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factory on the upper dam, on Mother Brook : placed in it the tub wheel, and common water frames. When the cotton arrived at the factory, it was divided into small parcels and sent to the neighbouring houses to be picked by hand : over the picking department one and sometimes two agents presided. When the cotton was spun, then again it was sent abroad to be wove by hand. Over this department of weaving an agent presided. The spacious store-rooms adjoining the factory weres oon crowded with cotton yarn, and cotton cloths ; where all the goods were retailed excepting what were sent to numerous factors abroad. As their plan was to retail their own goods at their own counter, it became desirable to have a pretty good assortment, and then they began to make sattinets; and the legislature granted them leave so to do, by an additional section to their charter. The high price of cotton goods at that time permitted them to move on unconcerned about the wages of the workmen and agents ; and money flowed pretty freely into the hands of persons, who never before or since that time have been so well off to live. The affairs of this company remained in nearly the same situation until the end of the war in 1814.

The report of net gains at their annual meetings made them joyful and festive anniversaries. The stockholders had not, it is true, yet received any dividends, but the favorable estimate of all their joint property, led them to anticipate large future dividends. Nor was this all. The stock holders were regarded in the favourable light of doing something for their country, as well as a good deal for themselves. The inhabitants felt a degree of pride in having a cotton factory in town, and whenever their friends from the interior visited them, the first thing thought of, was to mention that there was a new cotton factory in the town, and they must go and see its curious and wonderful machinery. At the conclusion of the late war, the corporation was caught with twenty thousand dollars worth of goods on hand, and with forty thousand dollars in debts due to it, in eight or ten states. When cotton goods were so high, as they were during the war, an attempt to manufacture cheaply, was almost superfluous. The peace let in such a flood of cheap goods, that unless cotton cloths could be made cheaply, they could not be made at all. It was then that the genius of man began to interest itself in improving all the operations of spinning, weaving, and bleaching. The changes in this particular, in the Norfolk cotton factory, were not important, because it did not survive for a sufficient length of time. It however commenced the career of change and improvement. The tub wheel gave way for the common water wheel; then came the cotton picker, not that silent and efficient machine now in use, but a buzzing and noisy thing; when it was first put in operation, it sent forth such a scream that it alarmed some in the court house village. Before the power loom and the double speeder could come to the assistance of this company, it was deemed expedient to sell the whole establishment.

Frederick A. Taft was the first regular manufacturer of cotton goods in the town, and he soon showed the difference there is between the produce of labour employed on good machinery, and directed by a single experienced agent, and that which is derived from labour on the imperfect machinery first used, and under the controul of the inex, perienced officers of an aggregate corporation. In 1814, the price of picking cotton by hand, was

5 cts. The price of weaving by the yard, varied from 5 to 14 cts. The price of good cotton shirting

50 cts. The loss to this corporation and many others, was great. In 1826, the price of weaving common

was 9 mills. cotton cloth, per yard, The price of weaving fine cloths for calicoes, was 1 1-4 cts. The price of cotton shirting, was

16 cents. The price of common cloths from

10 to 11 cents. And there was sufficient profit to the manufacturer.

The Dedham manufacturing company bas machinery to produce six thousand yards per week, and seventy persons employed.

Mr. Taft's company produces four thousand yards of fine cotton cloths

per

week. Benjamin Bussey, Esq. has recently erected woollen factories on the two upper dams on Mother Brook. His two brick factories, his two wooden factories on the upper dam, with all their appendages of machine shops, stores, dyehouses, dwelling houses, and other buildings which will of course start up, will of themselves, constitute a little village. The plan of this entire establishment, gives it the capacity to manufacture two hundred and forty yards of fine broad

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cloth every day. This establishment is the pride of Dedham, and its owner a great benefactor to those whom he employs, and of the town. It is not much the extent of these works, as the skill displayed therein, that is to be admired, which in any event secures a good profit, and thereby places them on a permanent foundation.

There are five establishments in this town for making chaises and carriages of all kinds. Some of these are extensive.

Jesse Warren, having succeeded in constructing ploughs in a form much approved, has for several years past made it his whole business to manufacture them on a pretty large scale.

