, 10s. 6d, bds. 1824.
The Natural History of the Bible is
unquestionably an interesting subject,
and of no inconsiderable importance.
For, though we may be in a great de-
gree unacquainted with it, and yet know
the way of salvation to our own present

peace and future hope; it is neverthe-king imagery of the inspired writings.

Religious and Literary Entelligence.

EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM ASTRACHAN.

MR. EDITOR,

In my last, I promised you some account of the German Colonists who lately settled in Georgia. The following is all that I have been able to learn concerning them.

The German settlers in Georgia consist principally of emigrants from Wartenberg, but there are likewise among them several families from Baden, and the country of the upper Rhine. They left Germany in the years 1816 and 1817, and came by the way of the Donau, and the Black sea, to Odessa, where they were joined by many Germans, who had been for many years settled in the neighbourhood of that town, but who now left their houses and lands, and went with the new colonists to Georgia, for the sake of enjoying their society, and with a view to the spiritual advantage of themselves and their children.

The principal cause of their emigration was the prevalence of infidelity among the pastors, introduced by the modern systems of philosophy into the universities, schools, consistories, churches, and the books of religious instruction. On this account, many had, long before their emigration, separated from their churches, and held meetings for edification in private houses, where they, together with their children, were instructed according to their old system. But they suffered much persecution from the clergy; and fearing that in time to come, their children might be contaminated by the prevalence of infidelity, they were anxious to remove to a land, where they could have liberty to worship God according to their conscience, and educate their children in evangelical principles. This liberty they were convinced they would enjoy in Russia, and it does not appear that they have been disappointed.

But this was not the only cause of their emigration. They were much influenced to this step, by the conviction that the second coming of Christ and the millenium were near at hand. They had the idea that these would first be manifested in the neighbourhood of the Holy Land, and therefore they wished to be near these countries, at the time when the first indications of the commencement of the latter day glory should be given, in order that they might be partakers of the blessings attendant on the second coming of our Lord. The origin of these ideas among them, was owing to the circumstance that in Wartenberg, Bengel's Sermons on the Revelation, and several other works referring to the same subject, were much read by the pions: but nothing tended more to promote the spread of these ideas, than the works of Stelling, which were also VOL. X.

much read in that part of the country. This Author mentions the countries near the Caspian sea, as the place where Christ's visible reign will begin: but what he wrote figuratively, many of his readers appear to have understood literally, and were so completely taken up with the subject, that in contemplating the glories of the millenium, many of them seem to have overlooked the necessity of being born again, without which none can enter into the kingdom of God. But among these two classes of emigrants, there got in a third, consisting of a great number of men, who were either poor, and wished to better their worldly circumstances, or who were not inclined to labour, and expected to find means of leading an easy life, without working. The two latter classes, although they had the exterior marks of piety, were mostly of depraved characters, and wholly set upon the world. Such were the characters and motives of the emigrants, when they left their country, and set out by the Donau, to Gallaz, and from thence to Odessa. They had not proceeded far, before their union was broken by internal dissentions, and on reaching Odessa, the whole congregation was in the greatest disorder, in regard to spiritual things. It may be mentioned here, that several of their leading men were so filled with the idea of the millenium, and had such a desire to settle as near as possible to Jerusalem and the Holy land, that they preferred settling in Georgia, rather than in the Caucasian district, where they might have settled more comfortably, and even in Georgia, owing to their ignorance of the situation of these countries, a number of them chose the most unhealthy situations, because they lie in the south of that province.

At their first outset, it is supposed they amounted to 1500 families; but about 1000 families died on the Donau, and in the quarantines before they reached Odessa, of a kind of ague, or rather plague. At present they amount to about 500 families as many, or nearly as many, having died since they left Odessa, as joined them in its neighbourhood. In Georgia, they are settled in seven villages or colonies. Five of these villages are in the vicinity of Tifliz, and two in the neighbourhood of Elcsbethapole or Gransha.

Having been long without proper teachers, many of them have imbided opinions contrary to the pure docrines of the gospel. There are some among them who are guided much by the mystical books of Boohme and Gishtel, and other authors of the same description, and look for a peculiar degree of unscriptural holiness and illumination by their own works, reject marriage, &c. Other's teach the forgiveness of sins without the renovation of the sinner: but

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these are errors (not formed into a system,) that have crept in amongst them, in consequence of their not having had their attention properly directed to the word of God, as their only guide. In regard to the millenium, they suppose that Christ's visible reign on earth, will commence about the year 1836. But these ideas are not the belief of the whole, though of a great part of them; and the more their attention is turned to the general truths of the gospel, the more these opinions give way, though formerly they were firmly

established in them.

