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prise? What mean those unmeasurable longings, which no gratification can extinguish, and which still continue to agitate the heart of man, even in the fulness of plenty and of enjoyment. If they mean any thing at all, they mean, that all which this world can offer, is not enough to fill up his capacity for happiness-that time is too small for him, and he is born for something beyond it-that the scene of his earthly existence is too limited, and he is formed to expatiate in a wider and a grander theatre-that a nobler destiny is reserved for him-and that to accomplish the purpose of his being, he must soar above the littleness of the world, and aiun at a loftier prize.

"It forms the peculiar honour and excellence of religion, that it accommodates to this property of our naturethat it holds out a prize suited to our high calling-that there is a grandeur in its objects, which can fill and surpass the imagination-that it dignifies the present scene by connecting it with eternity that it reveals to the eye of 'faith the glories of an unperishable world-and how, from the high eminencies of heaven, a cloud of witnesses are looking down upon earth, not as a scene for the petty anxieties of time, but as a splendid theatre for the ambition of immortal spirits."

On this quotation we take the liberty of offering a few remarks. We need not call the attention of our readers to it as a specimen of animated description, and of elegant composition; indeed the whole Serinon from which we have extracted it, is among the happiest effusions of the Doctor's pen, and may serve to shew us that, if he pleases, he can write as gracefully as any of his cotemporaries. How much then is it to be regretted that his compositions should be marked by such inequalities of style that he should occasionally descend to the vulgar verbiage (as the French term it) which disfigures so many of his pages!

But what we would more particularly remark is, that, in our opinion, neither of the texts which the Doctor has placed at the head of his Sermon, has any thing to do with the subject which forms the burden of his discourse" The rest lessness of human ambition." The texts are, Ps. xi. 1. and Iv. 6. “How say ye to my soul, Flee as a bird to your moun

tain?— that I had the wings of a dove, that I might fly away, and be at rest.” Examine the scope of the two Psalms, and you will not find the smallest allu sion to "the restlessness of human ambition," in either of them. They breathe throughout the bewailing complaint of a persecuted man, whose life was constantly in jeopardy from the malice of his enemies who hunted him like a partridge upon the mountains. The texts, therefore, were ill chosen.

Another remark that we would offer relates to the sentiment contained in the above quotation-That human ambition is a restless principle, must be allowed by every one that has thought upon the subject, and the Doctor says very justly, that "it is the doctrine of the Bible, and all experience loudly proclaims it." He might have referred us for proof of this to the second chapter of the book of Ecclesiastes, where we are presented with a striking exemplification of it in the conduct and experience of King Solomon. But this restlessness is not peculiar to the pursuits of ambition; and consequently the Doctor has taken but a very limited view of his subject. It is just as common to the miser, and the voluptuary, or man of pleasure, as it is to the ambitious; and accordingly, Solomon exemplifies it under both characters, see ver. 7-9, and 10, 11. The fact is, that this restless state of mind is the common lot of every child of Adam, until he is brought to know Christ, and to find rest in him. Nor does revelation leave us ignorant of the cause of this phenomenon. The soul of man was formed for enjoying happiness in the favour of God-this consti tutes man's proper life. But this blessing was forfeited by sin; and the alienation of the human mind is now evinced by the universal propensity that there is in us to seek that happiness in the pleasures, riches, and honours of this world, which can alone be found in the enjoyment of the divine favour. Hence we may observe, that in the Gospel, God presents himself to us under the amiable and endearing character of "The portion of his people," Hos. ii. 23. Zech. xHI. 9. and his people claim him as such, Ps. cxix. 57. Ps. cxlii. 5. and lxxiii. 26. The Gospel presupposes all the children of men to be in anxious pursuit of rest to their souls; and Christ calls upon them in these gracious accents, "Come unto me, and I will give you rest.” In be

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lieving the Gospel testimony concerning him, Christ gives them rest from all their vain pursuits after happiness in the things of this world, and from all their self-righteous labours to obtain the favour of God; he gives them rest under all the troubles, vexations, and disappointments of life, by arming them with patience; and to crown the whole, he gives his disciples the lively hope of resting with himself and all his redeemed in his eternal kingdom. We could have wished these things, or something akin to them had found a place in the Doctor's eloquent Sermon; but their omission renders it an elegant statue without life-a body gracefully decorated, but without a soul to animate it! EDITOR.

DEAR SIR,

I trouble you with a Query, and shall feel obliged if you will give it place in your useful Magazine for an early answer, by either yourself or some of your able correspondents. I trust I am the subject of the desires expressed in the Query, but from my compliance with temptations, and the falling away of many whom I esteemed to be subjects of divine grace, I am at a loss to ascertain how far it is possible for the unrenewed mind to be susceptible of desires after religion, and consequently am frequently led to painfully doubt the safety of my own state.

