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from Samuel L. Boardman, a copy of " Moses Greenleaf, Maine's first map-maker," printed for the De Burians, 1902; from the Daughters of the Confederacy of South Carolina, "South Carolina Women in the Confederacy," 1903; from Lt.-Col. Henry Fishwick, a copy of the "Bibliography of Rochdale," Manchester, 1880; from the Fraternal Order of Eagles, journals of the Proceedings of the first to the fourth sessions, 1899-1902; from the Freidenker Publishing Co., 27 volumes, including a set the Freidenker-Almanach, 1879-1900; from Jacob H. Gallinger, a volume of Park of Improvement Papers, a series of papers relating to the improvement of the park system of the District of Columbia, 1903; from the Geneva (Switzerland) Public Library, 28 pamphlets of its publications; from the Instituto Comercial de Chile, the Anuario, 1902; from the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs, a copy of "Emigrazione e colonie, raccolta di Rapporti," Vol. 1, pt. 1, Roma, 1903; from the French Jewish Colonization Association, 12 volumes and 4 pamphlets; from the Biblioteca Municipale, Madrid, the catalogue of the Library, and 1 pamphlet; from the Pennsylvania Railroad, through the chief engineers of the divisions, a set of the Specifications and Contract for the North River and East River Tunnels; from Benn Pitman, a copy of "Sir Isaac Pitman, his life and labors," and 3 pamphlets; from the Publishers' Weekly, 132 volumes and 151 pamphlets; from the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Vittorio Emanuele, Roma, 2 volumes and 3 pamphlets, bulletins and catalogues; from Mrs. Russell Sage, 97 volumes, 758 pamphlets, 449 packages of newspapers, including a collection of publications on women's work; from Philip Schuyler, a copy of "Aurelius Prudentius Clemens, Theodori Pulmanni Cranenburgii et Victoris Giselini, Opera, ex fide decem librorum manuscriptorum, emendatus, et in eum eiusdem Victoris Giselini commentarius" (Antverpiæ: C. Plantin, 1564); from Anson Phelps Stokes, a copy of his "Cruising in the Caribbean with a Camera"; from Miss Wilkinson, a collection of art catalogues, etc.; and from 32 colleges, 38 volumes and 133 pamphlets, catalogues, prospectuses, etc.

At the Lenox branch the exhibition of Arundel Society color prints and of the Charles Stewart Smith Japanese prints has been continued, and in addition a selection of Whistler material was put on view, replacing the exhibition relating to the history of New York under the Dutch.

A new case has been placed in the entrance hall of the Astor branch; it contains autograph letters of presidents of the United States, early continental and English manuscripts, and specimens of Japanese prints. The exhibit in the swinging cases is unchanged.

At the Circulation branches the picture bulletins and reading lists were as follows: EAST BROADWAY, Famous men and women born in October, History of New York City, Theodore Roosevelt, Christopher Columbus, Phoebe Cary, A winter's reading, Books for young folks, Illustrations from children's books, Animals of North America; BOND STREET, Indians, New books, Colorado, Shakespeare; AVENUE C, Columbus, Famous men and women born in October, New books, Illustrations from children's books, Books relating to subjects of lectures; OTTENDORFER, Rocky mountains and the Great Basin, The Hunt, Current events; JACKSON SQUARE, Books relating to subjects of free lectures; MUHLENBERG, Books relating to free lectures; GEORGE BRUCE, Animals, Books relating to subjects of lectures, Two lists of new books; FIFTY-NINTH STREET, Cotton, Animals, Harvesting wheat,

Music, Physics and chemistry; RIVERSIDE, Music, U. S. History; YORKVILLE, Books relating to subjects of lectures; ST. AGNES, Three bulletins of new authors, Books relating to subjects of lectures; BLOOMINGDALE, Schiller, Greek architecture, Goethe, Heine, Greek sculpture, Roman art, Greek theatre, Art during the Renaissance, Rise of the drama, Æschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Evolution, Benjamin Franklin, Nathan Hale, Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, Daniel Webster, Fossils; AGUILAR, Columbus discovers America, Columbus before the court of Queen Isabella, William Penn, Jean F. Millet, Illustrations from Jack and the Bean-stalk, Cinderella, October, Theodore Roosevelt, Famous men and women born in October, Characteristic scenes in and about Tien-Tsin, China, New books, Popular books for boys and girls, Books on Animals, Books relating to subjects of lectures.