At first they were very much opposed to regular pastors, on account of their having suffered so much in their own country, from ungodly teachers. On their emigration, therefore, they chose for their spiritual guides, those men who had conducted their edification meetings, and had no doubt that they were also qualfied for administering to them the ordinances of the Gospel, believing, that he only can be a true minister of the word of God, who is taught by the Holy Spirit. These ideas, however, which only arose out of their circumstances, they did not carry so far, as to reject the peeching of pious clergymen, when they could get them. Last year some German Missionaries,* who went to Georgia, preached among them without any resistance; but, on the contrary, there appeared a general desire to get such men to labour among them, as would preach the gospel in its purity. They have hitherto observed the ordinances of the Lord's supper and baptism, without regularly ordained pastors. These ordinances have been dispensed by the men chosen from among themselves for spiritual teachers. At present they observe the ordinance of the Lord's supper, six times a year, but according to their rules, they should have it monthly.

They generally choose their teachers by a majority of votes, and that is all the appointment they have to the pastoral office; but since they have had their attention more directed to the Gospel, by the preaching of the Missionaries, many of their teachers or elders are anxious to be ordained by the laying on of the hands of regularly ordained pastors.

MORAVIAN MISSIONS.

London Association in aid of the Brethren's Missions, think themselves called upon to bring, in an especial manner, before the notice of the Christian Public.

The Brethren have long observed with gratitude the general disposition which appears to prevail among the Heathen, in the vicinity of their various settlements, to seek after, and receive the gospel. This disposition has been manifested in a remarkable manner among the Negro Slaves in the West India Islands; and there aplities for cultivating it with success in that pear to be, at present, some peculiar faciquarter.

PROPOSAL FOR FORMING A SEPARATE FUND FOR THE MORAVIAN MISSIONS IN THE WEST INDIES.

Some considerations have lately presented themselves, connected with the Missions of the United Brethren, in the West Indies, which the Committee of the

Notwithstanding the unfavourable feeling which unfortunately prevails in some of the Islands, many of the Colonial Governments and the Proprietors of Estates have shewn themselves much disposed to countenance, and even to invite the exertions of the Brethren, who have been domiciled among them, as a Protestant Episcopal Church, for nearly a century past, having no less than 28,000 Negroes under constant instruction, and the beneficial effect of whose efforts they have experienced in the improved character and conduct of their slaves. From several of of land for new Settlements, and of other these Proprietors offers have been received assistance in forming them. Though the Brethren will not attempt the establishment of new Stations, without invitation or consent from the owners or superintendants of adjoining estates, yet, where invitations are received, they are anxious to avail themselves of such openings for the further extension of the gospel. But the present embarrassed state of the Islands renders it impossible to obtain in them an adequate supply for the erection of chapels and other necessary buildings: it is only, therefore, by the aid of their friends in Great Britain that the Brethren can hope to accomplish the objects which they have so much at heart.

In some Islands there is required more adequate accommodation for the increasing congregations in their present Settlements, and greater facilities for affording Christian Education to Negro Children, a branch of their labours from which they anticipate the happiest effects, in ameliorating the character of the rising slave population, and therein of promoting the best interests of the Colonies.

Two objects connected with the foregoing views especially claim attention at the present time.

At Lenox, in the parish of Westmoreland, in JAMAICA, a grant of land has been offered, accompanied by an urgent invitation to the Brethren to establish a new station there and not only the gentleman who has made this offer, but other neighbouring Proprietors are willing to supply such materials for requisite buildings as the country affords. It is calculated, that

*It is to one of these Missionaries that I am indebted for this account of the emigrants. He wrote it in English, and although I have had frequently to change some of the words to make better English, yet I have endeavoured to retain the ideas the same as they were. Of course, he speaks of ordination and other things, according to his own views.

around this spot there are from 3000 to 4000 Negroes (besides others) who will thus be brought within the reach of the gospel, and who are at present removed to a distance of above twenty miles from the parish church, and twenty-five or thirty miles from any other Missionary Station. Thus destitute of the ordinances of religion, these poor creatures are sunk in ignorance and barbarism; yet when any occasional opportunities have been afforded, they have shewn great readiness to attend the worship of God, and have, in several instances, appeared to be powerfully affected by it. The necessary expense of establishing this station, in addition to the local supplies, is estimated at more than £1200.

