Imatges de pÓgina
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the like; but these are evidently, adverbs, requiring the preposition de, or, as it is commonly written, do, after them; as, taobh amach don thigh, the outer side of the house.

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Do, and go, both signify to; but the difference between them (as well remarked by Mr. Stewart) is, that do implies motion towards, and go, motion terminating at an object; chuaidh se do thigh an righ, he went to, or towards the king's house; thainic se go thigh an righ, he came unto the king's house.

as,

De is not used as a simple preposition; but it is clearly distinguished from do, to, in compounds; as, diom, from me, de, or dhe, from him.

95, 96, 97, 98, 99. These words are never used separately, as nouns, yet they appear to have a clear and distinct signification, which may be ascertained from the corresponding phrases.

100. It is more probable that de, of, is the simple preposition, in such phrases as do dhith; although it is always written do.

101. Some other conjunctive phrases might be added to these; but, as they are formed by the combination of the simple conjunctions with other words, it did not seem necessary to insert them.

The common conjunction agus, and, or, as it is often pronounced is, was inadvertently omitted, in this table.

102. With these perhaps may be classed niar, neither.

103. For the use of muna, and mur, see note 92. Many words are used with ma, and go, to form a variety of conjunctive phrases, the meaning of which is always ascertained by the leading word.・

104. No language abounds more in passionate interjections, than the Irish: but it would be vain and useless to attempt an enumeration of them.

105. This is certainly a common, but it is not a correct mode of speaking and writing. The Scottish Galic changes n into mp, before labials; as, for an bàs, the death, they say, am bàs. This licence, for sound's sake, is more allow able than that used in the Irish.

106. This mode, of separating the a and n, has been adopted, in order to accommodate the written to the spoken language; but it should not be practised, as it is commonly done, having the appearance, to the inexperienced reader, of deviating from the general rules of etymology.

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107. If

107. If go de be considered as only an abbreviation for guid è? what (is) it? the phrase will run thus, in English, what is fit) the hour?

108. This is equivalent to the expression, ba saighideoir me, I was a soldier.

109. This is not properly an exception to the general rule; for the latter substantive really forms the subject of a separate proposition; as, mac Joseiph, eadhon, or, is è sin an saor, the son of Joseph, namely, or, that is the carpenter.

110. It may be observed, in general, that the form of the adjective depends upon the noun, only when it immediately follows the noun, in any degree of comparison.

111. The reason of this is well expressed by Mr. Stewart, in the following words (see his Grammar, page 143): "The grammatical distinction, observable in the following examples, is agreeable to the strictest philosophical propriety. "Rinn mis' an scian gheur," I made the sharp knife; here the adjective agrees with the noun, for it modifies the noun, distinguishing that knife from others. "Rinn mis' an scian geur," I made the knife sharp; here the adjective does not agree with the noun, for it modifies not the noun but the verb. It does not characterize the object on which the action is performed; but it combines with the verb in specifying the nature of the operation performed. The expression is equivalent to " gheuraich mi an scian," I sharpened the knife."

112. Sometimes, when possession is strongly expressed, the phrase is changed, by inserting go, with; as, fear go bhfallaing ndeirg, instead of, fear na fallainge deirge, the man of, or, with the red cloak.

113. As this is only a licence, for better sound's sake, it is frequently not done.

114. Le, with, by, or along with, is, very properly, the only sign of the ablative used under this rule; for it implies, not merely a tendency towards, according to the principle of other languages, but a juxta position, and

continuance.

115. Instead of na, than, iona was frequently used, some years since. In Aodh Mhac Aingil, Sgathan na haithrige, printed at Brussels, in the 17th century, it is always iona, before a singular, and ionaid, or inaid, before a plural: but why it should be forced to agree with the number, is difficult to conjecture.

116. Ni, and nic, may be abbreviations for inghean,

or,

or, as it is pronounced in Scotland, and the North of Ireland, nian, a daughter.

117. It seems most convenient to treat of the several kinds of pronouns separately, though it may occasion some repetition; as the use of them is more clearly shewn thus, than by attempting to reduce them to general rules.

118. The anomaly, in the use of these pronouns, was probably introduced, for better sound's sake, and afterwards committed to writing. In the Scottish Galic, inn, ibh, &c. are much more frequently used, as nominatives.