LETTERS FROM SIR CHARLES BLAGDEN TO SIR JOSEPH BANKS ON AMERICAN NATURAL HISTORY AND POLITICS, 1776-1780.

Printed from the originals in the New York Public Library.

JULY 7 1776

MY DEAR FRiend,

From the vilest, most enervating, most unwholesome climate that can be conceived, & from the most distressing situation in that climate, deprived of fresh meat, vegetables, & every kind of refreshment, I have scarcely the spirit to send a letter, or the hope that it will be read. One that I had the happiness of sending from Cape Fear perhaps is not yet arrived, as the schooner which took it was to go round by the North. I got about 20 plants for you at Cape Fear, but it is next to impossible to dry them properly in this humid mould-breeding climate; these, with about a dozen species of Fish, are all the objects of natural history that I have yet been able to procure. May 31st we left Cape Fear & next day anchored off Bull's Harbour: which we left on the 4th of June, & that same day anchored off the Bar of Charlestown: on the 10th we got within the Bar, and soon afterwards all the troops encamped upon Long Island. See the Draught of Charlestown Harbour in the Map of N. & S. Carolina published by Jefferies in 4 sheets. I was left in the Harbour to take care of the sick there, & had no opportunity of going ashore. The engagement on the 28th I observed with my Reflector from this ship: it was a wonderful scene, & will do the greatest honour to the resolution & intrepidity of the heroes of your favourite Profession. The event was different from what most, but not all, the naval officers expected; I fear very unfortunate in its consequences for the British Empire: it may, however, tend to unite at length our divided countrymen. On the 27th of June I had an opportunity of observing, in a favourable situation a remarkable water-spout, & felt the pleasure you so well conceive from having so sensibly experienced it, of being able to explain all the phenomena by the common & well established laws of Electricity. In this instance the extremity of an heavy black cloud was attracted toward the sea 19 parts for example, & the sea toward the cloud one part; many portions of the cloud felt the attractive power, but not strongly enough to be forced down all the way to the sea contrary to their specific gravity; this occasioned the tapering form of the descending column of cloud, biggest upward; in like manner many portions of the sea felt the attractive power of the cloud, but not strongly enough to be raised so high as the portion immediately under it: hence the boiling motion of the sea, with an appearance something like that of the top of your figure of the Geyser. I am now writing amidst such thunders & lightening as Mr Burke must allow to be truly sublime; I am much struck with the fine purple colour of the fire, far beyond anything I had seen in England. The greatest heat we have yet found on board ship has been 89 2o, & that only twice, but the country all around reeks in such a manner, that whenever I view Charlestown from hence with my Telescope,

at the distance of about 5 or 6 miles, it appears just like an object seen over a limekiln.

This is all the philosophy I have been able to muster, except the correcting a mistake which may not perhaps prove one: the Cabbage Tree of Bald Head is here called Palmetto & of course should be the Chamaerops humilis; but the remains of the fructifications which I procured there, shewed a racemus which I thought approached nearer to the Borassus than to the Chamærops, & some of the trees were 50 or 60 feet high. Were I to write you a longer letter I must deviate into Politics, a maze from which you had kept happily free, when I wished you a long farewell. Gen: Clinton desired to be remembered to you with every expres sion of regard; parou tajo mitai, harrewhai, aime taio. My health is but indifferent; I loved vegetables & have scarcely ever tasted any but the old farinaceous ones for 5 months, & been confined to salt meat for two: our fresh stock was exhausted at our arrival in Cape Fear River, partly by the negligence of Mr Hatton Master of the Transport, who has behaved to me in every respect with the utmost brutality, which it might not be amiss, perhaps, to hint to Mr Durand if you should happen to see him. Forgive my weakness, so very different from your own feelings, but I am often tempted to curse my ambition. To make my situation more pleasant I must, however, request you, that if any of your friends should be sent out to America, you would do me the Honour of introducing me to their acquaintance. Mr Knowles has always treated me with the most obliging attention; & I had great pleasure in meeting here Captain Gurneaux in the Siren, who desires to be particularly remembered to you: he & all his men escaped unhurt in the late engagement, the ship received one or two shots. Capt Tollemache was left to take care of Cape Fear Harbour. Be so kind as to remember me to Miss Banks, Mr & Mrs. Hodgkinson, & all your Friends, to whom I have the Honour of being known.

