Imatges de pÓgina

ceann, head

cul, back

agcùl, behind cois, foot

agcois, alongside, near to cuinne, (95)

agcuinne, to, for agceann, joined to, en

gaged in measgad, mixture

ameasg, among, amongst taob, side

adtaob, concerning

From ann, in. agaid, face

anagaid, against diais,

indiaiġ, after fiadnuis, presence

abfiadnuise, before, in

presence aircis, (96)

anaircis, to go to meet lam, hand

alaim, in possession of deiread, end

indeiread, after, behind,

in the latter end focair, (97)

abfocair, convenient to

From os, above. cuinne, (98)

os cuinne, opposite, be

fore comair, (99)

os comair, in sight, in


os ceann, above

From air, upon. ceann, head

air ceann, at the end muin, back

air muin, upon son, advantage air son, for sake of

From do, to. taob, side

do taob, concerning dit,

do dit,

for want of want

d'easbuid, S (100)

ceann, head


, }

eis, a step

From tar, after.
tar eis, fater



The following is a list of the most usual con junctions.


Araon, both oir, for fos, yet, also mar, as o, since, because sul, before that uime sin, wherefore os barr, moreover go, gur, gurab, that

mar so, as this, thus, mar sin, as that3 mar an gceadna, ulso amlaig sin, likewise ar an abar sin, therefore a ceann go, , by reason, do briġ gur, ar son gur, ionnas gur, so that (101)

or, because that


aċd, but

na, than no, or, nor, else, other- ni, neither (102)


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In Írish, as in all other languages, there are various exclamations, many of them inarticulate, used to express sudden emotions of the mind. The following are a few of the most usual.

mairg! wo to! as truaj! wo!

monuar! alas! faraor! alas !

ceinmear! o happy! uč! oh!

eist! hush! (104)

a, o

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1. The article agrees with its substantive, in gender, number, and case; as, an fear, the man; na mna, of the woman.

2. For the influence of the article, in aspirating, eclipsing, &c. the noun with which it is declined, see pages, 30, 31, 32.

3. When two nouns come together, signifying the same person or thing, that one only is eclipsed or aspirated which is immediately joined with the article; as, tiġ an bratair Briain, the house of brother Brian.

4. When the article follows a particle ending in a vowel, it loses a; as, o, from, an, the; on, from the; do an, to the; don.

5. When the article precedes a word beginning with a consonant, the n is scarcely heard in speak ing; and in poetry it is sometimes altogether omitted; as, an tinne, commonly pronounced a tinne, the fire. (105).

6. When the article precedes 'f, or feminines beginning with vowels, the n is often separated from a, and prefixed to the following noun; as, an fir, written and pronounced a nfir, of the man; an uair, written and pronounced a nuair, the hour. (106)

7. When the article follows ann, in, for better sound, s is inserted between it and ann; as, ann sa nuair, in the hour.

* This is frequently written san; as, san dtir, in the country. 'Or, omitting n, it is written sa; as, sa dtig, in the house.

N 2

8. Although

8. Although the prinary use of the article be to speak definitively, as the in English, yet the use of it does not exactly correspond to that of the English article: for,

First, When a person's state or office is expressed; or when this

, that, yon, occur in English, although the be not used, yet an is used in Irish; as, is maït an fear corran tu, you are a good reaper; tainic an fearsa go Heirinn, this man came to Ireland.

The same may be observed after go de; as, go de a nuair? what o'clock is it?

Secondly, When the precerles a noun which governs another in the genitive, the article, in Irish, is used with the genitive only; as, ridire an locrann, the knight of the lamp; mac an duine, the son of man. (107)

But proper names admit no article; as, riġ Eirinn, the king of Ireland.

9. The Irish language has 110 article corresponding to the English a or an; but when the office, or state of being is expressed, a possessive pronoun is used, having unn expressed or understood before it; as, bi me (ann) mo saigideoir, I was a soldier; i. e. I was in my soldier state. (108)

10. Present participles, which are also nouns expressing a state of being, are used in the same banner; as, ta se (an) na seasam, he is standing; i. e, he is in his standing state

* The preposition is almost entirely lost, except with a, his, hers, its, their; or, ar, our, with which n only is used; as, ta se na duine mait, he is a good man; beid sinne nar daoine glice, we shall be reise men; ta tư do seasam, you are standing.

The use of the article exemplified promiscuously. Si an tsuil solus an cuirp. The eye is the light of

the body. Tabair pog don tslait. Give a kiss to the rod.


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