Yours sincerely,
A CONSTANT READER.

2. The proposer has read the opinions of many Pædobaptists, but finding a great diversity in their notions on the subject: some alleging that the child. was entered in the covenant of grace, some into the administration of the covenant, and others into the Gospel

!

To the Editor of the New Evan. Magazine. grant; he wishes to know into which of these happy conditions his child will be introduced on his having it baptized?

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75

The proposer had had a child born to him, and wishes to have his mind satisfied on the different questions, with a view to his future conduct to the child.

Is it possible for the unrenewed mind under any circumstances (such as illumination, conviction of sin, &c. &c.) to be the subject of real desire after spiritual blessings, or to desire holiness or conformity to the law of God, from an apprehension of its moral beauty or excellency?

MR. EDITOR,

A constant reader will feel obliged by you, or some of your correspondents answering the following queries, proposed by a friend at a conference meeting held by a number of serious persons.

1. Whether he should have his child

baptized; and if he should, who were the proper persons to administer the ordinance-a minister, its parents, the midwife, or the nurse; seeing that in the supposition of baptism being founded quently performing that operation, it on circumcision, and. lay persons frecannot be exclusively confined to the minister?

3. From conscience towards God, he is desirous of being informed-whether there would be any thing sinful in allowing his child, although an unconscious babe, to be expressly addressed in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit?

* 1.*

To the Editor of the New Evan, Magazine.
Bristol, Dec. 16, 1823.

DEAR SIR,

Having met with the Herald of Peace, and other productions of the Peace Society, which deprecate war as in every form totally opposed to the spirit and example of Christ, his Apostles, and Christians for nearly the first three centuries; and being an inquirer after truth, I am anxious to know through your widely extended Magazine, whether it be lawful for Christians on scriptural grounds to engage in war under any circumstances. I use the term Christian in its strict and proper sense; of course I expect the arguments will be adduced from the New Testament. For brevity's sake I will suppose the strongest case, as the invasion of a foreign enemy. Wishing you every success in all your works of faith and labours of love,

I remain, yours,

H.

76

Theological Review.

An Appeal to the Members of the British | Foreign Bible Society, it was deterand Foreign Bible Society, on the subject | mined that this version should again be of the Turkish New Testament, Printed | put in circulation. This resolution, toat Paris in 1819. Containing a view of gether with some others almost equally its history, an exposure of its errors, and obnoxious, produced such an effect on palpable proofs of the necessity of its the minds of these two agents of the suppression. By EBENEZER HENDER- Society, that they felt themselves comSON, Author of a “Journal of a Resi-pelled to abandon the prosecution of dence in Iceland." London, B. J. | their journey, and resign their situations Holdsworth, 8vo. Ss. 1824. as agents of the Society. It has been insinuated, and from the manner in which the dissolution of this connexion is mentioned in the Nineteenth Report of the Society there is reason to fear that some may be disposed to listen to the insinuation, that the Author and his colleague resigned their situations as agents of the British and Foreign Bible Society, and joined the Russian Bible Society as a matter of greater convenience to themselves. Justice, however, compels us to state, and we speak from certain knowledge of the facts, that, at the time when they relinquished their former situations, they had not the most distant idea of being employed by the Russian Bible Society: they cast themselves entirely on the bounty of the Divine providence; their intention was to return to Scotland, and there wait the event; they had not a single farthing in prospect; and the exchange which they have made, is accompanied by a sacritice of £60. per apnum to each. The only convenience, therefore, that attended this prompt and honourable decision, was the relief which their consciences experienced by their refusing to put into the hands of their fellow-men a book-professing, indeed, to be the New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, but, in reality, a production that would disgrace the merest novice in Oriental literature; a book in which the divine simplicity of the dictates of the Holy Spirit is sacrificed at the altar of Mohammedan bombast; in which the very soul of the Christian

Before proceeding to lay before our readers an outline of this truly able pamphlet, it may be necessary to state, that in consequence of the remonstrances of Dr. H. on the subject, the Society had actually agreed to put a stop to the circulation of the version of Ali Bey. At this time Drs. Henderson and Patter-religion is reduced to the vapid dregs of Islamism; and, where, (tell it not in Gath!) He who is the only living and true God, is represented as forbidding his creatures to worship him!

son were proceeding on an exploratory Biblical mission into Persia. They were on the eve of leaving Tiflis for Persia, when information reached them, that by a resolution of the British and

Our readers, however, shall judge for

|

IN making this appeal to the friends of the British and Foreign Bible Society, Dr. Henderson has performed a duty of the mest important nature. Whether he will receive the thanks of the Society's committee for this piece of faithful and disinterested service, we cannot tell; but surely if they thought he deserved the encomiums which they, in their last Report, bestowed on him through the medium of the Russian Bible Society, they cannot withhold their approbation in the present instance. At all events the public at large will, we are persuaded, enter with much interest into the subject of this appeal; and will most certainly expect on the part of the Bible Society, an assurance that the version in question is entirely suppress ed. It must indeed be viewed as a matter of deep regret, that such an appeal as this should have ever become necessary,—and that too from one, who has so long, so zealously, and so successfully laboured to promote the best interests of the Society, and whose best feelings are to the present hour in perfect harmony with the professed object it has in view; we hope the appeal has not been made in vain.

