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normi. 1758. folio. And Benedict. xiv. opera. tom. 12. p. 247. etc. tom. 11. p. 42. Compare, Ellis. Orig. letters. series. 3. vol. 2. p. 226.
P. ccxi. l. 10. "Si quis baptizat pro temeritate, non ordinatus, abjiciendus est extra ecclesiam, et nunquam ordinetur." Theodori, liber pænit. cap. 38. 4. I have already made some remarks in other parts of this work, upon the prohibition even to deacons to baptize, except in cases of necessity. There is a remarkable case however, recorded in Matthew Paris: the baptism of prince Edward, eldest son of Henry III. "Carleolensis episcopus infantem catechizavit, legatus eundem baptizavit, licet non esset sacerdos; archiepiscopus autem Cantuariensis ipsum confirmavit." Hist. p. 413. The historian expresses his own astonishment at this circumstance.
P. ccxiv. l. 28. "in baptisterio." "i. e. loco in ecclesia, ubi fit baptismus. Non enim debes intelligere quod ista lavatio fiat in fonte baptismali, nec de aqua fontis, sed debet fieri in loco ubi scituatur fons, viz. juxta ipsam fontem." Lyndwood. Lib. 1. tit. 6. Sacerdotis. On the other hand, there is a constitution, in the preceding century, of the diocese of Worcester :
qui confirmati fuerint, post triduum portentur ad ecclesiam, in fonte baptismatis abluendi." Concil. tom. 1. p. 667.
P. ccxxi. l. 17. The following is the form of certificate appointed in the Sarum Manuals. "Forma literæ testimonialis bannorum proclamatorum pro matrimonio contrahendo. Universis præsentes literas inspecturis, curatus ecclesiæ parochialis de N. diœcesiscurato de N. ejusdem diœcesis salutem in Domino. Notum facimus quod Richardus N. parochianus noster non est in registris nostris aliqua excommunicationis
sententia innodatus. Nec scimus in eo aliquod impedimentum canonicum propter quod ecclesiastica sacramenta sibi debeant denegari, seu etiam retardari. Insuper tria banna per tres dies dominicos, sive festivos solennes, ad solemnizationem matrimonii futuri de ipso cum Margareta N. in ecclesia nostra prædicta, palam et publice proclamavimus seu proclamari fecimus: quibus nullus se opposuit seu contradixit. Rogamus igitur discretionem vestram, quatenus dictum N. parochianum nostrum cum Margareta N. parochiana vestra per verba de præsenti, in ecclesia vestra, vel matrimonialiter copuletis: nisi quod ex parte vestra sit aliquod aliud impedimentum quod obsistat. Et hæc omnibus quorum interest aut interesse poterit in futurum tenore præsentium certificamus. Datum sub sigillo ecclesiæ nostræ præfatæ. Anno, N. die, N. mensis, N.”
Edit. 1543. 4to. fol. clxvij.
P. ccxxiv. l. 12. The synod of Exeter, in 1287, specifies the penalty upon neglect. "Quodsi quenquam juvenem vel senem culpa, negligentia, vel absentia sui sacerdotis (quod absit) absque baptismo, confessione, dominici corporis perceptione, ac extrema unctione præveniri morte contigerit; sacerdos super hoc convictus, a celebratione divinorum protinus suspendatur; cujus suspensio minime relaxetur, donec tam grande crimen pœnitentia condigna meruerit expiari." Concil. tom. 2. p. 135.
P. ccxxviij. l. 2. The old histories and chronicles are full of proofs of the popular belief, as regarded the necessity of the viaticum. For example, see Matthew Paris, pp. 6. 156. 183. 306. 503. But still it was not believed, or taught, that mere reception of the holy Eucharist, upon a death-bed, was alone sufficient to secure salvation. Arnold, in the curious miscellany
called his chronicle, has an extract which I would quote: concerning a young man, who “ was howsled and anelid and soo died, and a fewe daies after he apiered-and seid he was dampned, for he had will if he myght haue lyued to haue turned to his synne ageyn:-therefore, he sayd, alle my confession and all that I did in ressauying my sacramentis, it auayled me not;-for our Lord seyth in the gospel of John, qui manducat et bibit indigne judicium sibi manducat et bibit. etc." p. 223.
There are instances in which the term “viaticum” is not to be understood of the last communion of the sick. Thus, in the constitutions of Otho; "Prædictæ vero concubinæ clericorum, ab ingressu ecclesiæ, dum celebrantur divina, penitus arceantur, nec eis paschali tempore tribuatur viaticum, cum judicium sibi manducant et bibunt, qui illud indigne assumunt." Concil. tom. 2. p. 5. Compare also, the constitutions of archbishop Peckham, ibid. p. 52. in which our Blessed Lord is said to have given Himself, "infinito amore, in viaticum ecclesiæ."