MORAVIAN MISSIONS.

In the Island of ANTIGUA above 1800 of the offspring of Christian Negroes are left destitute of education, from the want of school-rooms in which they might be congregated, the chapels being occupied, throughout the Sabbath, by successive crowded audiences of adults, of whom, above 12,000 attend the ministry of the Brethren in that Island. It is therefore earnestly to be desired that at some of the settlements, school-rooms should be erected, and that at the principal_station at St. John's, the capital of the Island, the present chapel should be converted to that use, and a larger chapel erected, the existing one being totally inadequate to accommodate the many thousands who attend the service there. The only present remedy, namely, successive services throughout the day, severely tries the strength of these laborious and indefatigable missionaries, and prevents their paying attention to the children, whom they would otherwise collect and instruct in a Sunday School.

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Upon this object about £1200 might also be most usefully and economically expended, and the Committee have great pleasure in stating by way of encouragement, that a few individuals of the Society of Friends, have kindly contributed above 100 towards the erection of school-rooms in Antigua. Benevolent persons of that Society and others, have still the opportunity of contributing to the exclusive purpose of the "Antigua Negro Schools," by signifying such desire in subscribing to the proposed Fund through the Bankers, &c. of this Association, or through Mr. William Allen, Plough Court, or Mr. Thomas Christy, 35, Gracechurch Street, London.

359 will be still further contracted by the heavy loss lately sustained through the destructive fire which has desolated their settlement at Sarepta. By the blessing of God, however, especially upon the exertions of their friends in this country, the means have been provided of nearly liquidating a large debt which had grown up, and probably of enabling them to meet the current expenses, but yeilding no surplus applicable to such objects as those above referred to.

The visit of the Rev. Samuel Hoch and Lewis Stobwasser to this country, has afforded the opportunity of more fully ascertaining the particulars of both these cases, and some extracts of letters relative to the respective objects are subjoined,

Of these openings, (as well as of others in various and important quarters,) for the extension of their pious and beneficial labours in the West Indies, the brethren are wholly unable to avail themselves from their own resources. These resources have been long inadequate even to the ordinary expense of their various Missions, and they

Under these circumstances the Committee of the LONDON ASSOCIATION, encouraged by the anxiety so generally prevalent in behalf of the unhappy Negro race, and stimulated by an earnest desire for the wider spread of the gospel of our Lord and Saviour in these eventful days, venture to bring this case before the Christian Public, which they do in the confidence that the prospect of so important an amelioration will not be blighted by the want of means to carry it into effect, and to satisfy the ardent desires, and the extreme necessities, of this hitherto benighted and degraded class of our fellow creatures.

The Committee propose to open a separate subscription for the purpose of assisting the Brethren in the establishment of new Stations in the West India Islands, with the consent or on the invitation of the Proprietors or Superintendants of estates, and in providing facilities for the educa tion of the children of Negroes.

Committee Room, 38, Charles Street, Westminster, July 22nd, 1824.

Extract of a letter from an inmate in the Family of HUTCHINSON M. SCOTT, ESQ. dated HOPETON ESTATE, LENOX, JAMAICA, December, 13th, 1823. "Mr. Scott is the proprietor of a sugar estate in this island, and of 300 negroes, for whose conversion to Christianity he is very desirous, but they are far removed from instruction, and upwards of twenty miles from the parish Church, or any place of worship, and this is the condition of many hundreds in the neighbourhood both bond and free.]

We have not ceased to persevere in seeking the aid of the Brethren, being more desirous of obtaining one of that community to instruct our people, having some knowledge of the blessed effects of their simple, forcible manner of preaching the gospel to the heathen. Our Lord and Saviour has in mercy turned their hearts towards us. They decline from most judicious motives, settling in future on any gentleman's property, but they have consented to establish a mission here, if made legal possessors of thirty acres of land, chapel, house, and offices. Mr. S. is no longer able to accomplish the whole, he gives them the land, himself and different neighbours, who are also interested for their Negroes, will assist in providing the materials, and collecting them on the spot.

Mr. and Mrs. Stobwasser have heen spending a short time with us. During

their stay here, a sweet, cool, elevated, spot was selected for the new Mission, commanding an extensive view, and having a spring of water within a quarter of a mile. Surrounded as you are, Sir, with all the ordinances of our God, you cannot conceive the hope and heartfelt interest with which we view the spot, that may hereafter be hallowed unto us, and be the means of bringing hundreds of our poor Negroes to a knowledge of their Saviour.

