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fire mentioned in our vol. LXVII. p. 877, which confumed upwards of 3000 buildings, and almost entirely deftroyed the finest and largeft fuburb of Conftantinople. Eight miles byond ChouToc, in Romelia, he croffed a river by a bridge of 50 arches, all built with hewn Alone, and neatly turned; but they did not appear neceffary, as there was not a great body of water in the river. (p. 243) The peafantry in general tie all their treafure round their necks, and fome wear 3 or 4000 Venetian fequins, perforated, and faftened by filken ftrings. This cuftom, however, is confined to the unmarried part of the fex, wives having no ornament whatever on that part of their perfons. Many of the houfes at Idas are built within a compound fimilar to thofe of the Bramins and Nairs in India, which makes the town, at a distance, appear much larger than it really is. (pp. 247, 248.) The general-commandant of Tranfylvania had a very high opinion of the English, by whofe troops he had been taken prifoner in Flanders (p. 268.) Baron Brukenthal, civil governor of this province, and near So years old, has a very extenfive collection of paintings, coins, and books, and a beautiful garden, laid out after the English tate. (p. 270.) On the French entering Italy, many of the belt paintings were conveyed to Drefden, whose gallery is fuppofed to contain the largest and beft collection of paintings in Europe. Mr. J. reached Hamburgh 08. 28. He has not fummed up the number of miles which he travelled; but we may pronounce his journal a very ufeful and instructive guide.
19. Letters to a Prebendary, being an Anfaver to Reflections on Popery, by the Rev. J. Starges, LL. D. Prebendary and Chancellor of Winchester, and Chaplain to bis Majefty; with Remarks on the Oppofition of Hoadlyism to the Doctrines of the Church of England, and on various Publications occafioned by the late Civil and Ecclefiafiical Hiftory of Winchefter. By the Rev. John Milner, M. A. F. S. A.
THE caufe of expiring Popery muft be in a rapid decline when fuch tale arguments are repeated in its defence. Credulity and bold affertion, with all the arts of fophiftry and Jefui ilm, will fearce concur to keep it alive; nor will even the many religious establishments, which the lenity of Government permits to be reinftated in this Proteftant and tolerant country, recommend it to
the people by any thing but idle curiofity and the liberality of their fupporters to pervert them from the true religion. In vain are the opinions of certain of the Proteftant clergy, though dignitaries of the Church of England, held up in favour of Popery. The or thodoxy of Bishop Hoadly was never highly thought of; and if he has, or had, any difciples, let their writings or profeffions fpeak for themfelves. The lives even of English faints will not always recommend them. Alfred's memory will be dear to Englishmen on account of his political and military at chievements more than his religious ones; and we can never forget the com. mutation of the crimes of our Saxon princes by their monaftic foundations. Whether this motive be avowed in their charters, or only afferted by a concurrence of hiftorians, recrimination will not ferve as argument for that caufe of which Mr. M. has declared himself the champion, and which he defends, as he afferts the damage done by Bp. Hoadly's monument to the church of Winchefter, inch by inch. It is with regret we fee a local history made a vehicle of religious controversy.
20. Remarks on some Paffages in Mr. Bryant's Publication refpecting the War of Troy. By the Editor of the "Voyage of Hanno."
