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Tunc trahat unicuique casulam in sinu per scapulas,
osculans eum, et dicens:3
nuntur, ut patet ex pontificali, et ecclesiæ consuetudine; ergo sentiebat concilium, illam impositionem manus esse de essentia." Opera. Tom. 3. p. 613. De Sacr. Ord. Lib. 1. Cap. ix. Goar takes the same view. Euchol. p. 279. note 11. It is not necessary to quote other writers to the same effect: because in this case, it is not what a single doctor, or ten doctors have said, but what the Council of Trent has not feared seemingly to set its seal to: namely, this: that for 1000 years the service for the ordination of priests wanted an essential part.
The true explanation is, that, there being inherent in the priestly office, power over both the mystical and the eucharistical body of Christ, power, that is, to consecrate the sacred elements of Bread and Wine, and power to rule and to absolve the living members of the Church militant, this power was given entirely and at once, by the single and first imposition of hands. It was very wise in the revisers of our ordinal not to omit this lately added clause, "Whose sins thou dost forgive, they are forgiven; and whose sins thou dost retain, they are retained:" but it was still more wise and accordant with all ancient precedent both of opinion and practice, by uniting the two
Forms, and restoring the one imposition of hands, to remove all doubts and difficulties upon the point.
2 See above Note 98.
3 The Roman rubric somewhat explains this: "Deinde explicans casulam, quam unusquisque habet super humeros complicatam, induit illa quemlibet, singulis dicens: Stola innocentiæ induat te Dominus." The form does not seem very appropriate.
Also in the modern Roman use, there here follows, as in our own ordinal in another place, an oath or promise of canonical obedience. The rubric is "Et mox unusquisque iterum ad pontificem accedit, et genuflexus ponit manus suas junctas inter manus pontificis dicentis cuilibet, si suus est ordinarius, Promittis mihi, et successoribus meis reverentiam et obedientiam? et ille respondet: Promitto." Both Martene and Catalani agree in the fact that this is a ceremony of late introduction, at least in this place, after communion. But for the act of promising obedience, by the priest to his bishop, at some time before, and generally immediately before, the rite itself of ordination, we have sufficient evidence. And the present ordinal of the Church of England, in this matter also, has returned to a most
Pax Domini sit semper tecum.
Et per manus commendet se orationibus eorum singulis, dicens:
Ora pro me, frater.
Sequitur finalis benedictio cum nota stando, et ad eos
Benedictio Dei Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti, descendat super vos, ut sitis benedicti in ordine sacerdotali, et offeratis placabiles hostias pro peccatis atque offensionibus populi, omnipotenti Deo: cui est honor, et gloria, in sæcula sæculorum. Amen.5 Quibus expletis, proponat eis episcopus stando sine nota:6
just and primitive observance.
Thus, Martene cites some pontificals of about the xith century, in which, at the commencement of the office, we find this question made by the bishop. "Vis episcopo tuo, ad cujus parochiam ordinandus es, obediens et consentiens esse, secundum justitiam et ministerium." To which the candidate is to reply, "Volo." But this learned writer might also have appealed to the same canon (the xth) of the Council of Toledo, A.D. 675, which I quoted above: "Placuit huic sancto concilio ut debitum per omnia honorem, atque obsequii reverentiam præeminenti sibi unusquisque dependat, juxta illud beati papæ Leonis edictum; Qui scit se quibusdam esse præpositum,
non moleste ferat aliquem sibi esse prælatum, sed obedientiam quam exigit, etiam ipse dependat." Concil. Mansi. Tom. xi. Col. 143.
4 " Et episcopus complectens indices utriusque manus cujuslibet ordinati sacerdotis, osculando dicat: Ora pro me, frater. Et tunc redeat ad altare, et super ordinatos sacerdotes dicat benedictionem: Benedictio Dei, etc." Pontif. Exon.
The Bangor MS. agrees with the text; except that it calls the benediction, "communis benedictio."
5" Et moneantur attente audire." Rubr. Pontif. Exon.
It does not appear that this
Quia res quam tractaturi estis satis periculosa est, fratres carissimi, moneo ut diligenter et honeste totius missæ ordinem, et consecrationem, et fractionem, atque communicationem, ab aliis jam doctis sacerdotibus discatis, priusquam missam cantare præsumatis.?
Deinde archidiaconus injungat eis novem missas; videlicet, tres missas de Trinitate, tres de sancta Maria, pro statu universalis ecclesiæ, et tranquillitate regis et regni, et prosperitate domni, et tres missas de Requiem,
admonition can be traced earlier than to the 13th century. Still there are many evidences which shew that the practice of diligently learning the duties of their office, before actually entering upon them, was common long before. Nor could the necessity of it be light, when we remember the intricacy and multitude of the rubrics which the newly ordained priests were to observe.
