Imatges de pÓgina



CHAP. I. Cyrus the Younger, having been calumniated to his brother Artaxerxes, and nearly subjected to the punishment of treason, returns to the government, of which he was satrap, and, secretly preparing to make war against his sovereign, assembles an army, principally of Greek troops, which his friends collect for him, as though a very different expedition were intended.

II. Cyrus, having marched forth from Sardis, traverses various countries; Lydia, Phrygia, Cappadocia, &c.-Tissaphernes in the mean time repairs to the king, and informs him of the designs of Cyrus-Epyaxa, the wife of the king of Cilicia, comes to Cyrus-At her request the army is reviewed-The seeming attack of the Greeks strikes great terror into the queen and into all the barbarians present at the review-Being arrived at Tarsus, Cyrus summons to his presence the Cilician king Syennesis, who, yielding at length to the intreaties of Epyaxa, trusts himself within the power of Cyrus, and assists him with sums of money. III. The sedition of the Greeks compels Cyrus to remain twenty days at Tarsus; for, suspecting that the expedition was against the king, they nearly stoned to death Clearchus, who was for urging them to proceed-With great cunning and prudence Clearchus quells their turbulenceA deputation is sent to question Cyrus on the design of the expedition; and having received for answer that be was leading them against a certain Abrocomas, and that he now engaged to give them higher pay, the Greeks determine to march onward with him.

IV. With their arrival at Issi, the last town of Cilicia, arrives also the fleet of Cyrus-Having passed the gates, which command the entrance from Cilicia into Syria, the army advances into the latter country. Two associates, Xenias and Pasio, desert. Cyrus speaks civilly of them ; and the rest of the Greeks, moved by his humanity and kindness, proceed on their march with more alacrity-Having advanced to Thapsacus, a town situated on the river Euphrates, Cyrus at length discloses to the Greeks that his expedition

is designed against the king-Indignant at the deception yet excited by fresh promises, they ford the river, an Menon displays his crafty character, by gaining to himse without risk the intire credit of setting them the example. V. Cyrus advances along the bank of the Euphrates, encour tering great difficulties and losses of his cattle for want fodder, till he reaches the country over against Carmand whence provisions are brought him across the river on raf formed of the skins which the soldiers made use of f tents-A dangerous quarrel arises among the Greeks, wh are on the point of coming to blows; but the serious e hortation of Cyrus calms their animosity.

VI. Orontes, a noble Persian, who had twice before been r instated in the favor of Cyrus, attempts a third time) desert to the king; but on the betrayal of his treachery! is seized, and, being convicted on the judgment of Clea chus and others, is condemned to death and executed. VII. Cyrus, having made some advance in the Babyloni territory, and suspecting that the king would appear next day, musters his troops at midnight, and holds 0 magnificent promises to the Greeks. Marching on with! army in order of battle, he passes a trench dug by t king, and then thinking that the latter had abandoned intention of fighting, he proceeds with more negligence. VIII. At length unexpectedly Artaxerxes approaches wi his army in excellent order-Cyrus and the Greeks : alarmed, and, that they may not be overwhelmed unp pared, quickly arm themselves and form their line-Havi taken up their position on the right wing by the Euphrat the Greeks, on the first onset, easily put to flight the b barians opposed to them-Cyrus, attended by a few faith friends, fights too eagerly, and, attacking the king in p son, is himself slain.

IX. The character and encomium of Cyrus.

X. Artaxerxes, in his pursuit of Ariæus, takes possessio! the camp of Cyrus, and plunders it-Thence, collecting forces, he returns against the Greeks, who are victori on their side-The Greeks again put his army to flight, a having recovered their lost baggage, retire to their camp

BOOK II. CHAP. I. The Greeks are informed of the death of Cyrus,

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II. Being sent for by Ariæus, who refuses the offer of the
Persian crown, the Greeks repair to him, and having en-
tered into a confederacy, take counsel concerning their re-
turn-Setting forth at day-break, they arrive in the evening
at some Babylonian villages, and judge by certain indica-
tions that the king's camp is in the neighborhood-Cle-
archus prudently leads the army in such a manner as to
appear neither to seek nor to fear a conflict-At sunset
they come to villages which had been plundered by the
king's troops; and, passing the night in a state of uncer-
tainty, are struck with fear, which a stratagem of Clearchus

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of the design of Ariæus to return to Ionia. Clearchus en-
deavors to detain Ariæus, and, promises him the empire of
Persia-Artaxerxes orders the Greeks to deliver up their
arms, and afterwards, on condition of their remaining sta-
tionary, offers them a truce: if they depart, he threatens
them with war-The Greeks dismiss the envoys with a
bold answer.


HI. The king, terrified at the sudden arrival of the Greeks,
sends ambassadors to treat of peace-The Greeks ingenu-
ously and boldly answer that they prefer war, unless they
are supplied with food; and are therefore, at the king's
command, in the interim of the negotiations, led to villages
abounding in provisions-Three days afterwards Tissa-
phernes is sent by the king to ask them why they had
borne arms against him-Clearchus returns a true and suf-
ficient answer, which Tissaphernes carries to the king, and
in three days makes a treaty with the Greeks on these con-
ditions; that the Persians shall faithfully lead back the
Greeks to their own country, supplying them with provi-
sions; and that the Greeks shall either buy their provi-
sions, or procure them unpurchased without detriment to
the territory.

IV. Whilst the Greeks are in expectation of Tissaphernes,
who was gone to the king on his own affairs, they form
suspicions of the sincerity of Ariæus-On the arrival there-
fore of Tissaphernes with his troops to conduct their
march, the Greeks, suspecting him also of insincerity,
begin to march and encamp apart -Their route is de-
scribed, from its outset at the wall of Media not far from
Babylon-The cowardice and pretended snares of the Per-

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sians are noted, and the king's brother is terrified at the appearance of the multitude of the Greek forces.

V. Having halted three days at the river Zabatus, the Greek become confirmed in their suspicions against the goo faith of the Persians; and Clearchus, in a conference wit Tissaphernes, uses his utmost efforts to bring matters to more amicable footing-Tissaphernes replies with gre civility, so that Clearchus, moved by his discourse, re turns to him with four other generals and twenty colonels in order to be apprised of the persons who by calumnie endeavored to excite animosity between the two nation -The Greek generals are made prisoners, and the colonel and others, who had accompanied them, are put to th sword-Ariæus then comes with his attendants to the Gr cian camp, and in the name of the king demands a su render of their arms- -Cleanor, justly incensed, returns contumelious answer.

VI. The character of each of the five generals is described that of Clearchus more at length, as of a man not le skilful in war, than devoted to its pursuits; of Proxenu as a commander too gentle and mild; of Menon, as a per dious wicked man, who for the sake of gain would perp trate and suffer the most shameful acts. The other tw Agias and Socrates, are of less note.


CHAP. I. Whilst the Greeks, mistrusting their affairs, a languishing in the bitterest grief, Xenophon begins arouse the courage of the colonels who had been und Proxenus-A certain Apollonides makes a stupid oppos tion to the discourse of Xenophon, and is therefore e pelled his rank and occupation-The rest of the survivi generals assemble and are addressed by Xenophon in vigorous speech, exhorting them to be of good cheer, and encourage the minds of the soldiers, so that, after t appointment of new commanders, nothing may be neglect which shall conduce to repel the attacks of the enemy Xenophon's recommendation is approved by all, and n commanders are immediately elected.

II. The troops being called together, are briefly exhorted Chirisophus and Cleanor, in a longer and eloquent spee by Xenophon, to prepare themselves valiantly to fig

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