THE object of these remarks is to obviate the wrong impreffions which Mr. Bryant, we would hope uninten tionally, will awaken by his "Differ tation on the War of Troy," which this writer "regards as nothing less than the fchoolboy's guide to Infidelity. I do not fay that Mr. B. propofed this as the end of his publication; but it is an effect fo certain in my opinion, that he should not appear to belong to that infamous band of men, who would infure the fuccefs of Infidelity by laying its foundation in the nurfery, Scepti cilm may have triumphs on former occafions; but the never before faw the day when she had an opportunity (under the protecting aufpices of an avowlowers from every feminary in the ed believer) of collecting infant folState." (Pref. p. vi-vii.) “In ate tempting to account for the appearance of Mr. B's fingular paradox refpecting the war of Troy, I once fuppofed that riment, to determine what abfurdities they were intended merely as an expe perfons in general would receive with out examination, on the authority of a
name. I would have affigned any motive that was innocent; but the ferious reply to Mr. Morritt obliges me to recur to any other folution than a love of truth. I have, therefore, confidered not fo much the queftion of Homer's veracity, as Mr. B's manner of difputing, almost the only topick not exhaufted by the learning and acutenefs of Mr. M. and Mr. Wakefield." (p. 60.) Mr. B's mifreprefentations are in his account of Paris and Helen; the rape of Helen by Thefeus; the number of fighting men compared with the extent of country; the repair of ship's * the intercourfe between rhe army and the ftates from which it was affembled; the army not recruited; the Grecian fortification; Egyptian cuftom (6th prohibited to the priests only, and not to the people, as Mr. B.); the wild fig tree (gvior, a grove of wild fig. trees); the account of Iphigenia (and Agefilaus's imitation of it); the genealogies of Homer's heroes; Agamemnon Jupiter (or Agamemnon not borrowed from Jupiter Agamemnon); at what time the Greeks advanced beyond Delos, poinically not timidly; the caule of the Troim war (Providence for the inftruction of mankind, that the gods proportioned punishments to crimes, Herodot. II. c. 120); the fituation of Troy (fettled by Strabo); the evidence of Virgil concerning Troy (Antandros not a hill, but a city); concerning Hamaxitus (a port); a peculiarity in the plain of Troy not noticed by Chevalier and Morritt, but obferved by Strabo (determining the two plains, and fhew ing that Hector could not be dragged round the city exifling in his time). The piratical character of the nations at that time is the best motive for the Trojan war Mr. F. concludes with the following just remark on the objects of certain writers in high fashion at prefent." The refpe&tful mention of Mr. Wakefield's name may require an explanation or an apology. I do not confider the fate of Mr. W. as undeferved; but when I compare his offence with that of a man who calls kimfelf a British fenator, and who Spreads blafphemy and obscenity thro the kingdom from family to family with impunity, I turn with some emotions of concern to the cell of Mr. W. I would ask thofe gentlemen, who write and talk about real and nominal
P. 15, 1. ult. for war r. year. 3
Chriflianity, whether they afpire to nothing more than the character of fpeculative faints, or mere religious Dilettanti? The inflance of a legislator (if he be one) corrupting the public morals, and vitiating the public mind, in his writings, was referved, I thought, for England, only when, transformed into the beftial fimilitude of Jacobinilm through the prevalence of infidelity and blafphemy, herefy will certainly become more than refpectable.” (p. 61).
20. A Letter to the Rev. Robert Hawker, D. D. Vicar of the Parish of Charles, Plymouth, occafioned by bis late Expedi tion into Cornwall. By the Rev. R. Polwhele, Vicar of Manaccan.