7 “Hic injungatur eis aliqua quotidiana pænitentia, ps. Ad te levavi: vel aliquis alius psalmus. Hic incipiatur postcommunio. Restat ut dicatur collecta missæ ad complendum." Rubr. Pontif. Bangor.
"Quo dicto, dicatur postcommunio." Rubr. Pontif. Exon.
* None of the early pontificals, or the ancient sacramentaries, have any notice to this effect; it is therefore of late introduction. The utmost, which appears in any of them to lead to it, is a simple and religious request by the bishop that the newly ordained
should pray for him. But these directions to say certain prayers, psalms, or masses, which as the reader has seen, has been divided in the office in our text, into several admonitions by the archdeacon to each degree in the ministry, have been collected by the modern Roman pontifical, into one set form, to be solemnly pronounced by the bishop, after the postcommunion, and the blessing. I think it right to extract it, bearing, as it does, on much that has gone before.
"Singuli ad primam tonsuram, vel ad quatuor minores ordines promoti, dicite semel psalmos pœnitentiales, cum litaniis, versiculis, et orationibus. Ad subdiaconatum, vel diaconatum, nocturnum talis diei. Ad presbyteratum vero ordinati post primam vestram missam, tres alias missas, videlicet, unam de Spiritu Sancto, aliam de beata Maria semper virgine, tertiam pro fidelibus defunctis dicite, et omnipotentem Deum etiam pro me orate." Pontif. Rom
pro animabus patris et matris et pro salute omnium fidelium defunctorum, vel injungatur eis aliqua alia quotidiana pænitentia, videlicet psalmus Ad te levavi vel aliquis alius psalmus. Et domnus episcopus concedat indulgentiam quadraginta dierum omnibus audientibus eorum primas missas.
His expletis, dicat episcopus postcommunionem: Quæsumus Domine, Deus noster, ut sacrosancta mysteria, quæ pro reparationis nostræ munimine contulisti, et præsens nobis remedium esse facias et futurum.
Quos tuis, Domine, reficis sacramentis, continuis attolle benignus auxiliis, ut tuæ redemptionis effectum et mysteriis capiamus et moribus. Per Dominum.9 Deinde dicat diaconus: Benedicamus Domino.10
9"Et sic finiatur missa: injungantur cuilibet tres missæ pro statu ecclesiæ, de Trinitate, de Sancto Spiritu, et de beata virgine Maria. Et quilibet ordinatus lavet manus suas cum sale et aqua, antequam exeat ecclesia: postea celebretur indulgentia xl dierum, omnibus primam missam eorum audientibus.
"Quando episcopus vult offerre minores ordines in dominicis vel in festis, responsoria, lectiones [?], dicta oratione principali, conveniant ante episcopum ordinandi, vocati et nomine sui singillatim, et unus archidiaconus, vel sacerdos, seu clericus, sonora voce, Postulat. Et cætera sicut in generalibus est dictum: tunc episcopus tradet illis claves ecclesiæ, et
omnia alia quæ in generalibus ordinibus habentur, dimittendo lectiones, et gradualia, quæ tunc temporis non habentur." Pontif. Exon.
10 This of course would not be said at times when the "Ite, missa est," was, according to the use of Salisbury, the appointed form. The student should refer to "the Ancient Liturgy," (second edit :) p. 136. note 80. And here I would again remind him, that all those parts of the text, which refer to the communion service of the day, the collects, gradual, epistle, secrets, &c., would also change according to the proper requirements of the season at which the ordinations took place.
Postea dicat episcopus: Placeat tibi Sancta Trinitas: et cætera, more solito. Missa completa, recedant sacerdotes ad lavandum manus."
Iste modus prædictus servetur in omnibus aliis ordinibus subsequentibus.12
"This washing of the hands of the priests, is directed to be done according to the modern use of the Church of Rome, in the middle of the office. "Interea dum offertorium cantatur, vel etiam prius, ordinati sacerdotes poterunt lavare manus suas cum medulla panis, et aqua bene mundare, atque extergere mappulis illis, quibus ligatæ erant, et aqua ablutionis hujusmodi projiciatur in sacrarium." Rubr. Pontif. Rom. No direction to this effect is to be found in the early pontificals, and it was introduced, as a consequence of the extreme reverence which began in the middle ages to be paid to the consecrated oil, whether chrism or not, which was used in
VOL. III. .
the unction. To the same purpose, were the careful directions, which were so frequently repeated as to the unction at confirmation; see Vol. 1. p. ccxiv: and above, as to coronations, p. 24.
12 That is, at the other Ember days, or seasons of general ordinations. The Salisbury pontifical, from which the text is taken, contains, which is not the case with all pontificals, the variations of lections, epistles, gospels, collects, &c., according to the different times of the year. Each of them, as it occurs in its place in the manuscript, referring back to this office of the Ember-day in Advent, for those portions of it which related to the ordination itself, and were unchangeable.