HENDERSON'S APPEAL TO MEMBERS OF THE BIBLE SOCIETY. 77

themselves." That the Committee,"
says the Author, "may be able the more
easily to judge of the force of my ob-
jections, I beg leave to arrange them
under the following heads:-the mis-
translation of proper names; the un-
necessary use of
the want
synonymes;

given in not fewer than five different ways,
scarcely any one of which conveys the
exact idea of the original, to cause to
stumble or fall; the term Tavow is also
given in five different forms, most of which
express the nature of conversion, rather
than repentance. For Sinaioovn, righteous-
ness, eight different words or phrases are
which are connected, the terms, to be just
given, viz. equity, righteousness, with

of consistency and uniformity; false
renderings; omissions and additions."
From each of these heads we shall selector pious, righteousness and piety, veracity,
a few examples.
justice, good deed, &c. Where the same,
Testament, scarcely two of them are found
identical word is quoted from the Old
to be alike. Thus, Abraham believed in
the Supreme God, and that faith he counted
instead of righteousness," Rom. iv. 3. And
in Gal. iii. 6. " Abraham believed in the
Supreme God, and this he counted to him
for righteousness and piety.”

the first place is assigned to Ali Bey's in-
IV. False Renderings. Under this head
terpretation of Salooúun, righteousness,
Rom. iv. 13. v. 17. x. 3. Gal. ii. 21. iii. 6,
21. in all which passages it is rendered
righteousness and piety. In Matt. vi. 32.
Ta 'Ovn, the nations, is rendered idolaters,
hammedan reader.
a very unfortunate translation for a Mo-
In Matt. xxvii. 62.,
the word παρaσxeʊn, the day of preparation,
is converted into the day of assembly, i. e.
Friday, the Mohammedan Sabbath. This
anachronism, remarks Dr. H. makes the
Evangélist speak of an appropriation of the
day which did not take place till several
centuries after he wrote!

1. The Mistranslation of Proper Names. In this respect Dr. Henderson affirms, that Ali Bey's version outstrips all the translations of the Scriptures at present in existence. Thus, instead of uniformly rendering Eos God, by the Arabic Allah, which is perfectly intelligible to every Mohammedan, and corresponds with its cognate Elohim in the Hebrew, not fewer than twelve different phrases are substituted for the unadorned simplicity of the original. Out of nearly one hundred times in the Book of Revelations, where the word ought to have occurred in its simple form, in twenty-seven passages only is it so used. In the other passages we have-The Supreme God, thirty-one times; The Glorious Majesty, twelve times; The Divine Majesty, seven times; The True Majesty, nine times. Tengri, Tartar word for God, five times; Tengri, the Supreme God, three times; The Supreme Divinity, occurs twice; and The Illustrious God, once. Other epithets used by Ali Bey instead of Allah are, The Supreme Verity; The Illustrious Verity; The Good God: The Supreme Tengri. The phrase Kupies ¡εos ó Íαvтoxρáтwp, The Lord God Omnipotent, is rendered, Effendi God Almighty; the Almighty Effendi God, and Our Almighty Tengri God Supreme.

II. The useless employment of synonymes, where one word sufficiently expresses the force of the original. Of this only a few specimens are given. Thus Sinaloovvn is rendered righteousness and piety; apyous is rendered unoccupied, unemployed; Aun, is rendered, anguish and sorrow; agia, is rendered, worthy and deserving; quick and ready is given for os, swift, &c. Respecting this style Dr. H. observes in a note, "It is what the Greeks of Constantinople call coffee-house Turkish, and is perfectly incompatible with the dignity of the Holy Scriptures."