DR. H. has published fermons on the Holy Ghoft and on the Trinity (for which he acquired the diftinction of D.D.) from the orthodoxy of which he has proceeded to the utmost lengths of enchufiafm and fanaticism. "The fame of his preaching has reached from the Eaft and from the Weft; it has been echoed from the heights of Ma her, and re-echoed from the shores of the Lizard." The Doctor has not yet defcended to the ordinary track of field-preaching. "It is not infinuated that he has preached, or wished to preach, at the meeting-houfe, in the barn, or in the field. His gown and his degree of D. D. will at leaft fave him from such a tranfgreffion. But, under the impofing mafk of his divini ty, he took poffeffion of the pulpits of fome who were unacquainted with his doctrines." (p. 86.) It appears that Cornwall is at this time overrun with Methodists. "The fimple folk are fome in laughing and fome in fainting fits, fome hoarfe with hymns, fome lifting up their voices like trumpets, others proftrate in the duit and bewailing their fins, through almost all the towns and villages in it (p. 81) “in almost every town fometimes rapidly revolting, and fometimes gradually withdrawing themselves from their pa rochial congregation, which they juft, with all the cunning of their mafier Wefley, profeffed to reverence." (p. 67.) "Comparatively fpeaking, the clergy of the Weft of England deferve to be propofed as patterns of religioufnefs, fobriety, and decency. Such was the opinion of the late excellent bishop, Dr. Butler, who, at his primary and his only vifitation, felicitated himself on being appointed to a diocefe where
the clergy, he faid, as compared with thofe of the metropolis and its neigh bourhood, were exemplarily ftrict in the performance of their religious du ties; a part on which he evidently in fifted with heartfelt pleasure and fatis faction. So regular and orderly are the Western clergy as a body, that even the flight exceffes of an individual are noticed with every mark of difapprobation.” (p. 72). From a conviction, that preaching any other Gospel than that as it is in Chrift Jefus muft be attended with the moft pernicious confequences to individual man and to fociety, Mr. P. has dared, in the name of his clerical brethren, to expoftulate with the Doctor, affured that Methodifm, from its firft rife to its prefent ftate of infolent boafting, has here been alarmingly injurious to the community." (p. 60.) "There is a lying fpirit gone forth among the people, which has feduced them from the paths of truth into dark and dangerous ways. That political retrofpe&t, which was fome time fince difcoverable among the lower orders of the community, had no fooner received a check from the hand. of Government, than it was converted into religious turbulence; when the ftream was flopped in its original direction, it burst out into a new channel; and in its prefent course it may be con) fidered as more alarming than in its first. Whether the rage, both of political and religious opinions, refemble or not an epidemical diforder, breaking out periodically among the multitude, is a point of fpeculation which I pretend not to determine. But that the mania of Methodifm has feized the Weft of England, and is now fpreading at this inftant through its remotest parts, I have no hesitation in afferting." (p. 1, 2.) "The feelings of the mora lift revolt at the prospect; and to the politician alfo fuch a view of the Methodifts as is here given must be truly alarming. To him are exhibited a vast body of people, many enthufiafts, and many infidels, all alienated from the Church-government, all looking for leme great emergencies to liberate them from its restraints, and confequently all ripe for rebellion." Mr. P. by extracts from Bp. Lavington's "Enthufalm of Methodifts and Papifls," inftitutes a judicions comparifon between the enthufiafts of that and of the prefent day.
GENT. MAG. March, 1800.
a letter of defence, he returned "A leThe Doctor having addreffed to him cond Letter;" in which, without prefuming to penetrate into the Doctor's motive for his late Weftern journey, he remonftrates against the indecorum, indecency, and irregularity, of his thrufting himself into the churches, to preach to crowds of various religious defcriptions, and on the mifapplication Mr. P. 1793, and now brought forof a private letter written to him by ward with a view of proving the inconfiflency of public cenfure with private profeffions of regard; and ftating that Mr. P. had, in a Literary Journal or Review, for April, 1793 (why not name the Journal?) (poken moft favourably of the Doctor's fermons on the divinity of Chrift, while he has feen no reafon to alter his opinion of the Doctor's sublequent opinions, publications, and conduct. Thus, Sir, like the wind on a fummer's day, that follows the course of the fun, you have almoft gone your when the fun hall withdraw irs light, round. It would be harth to fay that, Yet, "in the black and dark night" you may in a puff expire an Atheist. (Prov. vii. 9) hath many a wanderer perished. May the Almighty grant that no fuch fate be yours!" (p. 30.)
Here, in our opinion, the controhis Hiftory of Devonshire. verfv fhould ftop, and Mr. P. return to
21. The true Causes of our prefent Diftrefs for Provifians, with a natural, eafy, and effectual Plan for the future Prevention from great Calamity; with fome Hints respecting the abfolute Neceffity of an increafed Population. By William Brooke, F. S. A.
