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called, but prudence, foresight, genius, contrivance, invention, and other kindred faculties. At the same time it is not amiss to retain in a version as much of the Hebrew idiom as has not become entirely obsolete. And Moses called;' more correctly, 'For Moses had called.'

What message did the artisans at length bring to Moses, and what order did he consequently issue? v. 4-7.

'And they caused it to be proclaimed; Heb. 'caused a voice to pass;' Chal. 'caused a crier to pass through the camp, saying, &c.'-'Make any more work;' i. e. collect or make ready any more stuff to work with.

What similar instance of liberality is elsewhere recorded? 1 Chron. 29. 3-9.

Why does Moses observe so much particularity in the record of the various articles which were ordered to be made?

By these things being written again and again, it would naturally be inferred that they were to be read again and again; and Moses, by being thus minute in his details, and presenting the pattern and the copy side by side, could appeal to every reader for his fidelity to him who had appointed him to the work; as he is said to have been faithful in all his house.

CHAPTER XXXVII.-XL.

Of what materials was the Laver constructed? Ch. 38. 8.

"Of the looking-glasses of the women assembling, which assembled, &c.' Heb. 'of the (brazen) mirrors of the women assembling-by-troops which assembled-by-troops, &c. As mirrors of glass coated with quick-silver are quite a modern invention, it is obvious that by the term here must be understood a metallic substance highly polished, and if they formed a brazen laver, they must of

course have been of brass themselves. 'Mirrors,' therefore, ought undoubtedly to have been the rendering of the original in this passage, instead of 'looking-glasses.-The Heb. word here rendered assembling' is properly a military term applied to the orderly mustering or marshaling of an army. The verb from which it is derived, "Tzâbâ,' has the signification of warring or going forth upon a military expedition, and the corresponding substantive is for the most part rendered host,' 'hosts; sometimes war,' or 'warfare. But as the regularity and order which marked the services of the sanctuary resembled those which prevail in a well-disciplined army, one party succeeding and relieving another in the discharge of their appropriate duties, the term became at length applied to the orderly course of ministration in the matters of the worship of God, as may be seen from the following passages; Num. 4. 23. All that enter in to perform the service, to do the work of the tabernacle; Heb. 'to war the warfare;' Gr. 'to minister.' Num. 8. 24. 'From twenty and five years old and upward they shall go in to wait upon the service of the tabernacle;' Heb. 'to war the warfare.' In the present instance accordingly we suppose the word is applied to certain women of the congregation who had devoted themselves, from the promptings of a peculiar spirit of piety, to various functions pertaining to the tabernacle service, for the same or a similar reason to that for which the term is applied to men when busied in the like employment. In strict parallelism with this we find the word occurring 1 Sam. 2. 22. 'And how they lay with the women that assembled at the door of the congregation; i. e. who were convened there as female ministers for pious purposes. So it is said of Anna, the prophetess, Luke 2. 37. that she 'departed not from the temple, but served God with fastings and prayers night and day.' Paul also speaks, 1 Tim. 5. 5. of the desolate widow which 'trusteth in God, and continueth in supplications and prayers night and day.' With this mode of interpretation-the assembling for purposes of pious ministry-several of the ancient visions strikingly accord. Thus, the Chal. 'Of the mirrors of the women which came to pray at the door of the tabernacle.' Gr. ' of the women that fasted, which fasted at the door of the tabernacle of witness. Fasting is here specified, because it was a usual

accompaniment of praying. Targ. Jon. Of the brazen mirrors of modest women, who, when they came to pray in the portal of the tabernacle stood by their heave-offering, and offered praises and made confessions.'

What is meant by the expression, sum of the tabernacle'? ch. 38. 21.

Ans. The sum, enumeration, or inventory of the various particulars of the tabernacle furniture.

At what time was the tabernacle to be set up ? ch. 40. 2.

How long was this after their leaving Egypt? Ex. 16. 1.

What was to be done after they had erected the tabernacle? ch. 40. 9.