III. Want of uniformity and consistency. Under this head, among a host of others, we have the following. Mepuváw, "I am anxious," is rendered by four different phrasas, viz. to be solicitous in mind, to labour, be diligent, to suffer anxiety, and to attend, apply the mind to any thing. The words xardaλov and oxavdaλiw are

To the ear of a modern Christian there is something sufficiently grating in many of the renderings of our old versions. Thus, for instance, Coverdale's rendering of Rev. i. 10. « daye," would be reckoned rather uncouth I was in the sprete on a Sonfor a version of the New Testament in the present day; but what in this case shall be said of Ali Bey's improved version of this passage? It is this "I was in the spirit on a MARKET DAY." The mere English reader may judge of the fidelity of the rendering here given, when he is informed that the word used by Ali Bey is "bazar." John x. 30. is rendered, "I and the Father are one thing." On this rendering Dr. H. makes no particular remark, very likely concluding that it is so grossly at variance with the whole doctrine of the New Testament as to require none. The however, which seals the death warrant passage, of this translation, continues the Author, is Rev. xxii. 8, 9. where the Lamb of God himself is introduced by Ali Bey, as forbidding his disciples to worship him!!! "I fell down to worship at the feet of the LAMB; but he said unto me, Beware thou do it not: for I am thy fellow-servant, &c. WORSHIP THE DIVINE MAJESTY." This rendering, the Doctor assures us, after

the fullest deliberation, he feels no hesita- | time since fell into the hands of a native tion in pronouncing to be designed, and of Georgia, who told the Missionaries at ont an inadvertency. Astrachan, that "not understanding the table of errata, he was alarmed lest it might be a false Gospel he had received from them." In reference to this Dr. Henderson justly observes,

V. Omissions. Matt. vi. 15. Ta napan Twμata var, your trespasses. Matt. viii. 15. Inco, Jesus. Matt. viii. 19. рσε0, coming. Chap. xxii. 16. didáσxxλ, teacher. Chap. xxvi. 65. & Apxepeus, the High Priest. John i. 52 To Beov, God, with some others.

VI. Additions. Matt. xxvii. 5, 6. "The other Mary," twice. Rom. iii. 21. "The books of the prophets." ver. 22, "to us all." x. 5." precept.". xi. 26. "sons of Jacob." xiv. 1. "receive courteously." ver. 14. "by the doctrine of the Lord Jesus." Rev. iii. 7. "the keys of the house of David." ver. 12. "like a pillar," with some others.

The above form a fair specimen of the incorrectness of the translation in question; and it must be remembered, that his examination extended to only three books, that is to say, on the scale exhibited in the appeal, for he appears to have read nearly the whole, since he says in a note, "There is not a page, nor scarcely a verse in the volume, that does not contain something or other of an objectionable nature." The reader will naturally desire to know whether any steps have been taken to correct these errors, and to render the volume fit for circulation. To this we can only reply, that by the resolution of the Society in 1821, it was agreed that a table of errata should be annexed to it. But what must the world think of a Society, professing to send out the Word of God in its purity, and at the same time employ ing translators, who give such awful proofs as these of their utter inability for the work. Will the British public look on in silence and with satisfaction, while they behold the funds of the Society thus disposed of?-We hope not. But if the statement of Dr. Henderson is correct, of which the writer of this article has not a doubt, having actually compared the Doctor's quotations with Ali Bey's text, what a formidable table of errata would be required! Its size must be nearly that of one third of the volume! a circumstance at once sufficient to make the Infidel laugh and the Christian weep. It appears also that the British and Foreign Bible Society is not unacquainted with the effects which tables of errata affixed to the New Testament have produced. There is the St. Petersburg version of Martyn's Persic New Testament, which has a table of errata appended to it consisting of four quarto pages! A copy of this version some

"Now, it may fairly be asked, if such was the effect produced by a table of errata on the mind of one naturally partial to Christianity as an hereditary form of religion, what must be its influence on those who are its determined enemies? Must not the followers of Mohammed, who are accustomed to regard every word, and every letter in their sacred books with the highest veneration, and denounce the most awful penalties against whosoever alters them, be inspired with the idea that the Christians think lightly of the Scriptures in which they profess to believe, and in translating and printing them, proceed upon principles of mere mercantile speculation." "The assertion," he adds, "may, I believe, be hazarded without any fear of contradiction, that the Bible Society durst not venture to circulate, even among professing Christians, an edition of the Scriptures which they have been taught to venerate as the infallible Word of God, containing an exhibition of faults at all submit to the inspection and contempt of resembling that which it is resolved to

infidels."

We have now discharged what we consider to be our duty with regard to the pamphlet before us, and we hope we shall be joined by every Journal in the united kingdoms, which professes to venerate the Holy Scriptures, in earnestly recommending the subject of this faithful and well written APPEAL to all who feel interested in the success of the Godlike cause of the British and Foreign Bible Society.

Travels through part of the United States and Canada in 1818 and 1819. By JOHN M. DUNCAN, A.B. In 2 vols. post 8vo. pp. 720, with vignettes. Glasgow, Printed at the University Press, for Hurst, Robinson and Company, London, pr. 16ṣ. bds. 1823.

THE number of books of Travels that have issued from the British press within the last seven years, is unprecedented in the annals of any country; nor is there any other species of writing that will bear a comparison with this in point of extent and variety. It would seem as

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