During pestilence, permission was sometimes granted, to receive the viaticum at the hands of a deacon: but not extreme unction: "sacramentum eucharistiæ in absentia presbyteri poterit per diaconum ministrari. Si vero non sit presbyter, qui sacramentum unctionis extremæ ministret, debet, sicut in aliis, fides sufficere sacramenti." Ibid. p. 746. See above, p. cix. and, vol. 1. p. 89.
The light, so frequently ordered in earlier times, was forbidden in 1549. "Item, that going to the sick with the sacrament the minister have not with him either light or bells." But, in the reign of Q. Mary, the old rules were enjoined once more, as appears from one of cardinal Pole's visitation articles, of 1557: "Whether
the sacrament be carried devoutly to them that fall sick, with light, and with a little sacring bell?" Ibid. tom. 4. p. 33. 170. Compare the 12th decree of Pole's Reformatio Angliæ.
At the administration of the communion to the sick a candle was to be always lighted, according to some constitutions of the diocese of Sodor, in 1291: and this is a rule which was, I have little doubt, generally observed, as appears from illuminations in manuscripts. "Cum ad infirmos accesserint, moneant eos salubriter, nec aliquos sine candela accensa de cera communicet.' Concil. tom. 2. 175. Clergy, whilst carrying the Holy Eucharist to the sick, were privileged from arrest; and an infringement of this, formed one of the grounds of complaint of the convocation of 1399. Ibid. tom. 3. 245. Foreign canonists have extended this privilege so far, as to assert that persons might avail themselves of the protection of such a procession: "sacerdos eucharistiam deferens ad se confugientibus asylum præstat." Cf. Devoti. Instit. Canon. tom. 2. p. 333. Ferrarius. Bibliotheca. verb. Immunitas. Giraldus. Erpos. Juris. pontif. 1. §. 637.
P. ccxxxiv. l. 33. From a remark in Matthew Paris, Hist. p. 707, it would seem, that after the rite of extreme unction all ornaments were removed from the person and from the same author, that in some monasteries, certainly in S. Alban's, the sick members were conveyed to the infirmary to receive it. "Sus
tentantes eum hinc inde fratres, duxerunt eum prout præcepit in infirmariam, ubi solemniter super lapidem ad hoc consuetum, oleo sancto infirmorum est inunctus, et salutis viatico communitus." p. 1045.
P. ccxl. l. 5. A payment or fee was due for this. Lanfranc says, in an epistle to a bishop of Chichester: "Chrisma tamen a vobis accipiant, et ea, quæ antiqui
tus instituta sunt, in chrismatis acceptione persolvant.” These fees were sometimes granted to the support of monasteries: "ego Ernulphus, episcopus, concessi in perpetuum ad ædificandas et sustentandas domos monachorum, denarios, quos presbyteri parochiani solent reddere, quando chrisma accipiunt." Textus Roffen. p. 192: and the same manuscript has an account of the various payments which were to be made by each parish and chapelry in the diocese. p. 228. A singular use also appears very anciently to have been made of these periodical attendances upon their diocesan by the parochial clergy. "We enjoin, that every priest be able to declare, when he fetches chrism, what he has done in prayers for king and bishop." Canons under K. Edgar. Thorpe. vol. 2. p. 259. Probably it was an opportunity for the purpose of making other enquiries, into the condition of the people and clergy. Hence, there were frequent rules passed for the residence of bishops at their cathedrals, on the stated times of the year for the consecration of chrism: compare the Concilia: tom. 2. p. 10. tom. 3. p. 613.
Monasteries frequently obtained the privilege of applying to any bishop, (to the prejudice of their diocesan) for chrism. See above, p. cxxvi, and Thorn's chronicle, Script. x. tom. 2. p. 1835.
P. ccxlj. l. 15. The penitential of archbishop Theodore says: "si quis sepulchrum violaverit. vij. annos, iij. in pane et aqua." Thorpe, Anglo-saxon laws. vol. 2. p. 28. And the excerpts of Egbert add to this rule; "Si clericus in demoliendis sepulchris fuerit deprehensus, a clericatus ordine pro sacrilegio submoveatur." ibid. p. 108. In later years, one of the canons under king Edgar, laid upon penitents the especial duty of burying the dead. ibid. p. 283. Compare the