How were Aaron and his sons to be inducted into their sacred office? ch. 40. 12-16.

For their anointing shall be an everlasting priesthood ;' Heb. And their anointing shall be to be unto them for an everlasting priesthood.' The meaning of this is, that as far as the common priests were concerned, the efficacy of this first anointing should extend to the whole future line, so that they need not from one generation to another receive successively the consecrating unction. With the High Priest the case was different. As he was elected it was fit that he should, upon entering into office, be anointed; but in regard to the ordinary priests who inherited, their office as their birthright, the same necessity did not exist.

How was the Divine approbation of the work testified when all was finished? ch. 40. 34.

"The glory of the Lord ;' i. e. the visible sign of his glorious and gracious presence. In like manner the future glorious manifestation and inhabitation of the Divine presence among his favored people on earth is thus shadowed forth in language bearing allusion to that of Moses in this passage, Ezek. 43. 4-5. And the glory of the Lord came into the house by the way of the gate whose prospect is toward

the east. So the Spirit took me up and brought me into the inner court; and behold the glory of the Lord filled the house.' John also, in the Revelation, chap. 21. 10, 11. alluding to the same illustrious period of the church, says'And he carried me in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God; having the glory of God.

What similar event is recorded to have happened at a subsequent period of the Jewish history? 2 Chron. 5. 13, 14.

What was the effect of the continuance of the cloud upon the tabernacle? v. 35.

What allusion to this circumstance do we elsewhere meet with? Rev. 15-18.

What was signified to the people by the resting and the removal of the cloud, and what was its alternate appearance by day and by night? v. 3638.

"The cloud of the Lord;' Jerus. Targ. The cloud of the glory of the Shechinah of the Lord.''Fire was on it by night.' Thus, Numb. 9. 15, 16. And at even there was upon the tabernacle as it were the appearance of fire, until the morning. So it was alway, the cloud covered it by day, and the appearance of fire by night;' a clear and striking adumbration of the guidance and protection which Christ affords to his church under the Gospel, and which is thus repressented by the prophet, Is. 4. 5. And the Lord will create upon every dwelling-place of Mount Zion, and upon her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night: for upon all the glory shall be a defence."

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES.

EXODUS, Chap. 6. 6.

The word here rendered by our translators 'stretched out,' may also be rendered 'lifted up,' or 'high,' as it is in fact by the Chal. and Latin Vulgate. The expression is borrowed from the circumstance of men's stretching out and lifting up their arms and heads in order to strike their enemies with greater force. In order to which, it was usual in those Eastern countries where their outer garments were of a loose and flowing kind, to fling them aside that they might not hinder or weaken the effect of the intended blow. is in allusion to this that the expression making bare his holy arm,' is applied to the Most High, Is. 54. 10. in regard to the inflictions of his wrath upon his enemies.

CHAPTER 10. 15.

It

In addition to the passages quoted in which the Hebrew word for 'eye' has the sense of aspect, the following may also be adduced, Ezekiel, 1. 18. And their rings (i. e. of the wheels) were full of eyes round about them four.' So also, Ezek. 10. 12. And their whole body (the cherubims) and their backs, and their hands, and their wings, and the wheels, were full of eyes round about, even the wheels that they four had.' On the first of the passages Mr. Taylor, the editor of Calmet, remarks, 'that it is surprising where the same Hebrew word had been rendered 'color' in v. 4. 7. 16. 22. 27, it should, in v. 18, be rendered 'eyes.' It means the glittering, splendid huesthe fugitive reflective tints-those accidental corruscations of colors, such as we see vibrate in some precious stones, which seen in some lights, show certain colors, and in others, show other colors. This sense of the word is confirmed by the use of it in Num. 11. 7. 'The manna was as coriander seed, and the color (Heb. 'eye') thereof as the color (eye) of bdellium;' i. e. the manna was like coriander seed itself, but the eye of it, the reflected, glistening tint

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