Religion is spreading rapidly among the negroes: we are, in this district (it being a remote mountainous situation) more backward, I believe, than most parts of the island; but even here the good work is heard with eagerness and gladness: they rejoice greatly when they hear we are expecting any of the Brethren's missionaries to visit us (which they do occasion-On ally when going from one station to another) and will sometimes assemble to the numcer of 150 after their day's labour, at our. family prayers in the evening, to hear the Missionary preach, or expound the Scrip

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tures.

Extract of Letters from the Rev. Lewis Stobwasser, dated FAIRFIELD and IRWIN, in JAMAICA, October and December 1823, and February 1824.

Negroes, who probably had never before heard the Gospel. They listened with very great attention, and on the second evening I had a respectable auditory. The Negroes of their own accord, had dressed themselves in their best clothes. You see that much might be done here for the increase of our Lord's kingdom, if He were pleased to give His blessing to our labours.

On Tuesday we set out on a visit to Mile-Gulley, a district of Manchester parish, where the greater part of Brother Becker's congregation reside. The Negroes were delighted to see their teacher, Brother Becker. At Devon, fifteen miles from New Eden, (a Settlement of the brethren,) they surrounded his horse, so that for some minutes he could not proceed.

Wednesday evening, about a hundred of them assembled in Mr. Abe's hall, whom I addressed. The Proprietor himself and a neighbouring Proprietor were present. The former reads the church prayers every Sunday to his Negroes. On the following day we visited other places, and every where the Negroes expressed their great joy on seeing Brother Becker. We returned Some even shouted for joy. to New Eden, with grateful hearts for all that the Lord has done for these poor people.

The building of a new Church at St. John's in Antigua, is a most desirable and highly necessary undertaking. Sunday Schools should also be promoted, and the old Chapel may be turned into a Schoolhouse with greater advantage."

"Prejudices against the spread of Christianity appear to be fast wearing away, and among the Negroes themselves, hunger and thirst after the word of God seem to increase. The advantages resulting to the planter from the Negroes being instructed in the Christian religion, and becoming truly converted to God, seem to be generally acknowledged; and Proprietors who formerly disliked, and even opposed their slaves going to Church, now encourage them to go, insomuch that our Church at New Eden is often too small to hold the number of hearers.-Other stations ought to be occupied, if we could fulfil the wishes of those Planters who desire to promote the instruction of their slaves.-Several very eligible proposals have been made, and much encouragement is given to enlarge the borders of our tents. I hope we shall yet see in this island many more doors opened, and the benefit of the Gospel among the Negroes spreading far and wide. This will make them good faithful and obedient subjects, and satisfied with their state, as appointed by Providence.

"On the 20th of January we left Irwin, and proceeded to Hopeton on the following day. If a missionary were stationed here he would find every needful preparation made by the worthy family. We took a view of the premises proposed for a settlement, and could not but cordially wish and pray, that the Lord may, in His own good time, fulfil the wishes of our friends, and grant success to the preaching of the Gospel in this place also. From Hopeton I made a very pleasant excursion to Belmont, about seven miles distant from the former place. Here we staid two days, and I had an opportunity of preaching to

Extract of a Letter from the Rev. L. Stob

wasser, lately a Missionary in ANTIGUA, written on his pussage to JAMAICA, and dated in the Downs, June 3rd, 1823.

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It has always been the practice of the Missionaries of the Brethren's Church, whenever they could possibly do it, to establish Schools among the Negroes, It is evident what an influence may be obtained on the minds of children by means of schools, especially if the sole aim of them is to procure for them a more immediate access to the sacred books of scripture.

Among Negro slaves, a Sunday School seems the only one practicable. Our method is to give to every child a lesson pasted on a small board, which they put into a bag or pocket they have for that purpose, and in which they exercise themselves in the evenings, also at noon, and in the field at their breakfast time. We take care to find on every estate, if possibie, a Negro who is able and willing to instruct them; and when there are no such Negroes to be found, we encourage the most able we can get to visit us once or twice a week in the evening, besides Sunday, in order to be qualified by us for the instruction of others: much has been done by the Brethren in this way, and in our Negro congregations in Antigua, teachers are not wanting to give effect to the

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