THE principal caufes of our distress the immenfe number of horfes kept in are here faid to be monopoly of farms, 'the neglect in breeding cows, horned this kingdom (one million and an half), cattle, hogs, affes, and goats, the almost difule of fish, and careleffefs of porting the clergy; too extenfive hopour fisheries; the prefent mode of fupgrounds; neglect of orcharding, &c. We cannot follow this detultory writer, who is for making us a nation of hufbandmen.
22. The Failure of the French Crufade; or,
WHAT Mr. I's knowledge of the
Eaft Indies enabled him to predict in his two pamphlets (LXIX. 322, 414) has happened in every inftance, both in Egypt and Syria. "The recovery of Egypt, from the laft official accounts, being no less apparent to me than the quick annihilation of the French army, I should deem it unpardonable to be filent on the benefits to the British nation that prefs on my mind from thefe events concerning the intereft of letters and of the publick at large, through the medium of the Eaft India Company." (p. 15.) Every branch of fcience has been fo much promoted by the fuccefs of our arms; and Mr. Irwin recommends, for its furtherance, Mr. Oufeley, whom we have had repeated occafions to applaud, and now regret to fee honoured with the empty title of knighthood: and, by making alliances and friendship with the Turks, we may be as familiar with the ftupendous remains of Thebes and Butus as of any in India. He farther recommends a paffage to India by the Red Sea and Suez (by which Mr. Whitehill, governor of Madras, in 1777, reached Madras in 60 days from London), on cheaper and eafier terms than round the Cape of Good Hope with the fame freight.
23. An Account of the French Expedition to Egypt; comprifing a View of the Country of Lower Egypt, its Cities, Monuments, and Inhabitants, at the Time of the Arrival of the French, and a particular Defcription and Measurement of Pompey's Pillar, illuftated by a Plate. By Charles Norry, Member of the Philotechnical Society, and one of the Architects attached to the Expedition. Tranflated from the French.
NOT only do intercepted letters proclaim, involuntarily, the failure of this boafted expedition, but a narrator of its unfortunate outfet cannot conceal the early defeat of the maritime force attached to it, and the fufferings and difficulties fuftained by the land forces. The plague at Alexandria and maffacre at Cairo marked their way. Our author was glad, for the fake of his health, to take his departure to his dear country, after about three months ftay in Egypt, and having vifited the pyramids and Cairo, and meafured Pompey's pillar. This laft feems to have been his greatest atchievement, and he finds the pedeftal to be 10 feet 5 6 the shaft of one stone 63 the caput
9 10 88
He refers the fhaft to the Prolemies; the other parts are evidently inferior; the infcription on one fide of the pedeftal is not legible. An outline of the whole is prefixed.
24. Some Information respecting the Use of Indian Corn, collected from the Papers of Mr. Winthorp and Mr. Howard; with Obfervations, from M. Parmentier, on the U of Potatoes in Bread; and Mr. Diffie's Directions for the making of Bread in private Families.
THE writer cannot avoid observing the prejudices of the generality of the people of England against all vegetable fubftances compared with wheat. HapPy will he be if he can overcome these prejudices by recommending a fubftitute which was flighted in 1795.
25; The Terms of all the Loans which have been raised for the Public Service during the lafi Fifty Years; with an introductory Account of the principal Loans prior to that Period, and Obfervations on the Rate of Intereft paid for the Money borrowed. By J. J. Grellin.
THE writer fhall speak for himself: "The comparative advantages or difadvantages of the terms on which the public debts have been contracted at different periods, has frequently been mifreprefented, either from mifconception or from party purposes, though it is evidently a fubject on which the truth is very eafily afcertained. The economy or extravagance of every tranfa&tion of this kind depends on its correfponding difagreement with the price of the public funds and the current rate of intereft at which money could be obtained, on good fecurity, at the time the bargain was concluded; and, confequently, a loan on which the higheft is paid may have been obtained on the best terms that could be made at the time it was negociated. The interest paid, however, forms the real bur. then of each loan to the country; for, fince the mode of buying-up flock at the market price has been adopted in the redemption of the debt, the Dominal capital that is created has become but of little importance, though certainly not to be wholly difregarded, even if there is no hope of the redemption of the debt ever bearing a greater proportion to its increase than at prefent. The following pages furnish the means of comparifon with refpect to the amount or intereft of the different loans,
loans, and may, in fome cafes, be ufeful, for the purpose of reference, to perfons concerned in thofe tranfactions." Pref.
