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ut divinitatis providentia, quæ ipsum ad tanti regimen ordinavit imperii, sibi largiri dignetur justitiam, pietatem, et prudentiam. Justitiam circa subjectos, pietatem circa Deum, et prudentiam circa regni gubernationem, quatenus nullo favore mollitus, nullis inimicitiis commotus, nulla concupiscentia illectus, nullaque alia passione constrictus, in semitis harum virtutum inoffenso pede valeat pertransire.

Et quia oportet principem antedictum de hiis et aliis observantiis, quæ ad dictam spectant coronationem, plenius informari, abbas Westm. qui pro tempore fuerit, in hiis et consimilibus principis erit eruditor, ad ipsum vero hoc officium solummodo spectat. Et si dictus abbas de medio fuerit sublatus, et alius in abbatem ejusdem loci nondum fuerit confirmatus, qui dictum officium rite non poterit adimplere, aut dictus abbas aliunde fuerit impeditus quominus illud officium valeat exequi, tunc eligatur unus ex assensu prioris et conventus dicti monasterii, qui per omnia sit idoneus, dictum principem in hujusmodi observantiis informare, secundum modum et consuetudinem ab antiquissimis temporibus hactenus usitatum.*

Die vero præfinito, quo novus rex consecrandus est, summo mane conveniant prælati et nobiles in palatio regio apud Westm. tractaturi de novi regis consecra

4 "The Abbot of Westmynster shall enforme the kynge. Also it is to wit that the Abbot of Westmynster, which is for the tyme, two dayes othir before the coronacyon shall enform them of dyuers observaunces that they shall doo and kepe in their coronacion, and warne them to shryue

and to clense theire conscience before the hooly anoynting." Lansdown MS. 285.

"The abbote of Westm. ought alwey to be nere the kyng for his informacion in such thyngs as concerneth the solempnitee of the Coronacion." Devyse for Hen. VIII.

tione, et electione, et de legibus et consuetudinibus regni confirmandis, firmiter statuendis.

Hiis sub universorum concordia peractis, provideatur quod in aula regia majori sedes eminens sit, pannis sericis et inauratis decenter ornata, super quem dictus rex regnaturus cum omni mansuetudine et reverentia elevetur, ipso tamen prius ut moris est balneato et induto mundissimis vestibus, et caligis tantummodo calciato.5

Hoc modis omnibus observato, quod sicut in principe per actualem lotionem et vestimentorum decorem corpus nitescit, sic per veram et præviam confessionem ac compunctionis dolorem anima ipsa splendescat.

Hiis debite peractis, ordinetur in ecclesia per archiepiscopos, episcopos, abbatem, et conventum Westm. processio in capis sericis, cum textibus, et thuribulis, et aliis quæ processioni conveniunt; et sic induti processio

5 Hence we learn the proper meaning of the term "barefooted" in the old chronicles, when applied to this royal procession; which has been much mistaken by various writers. Thus, for example, in a modern popular, and rather superficial book, Knight's London, we are told of Richard the Third's coronation, that " perhaps the most striking feature of the event, is Richard's exhibition of humility, -he actually walked barefoot into the Abbey." Vol. 4. p. 91. No authority is given for this statement, but it is to be traced to Grafton: who says, "from thence the king and the queene goyng vpon raye cloth barefooted, etc."

Vol. 2. p. 115. But the meaning both of Grafton and of the rubric in the text is, that the king was not to wear sandals, or soles, but buskins only. Prynne, in his Signal Loyalty, has printed a "Forma coronationis regum et reginarum Angliæ," said to have been extracted from the Liber Regalis, but whether by himself or not, does not appear: it certainly differs from it. However, one sentence explains the meaning of "barefoot." "Item dicto die princeps coronandus- -tantummodo caligis sine sotularibus calcietur." p. 242.

See above: p. 4, note 1.

naliter occurrant in palatio antedicto.

Etenim regni prælatis et conventui Westm. solum pertinet regi futuro cum processionis solempnitate occurrere, et ipsum in ecclesiam prædictam psallendo antecedere, ea decantantes quæ in receptione regum debent decantari. Et faciet dominus. N. de Bellocampo Bedefordiæ, qui ab antiquo eleemosynariæ regiæ habet officium, pannum virgulatum, sive burellum, prosterni sub pedibus regis incedentis a palatio usque pulpitum antedictum infra ecclesiam Westm., ut prætactum est, præparatum.

8

Quod quidem pulpitum una cum gradibus, ex utraque parte ejusdem existentibus, tapetis? per regios ministros ad hoc præparatis sterni debet per totum.

