Imatges de pÓgina

infinitive, and participle, imply the force of nouns, in Irish, as in all other languages.

39. These, and the like, may more properly be considered as participial phrases, composed of the infinitive, . and a preposition, than as simple participles.

40. This second form of the present tense is the origiñal, and correct one;. the first is nothing more than the simple verb, with a prefixed; but they are both very commonly used, both in writing and speaking.

41. In all interrogations, an? is either expressed or understood; sometimes it is pronounced å, on account of the following consonant; sometimes it is entirely omitted, as in the present instance; and sometimes, before b, it is changed into m; as, a mbuailir? wilt ihou strike?

42. This form of the preter tense differs from the preceding, in the omission of the sign do. The sign of the preter was anciently written ro, or ad, as well as do; but in modern speaking, and writing, it is very often omitted, and the tense is ascertained by the form of the verb. :43. Instead of raibh siad, in the third person plural, rabhadar was commonly in use some time since; but it is hardly understood at present.

44. These persons are indifferently written biann, or bionn. (See note 10.) This consuetudinal tense, (which some writers make a separate mood), is very much used, in all verbs, to denote an usual or habitual state of acting or being:

45. T'he interrogative an? is here changed into m, for sound's sake, the a being usually omitted. (See note 41.)

46. The 'second person plural is sometimes written beithi, instead of beidh, ye shall be.

47. In such expressions as these, the relative a, who, is. always expressed or understood.

48. Muna is most correctly the sign of this tense; and mur, which is also used, is nothing more than a rapid and vulgar manner of expression.

49. This also may be irritten bbias; or, as it is sometimes pronounced, bheadhas.

50. Mor is frequently used, instead of muna, in this tense, as in the present, negative, subjunctive.

'51. These expressions are literally translated, it were good with me that I were; and, it were better with me. that I were. Many such phrases are used; as, budh mhian liom, I desire; is truagh liom nach raibh me, I am sorry I am not. 52. The potential can hardly be called a simple mood,


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in Irish, as it is always formed by the combination of two or more words. These forms of expression, however, are extremely common, and necessary to be well understood. And, as they are equivalent to the compound moods and tenses of the English, and other languages, it seems proper to arrange them under the title of a separate mood.

53. Many regular verbs might be exhibited as 'examples, all differing in some minute particulars; but a remarkable proof of that which is chosen being one of the most proper is, that it is the same which has been adopted by Mr. Stewart, in his Galie grammar, published long since this was written.

54. In these expressions, (as in those noted 47,) the relative a, who, which, is always expressed or understood.

55. The sign do is fréquently omitted in this tense; and the personal terminations are seldom used in vulgar conversation. In the Erse dialect, they are entirely X omitted.

In old manuscripts, the termination seam, or siom, is sometimes written in the first person plural; as, do bhuailseam, for, do bhuaileamar, we struck.

56. To these may be added the preter interrogative, negative, nachar bhuail me, did I not strike? Nar is sometimes written for vachar, by mistake.

57. The second person plural is sometimes written buailfidhe; and the third person, buailfid. The f, in the first form of the future, is introduced in order to give more strength to the expression; and the termination is written indiHerently ead, or id, when the penult ends in a'small vowel; as, brisfead, or, brisfid, I shall, or, will break,

But if the penult be broad, ad only is used; as, casfad, I shull, or, will troist. There are many verbs, however, which do'not admit f in the future.

58. The same'observation, with respect to the relative, which is made, notes 47, and 54, is to be continued here.

59. When the penult ends in a broad vowel, the termination of this tense is regularly faim; as, da gcasfainn.

But more usually a broad vowel is inserted, before inn, to correspond with that in the penalt; as, dá gcustainn, or gcasfuinn, had I twisted.

The f is frequently omitted in this tense, except in the second person singular: and the second person plural is freqnently used, without the pronoun. Tlie orthography of the several persons is rarious, in different manuscripts, but still the radical sounds are retained; as, Lince

Da read them Awaits Suel. fram. Min 1801

sent ;

Shad 1, or if Da gcuirea- } had we sent. Da gcuirinn,

( I had sent; } mois, Da gcuirfea,

hadst thou ( Da gcurthaoi, or,

or, had ye sent. Da gcuirthea,

Da gcuirfithe, , Da gcuireadh se, had he sent; Da gcuiridis, had they sent.

60. It will be an useful exercise for the learner, here, to form a number of potential phrases, by combining liom, leat, &c. damh, duit, &c. with such words as those exhibited in these examples.

61. The simple participle is buailte. The termination is somewhat various, in different verbs: see page 66, Eormation of the passive voice. Thus, when the last vowel

of the penult is broad, the termination is ta; as, casta, - twisted; or an i is inserted in the penult; as, brugh bruigbtę, bruised. When the termination of the imperative is a soft guttural, the t is often aspirated, for sound's sake; as, giorruigh, shorten, giorruighte, or rather giorruighthe, shortened.