26. Reply to the Treatife called "An Anfaver to the Prefident's Addrefs to the Board of Agriculture, on the Subject of Sheep and Wool, &c. So."
THIS replier fhews that the price of Spanish wool is reduced, that British wool is greatly improved, and the price of cloth sinking, by the vent for fine cloth in the Levant, and the goodnefs of broad cloths for home confumption.
27. The Hiftory of the Politicks of Great Britain and France, from the Time of the Conference at Pilnitz to the Declaration of War against Great Britain; with an Appendix, containing a Narrative of the Attempts made by the British Government to reflore Peace. In Two Volumes. By Herbert Marth, Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. THIS work was written originally in German, a language which a long refidence in the University of Leipfig has rendered as familiar to Mr. M. as his own, and publifhed at Leipfig, 1799, under the title of "Hiftorische Ueberficht der Politik Englands und Frankreichs." Its object is, to prove that the English Government really had it not in its power to prevent a rupture with France, and that the public declaration of war proceeded from the latter. It is founded on authentic documents, and facts fupported by authentic documents, French new>-papers, publications, and diplomatic papers*. The first German literary re views, though the contrary opinion had till that time prevailed, pronounced that the British Government was completely rescued from the charges laid to it, and the origin and continuance of it was to be folely afcribed to the mad ambition of the French rulers. The prefent work is not a literal tranflation, but the fame narrative drawn up in another language, and fupported by the fame documents, with additions and alterations. Few perfons, fince the negociation at Lifle, 1797, have afcribed the continuance of the war to the tish Miniftry, but thousands afcribe to
them its commencement. "If, then, the following hiftory should convince thofe who fill entertain this notion that it is founded in error, the diftruft which throws a fhackle on national energy. will be removed, the public burthens will be borne with patience, from the confideration that it was not in the power of Government to prevent the caufe of them; domeftic animofity will ceafe; and the efforts of every individual, who has not loft all affection for his country, will be directed against the French rulers, as the fole authors, as well as protractors, of the prefent war." (Pref. p. xxi.) With regard to himself, Mr. M. profeffes that "he is fincerely attached to the prefent Adminiftration; that he takes a decided lowing hiftory, not on account of any part with it, on the fubject of the folperfonal connexions, for he has not the honour of being acquainted with any one of the members of it, but because a full investigation of the fubject to which the following history relates has convinced him, that not the British Miniftry but the French Rulers alone were the authors of the war." (p. xii.)
In chap. I. it is clearly made appear, that England, fo far from acceding to the conference at Pilnitz, 1791, between the Emperor and King of Pruffia, maintained a determined neutrality.
Chap. II. At the end of that year, the governor of Jamaica fent two frigates to the relief of the town of Cape St. François, in St. Domingo, blockaded by the Negro infurgents; and the National Affembly, after much demur, voted thanks to the English nation. England to poffefs themfelves of this And, though it was in the power of ifland, they refufed the folicitations of the colonifts to throw themselves on their protection till the French Government had thought proper to declare war against Great Britain.
Chap. III. Great Britain returned an of France's notification of his having early and friendly answer to the King accepted the new Conftitution; when a French frigate, convoying ftores to Bri-Tippoo Saib, contrary to the fourth
At the beginning of 1798 Mr. M. drew up a fhort effay, in the form of an epiffle to a friend at Weimar, to fhew that the blame of the origin of the war attached only to the rulers of France; printed in the German Mercury, March, 1798.
article of the treaty of commerce between England and France, having been captured by Sir R. Strachan, though it was immediately reftored, no fatisfaction was offered by the National Affembly for the infult offered to the Britifh flg. This is another proof that
Great Britain was defirous to maintain