In the letter of archbishop Cranmer, mentioned above in the dissertation, giving an account of the coronation of Anne Boleyn, is the following: "In the mornynge ther assymbled withe me at Westminster Churche the bysshop of Yorke, etc. the abbote of Westminstre with x or xij moo abbottes, whiche all revestred ourselfs in our pontificalibus, and, soo furnysshed, with our crosses and crossiers, procedid oute of th' abbey in a procession vnto Westminstre Hall, where we receyved the Queene, etc." Archæologia, vol. 18. p. 80.

53. I

8 See above, note 70, p. may here add the following. "The prynce shall follow the procession into the chirche. And he shall go vpon newe ray cloth laide vnder his fete." Lansdown MS. 285.

"The way from thense [the

Hall] to the pulpytt in Westm. chirche arrayed vnder foote with raye cloth by the king's grete Awmoner of England, to be had of the king's greate Warderobe." Devyse for Hen. VIII.

9 The Lansdown MS.285, contains "The maner and forme of the kyngis and quenes coronacion in Englonde." I shall have occasion to cite this again, and shall refer to it, as before, by its number in the catalogue. Upon "the pulpite" it directs:

"Also in Westmynster chirche must be ordeynde a pulpit with grees on euery side. And that must be faire araide with clothes of silke, of golde, and aboute on the grounde both. the grounde both. The Kynges Trone. Also in that pulpit shall be a Roiall trone. And a Roiall see in the which the kyng shall sit. And it shall also bee roially

In circuitu vero summitatis pulpiti dependentur panni serici et inaurati. Thronus vero in quo rex ipse residere debet, de quo prætactum est, palliis sericis ac pretiosissimis predicti regis camerarios 10 per totum erit coopertus, quissinis etiam per nominatos camerarios in præfato throno repositis.

Pars autem panni illius virgulati, sive burelli, quæ per dictum eleemosynarium, ut præfatum est, sub pedibus regis incedentis extenditur, infra ecclesiam cedet semper in usus sacristæ loci, et reliqua pars tota quæ est extra ecclesiam distribuetur pauperibus per manus eleemosynarii supradicti.

Regem igitur coronandum, dictis prælatis ac monachis præcedentibus, episcopus Dunelm. videlicet et Bathon. ex antiqua consuetudine, si præsentes affuerint, dictum regem hinc inde sustentabunt. Cancellarius vero, si fuerit episcopus," tum calice lapideo

araide with quysshyns, and clothes of gold and silke."

The "Devyse" for K. Henry VIII. states: "The pulpit is to be couered with rede worsted. In the middes wherin must be two sieges royall" [for himself and queen Katherine]" with cloth of golde and quysshyns of the same. Save it is to wite, that the king's siege shall be made a good deal higher than the quenes, whiche shall be on the lyfte hande of the kyngis, and lower than it."

A very ancient, if not contemporary, English account of the coronation of Henry VI. also speaks of the pulpit to be covered in the same way, with red cloth.

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sancti Edwardi, qui est de regalibus," pontificalibus indutus regem immediate est præcessurus. Quem cum patena thesaurarius, si episcopus fuerit, vel abbas, modo consimili pro more antecedat, pontificaliter indutus, dictamque patenam honorifice eodem modo tenebit, quo patena a subdiacono inter secreta missæ ante altare in altum teneri solet.13 Si vero contigerit dictos cancellarium et thesaurarium episcopos non esse, alii per regem assignentur episcopi, qui modo prædicto pontificaliter induti, cum dictis calice et patena regem in dicta processione, modo prædicto, antecedant. Et modo conformi assignentur duo alii episcopi, qui regem

to be appoynted to bere the patente."

This would indeed be puzzling, if we had not the exposition of our text; which is borne out by the following:

"The beryng of seynt Edwardis chalis. Also the Caunceller of Englond, yf he be a bisshop, in his pontificall aray, shall bere before the kyng in his procession the seide Chalys, for a grete rialtee and solempnitee.

"The beryng of the Paten. Also the Tresourer of Englonde, yif he bee a bisshop, in the pontificall aray, shall bere the patene before the kyng in procession, and hee shall goo before the Chaunceller." Lansdown MS. 285.

12The grete solempne chales of seynt Edward, the which chales by seynte Edwardis dayes was preyesed xxxM'. marc." Account of coron. of Hen. VI.

"The abbot of Westm. shall mynister to hym the wyne of a stone Chalys of the Regalies." Lansdown MS. 285.

13 I must refer the reader to my work on the "Ancient Liturgy,” p. 59, Note 73 (2nd edit.) From the reference in the text above, it would seem that, at least in the church of Westminster, the custom of the subdeacon to receive and hold the paten, was then observed in England.

Among the ornaments and furniture given by Abbot Godfrey to his church at Peterborough, A. D. 1316, were, " magno altari quinque velamina de albo serico cum aurifrigio ornata, pro patenario in principalibus festis patenam deportandam." Walter de Whytleseye: Coenobii Burgensis Hist. (Edit. Sparkes. Lond. 1723. p. 169.)

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