Your most affectionate

Pigot Hospital Ship, Five Fathom Hole

Entrance of Rebellion Rood

Charlestown: July 7, 1776

C BLAGDEN.

P. S. I was going to write to Dr Solander, when I heard that the Dispatches were just ready to sail; if it be true I can not get a letter, but if there should be any delay I will.

Jos. BANKS Esq".

JANY 3/77

MY DEAR FRIEND.

Accept my sincerest thanks for your kind remembrance in sending me Gibbon's very elegant publication. I found it a very seasonable amusement at a time when my health & spirits were at the lowest ebb. All the Hospital staff which came out with me is preparing for a new Expedition under General Clinton, of whom I cannot say that he has hitherto shewn me much favour; but we have great hopes of a comfortable winter with my Lord Piercy, who will be left Com

mander in Chief when Gen1 Clinton sails for England. We suspect that the place of our destination is Rhode Island.

My bad state of health & the necessary attendance upon the Hospitals, have left me few opportunities of making such observations as could be interesting to any but medical people, & what gives me most pain, have put it out of my power to make any collection of plants since my arrival in New York Harbour. I found a few near Cape Fear River, & on the little Island where the Lighthouse of Charlestown stands, but the heat & dampness of the climate rendered them a little mouldy in spite of all the care I could take. The climate of Charlestown I found at least as bad as it is represented; but excepting a few rainy days toward the latter end of August, the weather here continued fine, without interruption, till the twentieth of this month; since which time it has been rainy. Of course it has been a much pleasanter autumn than I ever knew; but many days in Sept were by far too warm, the thermometer rising above 80°. About 89 is the greatest heat I ever observed near Charlestown Bar, but then the thermometer scarcely ever sunk to 80°; even the slight coolness produced by the constant thunder-storms was almost momentary.

I learn that Dr Maty is dead, but have not been informed who has succeeded him in the Museum; I hope Dr Solander. In the Royal Society his place may easily be supplied to advantage, but I cannot guess whom you would choose among the many competitors. The hurry of our preparations will not permit me to write any thing more, than to desire that you would do me the Honour of remembering me to Miss Banks, Mr Hodgkinson's Family, & our other Friends.

NEW YORK Nov 1776

I am, dear Sir,
Your most affectionate

C BLAGDEN.

NEWPORT IN RHODE ISLAND
JAN. 12 1777

DEAR SIR,

Not having received any letters from you or Dr. Solander since I came into this country & Ld Mulgrave not mentioning you in his Letters, I sometimes begin to doubt whether you have not left England upon another expedition: however I venture to send you by our friend Captain Vandeput the very few plants I have been able to collect. In the Carolinas it was impossible for me to procure more; & afterwards my health was too bad to permit me to make use of my opportunities upon Long Island. The degree of cold here has not yet exceeded 12o of Fahrenheits Thermometer, & I have no reason from the accounts of the inhabitants to expect that it will be much greater. Captain Vandeput has been extremely obliging in lending me the Timekeeper which was sent out with him by the Board of Longitude; I find it now gaining at the rate of 21" a day upon mean time, & I have had the true time upon this meridian very exactly for several days, in hopes of ascertaining the Longitude by an eclipse of one of Jupiter's Satellites, but it has always been cloudy. If any more of these Watches should be sent out

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