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Is mo: iad na is feidir They are more than cair aiream,
be numbered. Ma ata naċ bfùil mo tig Although my house be
mar sin ag Dia, gidead not so with God, yet do rinne se ceangal
he hath made a coveliomsa,
nant with me. Leo fos teagasg'tar do Moreover by them is thy searbfogantuid,
servant warned. D'eagal go bfuigead sib Lest ye die.
bas, Oir is tu is còir a faghail, For you have a right to
Ionnas gur seun se a So that he denied his maigistir,
master. Biod go bfuil tü said. Although you be rich.
bir, Geta tu laidir,
Notwithstanding you are
1. The interjection a, b, requires the vocative; and aspirates the noun next to it; as, a Thiarna De, O Lord God. (147.)
2. Mairg, wo to, and the like, require the dative; as, mairg duitse a duine dona, wo to you, wretched man. (148.) The construction of interjections promiscuously
exemplified As truag nač bfuilim. Wo is me that I am not ! Faraor! tamoid uile faoi Alas! we are all subject càin don eug,
to death. Mairg damsa! a bi mo Wo to me! who was sitost,
lent. Monuar, is truag do Alas, hard is your fate !
cineamuin! Tar an so, a Sheamais, Come hither, James. Eist, eist, mo leanab! Hush, hush, my child! Mo lean gur im'tig mo Alas that my friends are cairde uaim!
gone from me! Uc! uc! cạ truaige tu- Alas! alas ! what a sore
END OF THE GRAMMAR.
It is impossible to find English words, which exhibit all the sounds of the Irish language. The words contained in this table, are such as most nearly resemble them; the examples, however, will be satisfactory to such as read for their private improvement, and will be found very important, in assisting the instructions of the teacher.
2. The preposition in, in, was anciently prefixed to many words; but, for sound's sake, the n was omitted'; as, cath, a battle, igcath, in battle. In latter ages, in order to comply with a rule of comparatitely modern invention, (which is noted in treating of the vowels,) the i was changed into a; as, agcath; still, however, the same rapidity of pronunciation, which the i received, was applied to a; and, in many instances, the i or a was entirely omitted, both in writing and speaking ; as, ta me in mo chodladh, properly contracted into, imo chodladh; but commonly written and spoken mo chodladh, I am asleep, or in my sleeping state.
3. The thick sound of d, and t, resembles the hardest sound of th, in the English word think; but, in forming this thick sound, the tongue must be strongly pressed against the root of the upper foreteeth, instead of being protruded between the teeth; by which means the aspira. tion is completely stopped, and these consonants receive nothing of that semivocal sound which is given to th in English.
4. and 5. The sounds of I, and n double, are both formed by the same position of the tongue; viz. by placing it so as to press upon the upper foreteeth and gum, while the point of it is perceptible between the teeth. The only difference, in forming them, is, that the aspiration to lis guttural, and to n, nasal.
6. This sound is formed by slightly touching the sound of ee English, before, as well as after r; as if the word free was written and pronounced, feeree.
7. This different
7. This sound of s is much more hard and forcible than that of single s in English: it is formed by presenting the point of the tongue to the aperture of the teeth, and expressing a very strong aspiration.
8. See note 3.
9. In ancient writings, the letter h was prefixed to vowels, much more frequently than in modern ones; thus è, he, i, she, were anciently written he, and hi. But it was very seldom attached to consonants, the pronunciation of which was left to the reader's own judgment.
The contraction, formed by fixing a point over a consonant, is a modern invention.
10, The broad vowels are frequently commuted for each other, when they are not emphatical; and, in like manner, the small vowels may be commuted for each other; as, oiriseall, humble, may be written uirisioll. This change can be made only when the vowel or diphthong is shorts thus bàs, death, is always written with a; but bas, the palm of the hand, may be also written bos.
11. B and p, c and g, d and t, were frequently commuted, in ancient writings; thus agus, or ocus, and; labhairt, or laphairt, speak; cuairt, or cuaird, a visit; and, since it became usual to aspirate consonants, bh and mh, dh and gh, have often been commuted in the same manner; as, adhaigh, or aghaidh, the face.
12. Dh and gh may be written indifferently, in terminations, or where they are not radical; as, biadh, or biaghy meat; fiadhnuise, or fiaghnuise, witness.
13. Grammarians have commonly laid it down as a rule, that f may be eclipsed. by d, m, or t, as well as by. bh; but this is not correct. The examples given of these eclipses are only contractions for mo, do, (or to, instead of do); thus, do fheoil, or to fheoil, thy flesh, is commonly written dfheoil, or tfheoil; and mo fhear, my husband, is written mfhear.
14. It will appear, from these tables, that the greater part of the words in Irish consist of one or two syllables; all radical words do so; but they are very easily com pounded into words of three or four syllables. In studying these tables, therefore, the learner should be accustomed to resolve the polysyllables into their constituent parts, and observe the separate force of each part.
Although the directions already given are most agreeable to the true pronunciation of the Irish language, yet a considerable diversity exists, in the manner of speaking it, ip