119. This might be variously expressed in Irish; thus, is e an ní a dfag me a nocht faci bhròn, a bheith am acar indiaigh chaich, the thing that left me this night in sorrow, is to be alone after all.

120, 121. A distinction is observed in the use of these compound pronouns. Liom is used to denote mental affection only; but agam, and orm, relate both to mind, and body.

122. As there is nothing, in the Irish language, in which learners are apt to find more difficulty, than in the use of the emphatical increase, the closest attention to these rules is necessary. There is a remarkable analogy between the emphatical Greek particle y, added to pronouns, and the increase, in the Irish language.

123. This is agreeable to the principle of the most polished languages, in which these pronouns alone never can follow the verbs with which they agree.

124. The use of the personal terminations is very inconsiderable, in those parts of Ireland that are adjacent to Scotland. In the latter country they are now little used. But in ancient writings they are continually used. And, in the south and west of Ireland, they are so frequent, in the mouths of the common people, that it occasions a considerable difficulty to an illiterate native of the north in understanding them.

125. The pronoun is never used in the first and second persons of the consuetudinal, after da; as, da mbuailfinn, had I struck; da mbuailfeadh, hadst thou struck.

126. This corresponds exactly to the absolute case, in other languages; but it is much more frequently used, in Irish. For wherever the word when can be used with a noun, or pronoun, in English, it may be turned in this manner, in Irish; as, when the old man heard that, ag gcloinsin sin don tseanduine.

127. This form of expression is much more common,

in

in Irish, than in any modern language; and corresponds, remarkably with the idiom of the Greek language.

28. There is a considerable latitude in the use of this expression. When any thing is to be expressed positively, or definitively, the consuetudinal form is hardly ever used.

129. This corresponds exactly with the second supine, in Latin; as, greanmhar le faicsin, dulce visu, pleasant to see, or to be seen.

130. It is not easy to account for this distinction between masculines and feminines; and, although generally used, it appears almost entirely arbitrary.

131. Chum, for the purpose, is commonly used before the infinitive; as, chuaidh se chum contas a thabhairt, he went to give an account. In rapid speaking, the sign do, or a, is omitted before the infinitive; as, ni tharla dhamh a leithid sin fhaicsin ariamh, I never happened to see the like. And this elliptical form has been adopted in writing, also.

132. Even nouns, and adjectives, are sometimes used in the same manner as reflected verbs; as, ta me mo shuan, I am (in) my sleep; bhi me mo thoirchinn suain, I was (in) my drowsy sleep, or rest.

133. There were some auxiliary verbs in use, anciently, which it is useless to enumerate here, as they are not met with, in any recent manuscript, or publication.

134. This distinction must be considered as purely logical; it is a very nice one, yet the native and illiterate Irish never err in the use of it.

135. May there not be an ellipsis of some noun, after ann? Or is ann bere equivalent to the Greek wr, being? 136. This is upon the same principle, that monosyllabic adjectives, prefixed to their nouns, aspirate them. See page 95, rule 5*.

137. Passive verbs are not susceptible of any influence from particles.

138. This dative, however, is not governed by the adverb, but by the preposition do, to, which follows it; as, angar don teine, near the fire.

139. This ablative is governed by de, of, ag, at, as, out of, or the like, by which the adverb is followed.

140. There is some variety, in the different provinces of Ireland, with respect to the prepositions that aspirate, &c. according to the ear of the speaker; but it is impossible to specify these local varieties.

141. The influence of iar, in this place, is the same as upon verbs. See note 137.

142. Re,

142. Re, with, was commonly written, some time since; and still is, in the Scottish Galic; having the same infinence with le.

143. It is evident, that the genitive here is governed by the noun, which forms the principal part of these expres

sions.

144. This is a licence taken, for sound's sake, deviating from strict orthography, but commonly received, in speaking, and writing.

145. "When two or more nouns, coupled by a conjunction, are governed by a preposition, it is usual to repeat the preposition before each noun; as, air fad agus air leithead, in length and in breadth." Stewart, 165.

146. The influence of some other conjunctions varies, according to the idiom of the place, but the only authentic and original ones are here expressed.

147. It is not uncommon to say, a thiarna Dia, or a thiarna, a Dhe; but the first of these expressions is ungrammatical, and the latter is only a distinct vocative.

148. The adjective, being joined to the noun, is aspirated in this case; and the pronoun may be aspirated or not, according to the ear of the speaker.

END OF PART I.

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