The names of ten persons, inhabitants of this town, are recollected who have been recorded in the patent office at Washington, as the inventors of new and useful machines; among which may be enumerated, a new model for a loom, for a file machine, for a dough kneeder, a rock driller, a machine to weave a hat body, and one to make paper in an improved way. On the list of inventors, Mr. John Goulding merits particular notice. On the subject of new improvements, the world has grown sceptical, and it is unwilling to allow that

any suggested improvement really merits that character, until it be put in successful operation, for experience shows that the progress of real improvement is quite a different thing from the history of patents and inventions. With this test Mr. Goulding's inventions must be judged. He gave evidence of his practical skill in the first operations of Mr. Bussey's woollen factories, enabling those works to manufacture much more cheaply than others. He has recently examined such machines and manufacturing establishments in England and France, as would most probably suggest to his mind useful knowledge in similar works in this country. Since his return from Europe, he has succeeded in two important inventions. By a new arrangement of the pipes in the boiler of the steam engine, he has made so great a saving in fuel, that steam power produceril by a peat fire is cheaper, in this town of rivers and streams, than water power. He has erected an extensive machine shop on the dry land, near a peat meadow, north west of this village, wherein machinery for other factories is made by steam power. This is the test of his invention. He has likewise invented a loom to weave carpets by steam or water power, a thing here

tofore unknown, and deemed impossible. Practical skill, acquired by much experience of mechanical operations, united to an inventive genius alone, enable men to do such things.

THE EFFECTS

Of introducing manufactures and mechanical employments into the town, is exhibited in the progress of society.

In the year 1796, the population In twenty-five years previous to was nearly the same as it had been the year 1826, it had increased for fifty years previous. nearly one quarter, and was rapidly increasing.

In 1793, the sources of income) In 1826, the sources of income were the products of the land, were interest of money, of stocks, wood, ship timber, vegetables, but-labour in the woolen and cotton ter, labour on the land, small trad-factories, carrying in stages and ing, a few mechanical employ-baggage waggons, many kinds of mechanical employments, several additional articles in the produce of the land, labour on farms considerably increased, rents of hou

ments.

Ises.

Amount of town and parish ex-| In 1826, the amount of town and penses one year, three thousand parish expenses was eleven thousnine hundred and forty dollars, and five hundred and seventy-one and paid with difficulty. dollars. The burthen less than in [1796.

Money so scarce that ten years] before it had been the principal cause of a rebellion.

In 1826, it was so plenty that loans were made at five per cent. by inhabitants of this town.

The most enterprising, at this In late years, men of genius and and former periods, sought the capital, and the industrious poor, western wilderness for a resi- have sought this place, where there is variety and abundance of employment.

dence.

TABLE

OF MORTALITY AND COMPARATIVE LONGEVITY.

In February, 1796, the reverend Jason Haven having completed the fortieth year of his ministry, preached a sermon on the occasion, and therein stated, that in the last forty years, five hundred and twenty-nine persons had died in his parish.

406 of which were under the the age of 70 years. 72 between the age of 70 and 80 years.

94 between the age of 80 and 90 years, and

9 over the age of 90 years.

In the first 19 years of his ministry, 1 in SO died annually. In the last 21 years of his ministry, 1 in 53 died annually.

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66 15

66 25

66 50
66 50
66 70 years.

66

In this last period, the dissentary, the small pox, and other epidemics, had occasioned unusual mortality.

February 20, 1918. Dr. Bates, on leaving his parish, preached a sermon on the occasion, and stated therein, that in the fifteen years of his ministry, there had been two hundred and seventy-three deaths in the parish, of which

30 were under the age of 1 year.
23 66 between “

1 and 7 years.
6

7 15
35
55

25
42

70 82 above Included in the last class, were five over ninety years, and one ninety-eight years. This statement is remarkable for the small number of deaths among children, and the great proportion of those whose ages exceeded seventy years, it appearing that one in every three and a half arrived at the age of seventy. No table which I have seen gives a result so favourable to the chance of long life.

June, 1816. The reverend William Cogswell, of the second parish, stated in a sermon, afterwards published, that in the last eighty years, the number of deaths in his parish had been five hundred and eighty-eight. Of that number, 481 died under the age of 70 years. 56 “ between “

66 70 and 80 yrs.

66 80 and 90 yrs. 13 whose ages exceeded 1 in every 5 1-2 arrived at the age of 70 years. 1 in 80 died annually.

Reverend Thomas Thatcher, of the third parish, in 1800, made the following statement in a published sermon.

In the twenty years of his ministry in his parish, there had been one hundred and twenty-eight deaths. 102 under the

age

of 70 years. 9 between the

ages

of 70 and 80 years. 15

66 80 and 90 years. 1 1 supposed to exceed 100 years. 1 in 6 and a fraction, arrived at the age of 70 years.

RECAPITULATION. In the 1st parish, from 1756 to 1796, 1 in 5 arrived at the age of 70. In the 1st parish, from 1803 to 1818, 1 in 31-2“ In the 2nd parish, from 1736 to 1816, 1 in 5 1-2" In the 3rd parish, from 1780 to 1800, 1 in 6

38

90 yrs.

66 90

- 100 years.

+ 70. 66 70. « 70.

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