62. This termination is often lengthened by poetic invention, dh being inserted before the last syllable; as, buailfidhear, for buailfear,

63. The preter negative may be formed thus; muna be gur bualadh

me; or, muna mbuailfidh me. 64. These verbs nearly correspond, in their nature, to those commonly denominated neuter. But they are not so numerous, as none of them are used to denote any strong exertion, even when the action does not fall upon another object.

65. The observation made on the letter a, with respect to the preposition ann, is fully exemplified here, and throughout these verbs. See also page 92, rule 10*.

66. This interrogative can hardly be used, in the first person, but it is exhibited here, for the sake of uniformity.

67. As it has been more than once observed in other notes, there is some variety in this tense, as spoken in different places; thus, Ni choidealam, ni choidealfad, or nị choideala me, I will

not sleep. A gcoidealfad? a gcoidealam? &c. shull 1 sleep? &c.

68. As the potential mood is formed, in these verbs, by aid of the same words that are already exbibited in bi, and buail, it is unnecessary to repeat it here. It may be almost superfluous to observe, that reflected verbs, implying no action done to another, are incapable of being inflected in the passive voice.

69. Having

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69. Having studied the full examples of conjugations, the learner will bere see the original' simplicity, and remarkable regularity, of the Irish verbs. That the imperative is the root, from which all the other parts are formed, will be evident, on the slightest inspection. The same observation occurred to Mr. Stewart (Galic Grammar, page 82); but it is somewhat singular, that, in giving the examples of the conjugations, he does not place the imperative first in order.

70. The form, do bhuaileadh, corresponds more exactly with the general rule; although do bhualadh is more com

The same may perhaps be observed of some other verbs, but the difference is so inconsiderable, that it does not seem worthy of being noted as an irregularity,

71, 72. When these references were made, for notes, it was intended to insert the observations, which have already been made, at notes 57, and 59.

73. In the following tables, as many of these verbs as occurred to the author's observation are inserted. He does not pretend to say, that the lists are complete; but they contain, at least, the greater part of such words; and the learner will easily attain the knowledge of any others, in the course of reading, and speaking:

74. Some of the foregoing verbs may be otherwise formed, in the infinitive; as,

Cosain,-do chosaint,- do chosnamh, defend.
Creid, --chreidmheal; - chreideadh, believe...
Musgal,-mhusgailt, -mhusgladh, awaken.
Treig,--threigmheal,--threigint, forsake.
Tuig, -thuigmbeal,--thuigsin, understand.

Samhal, -shamhladh,-shambailt, compare.
Note, that t is often added to n, where it might be well
omitted ; as,

Lean, do leánmhuint, for, do leanmhuin, follow. 75. This, with the three foregoing blank references, is intended to point out words, in which there is some deviation from the general rules. But these irregularities are more owing to local idioms, than to any radical variety of expression; and they are noted here, that the learner may not hesitate in generally inflecting all verbs, according to the common rules.

If the imperative tioman, drive, were used, there would be no irregularity in this verb, in which the "a" is the leading and radical vowel.

76. It has been justly observed, by General Vallancey, that “from the description given of the irregular verbs,



by M Curtin, and Molloy, they are sufficient to deter any one from attempting to learn this language; whereas, they are neither more numerous, nor more difficult, than those of the Latin, French, and English languages."

77. Nim, I do, in old manuscripts, is written gnim; and ripneas, I did, is written roighreas. MCurtin reBarks, that g should always be retained in this verb, to distinguish it from ni, not; but this is not observed in the Irish bible, or many correct modern works,

The preter interrogative of all the irregular verbs, except abair, say, is formed by a or an, instead of nar.

78. The imperative abair is compounded of ad, and beir; as also the preter dubhairt, of do, and beirt. Thus, in ancient manuscripts, we read, amhuil is beirt an file, as the poet says; ad beart an file, the poet said. Hence dubhras, and dubhairt, will not admit of do as the sign of the preter, because this particle is compounded in the verb itself.

Deirim, dearaid, &c. are also contractions of do, and beir.

The participles radh, radha, and the passive ràite, said, are from an obsolete verb, raitear, it is said, or called; to be fouod in old manuscripts.

79, 80. Tabbair is compounded of to, an obsolete particle, or sign of the dative, and beir; and properly means give. Beir is often used alone, in the imperative, to signify give, bring, carry, lay hold on, overtake, or bring forth young.

The preter tense of tabhair is tugas, tug me, I gave, or brought. The preter of beir is rugas, rug me, I took,

laid hold on, overtook, or brought forth.


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Tabljair deoch dhamh, Give a drink to me.
Tabhair leat è,

Bring it with you.
Beir leat è,
Tabhair uait è,

Give it from you.
Beir uait è,
Beir air so,

Lay hold on this.
Bheara me dhuit è,

I will give it to you. Bearamoid orra,

IVe skall overtake them, Beara me cloidheamh liom, I will bring a sword with me. Beara si clann,

She zeill bear a child. Thug si dhamh è,

She gave it to me, Thug se leis è;

le brought it with him. Rug se leis è,

He took it with him. Rug si orra,

She overtook them. Rug si mac,

She bore a son.

81. The

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