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men that followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things.
ALMIGHTY God, we beseech thee graciously to behold this thy family, for which our Lord Jesus Christ was contented to be betrayed, and given up into the hands of wicked men, and to suffer death upon the cross; who now liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, ever one God, world without end. Amen.
ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, by whose Spirit the whole body of the Church is governed and sanctified; Receive our supplications and prayers which we offer before thee for all estates of men in thy holy Church, that every member of the same, in his vocation and ministry, may truly and godly serve thee, through our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen.
(x) Conclusion of the contrast between the atonement by Christ and that under the Mosaic dispensation (see ante p. 89 and 107.) with a warm exhortation to hold fast and avow the Christian profession without wavering.
(y)" The law," i, e. the Mosaic dispensation: what is prescribed in Exodus and Leviticus.
(z)" A shadow," i. e. a very indistinct and imperfect resemblance: by no means such a resemblance as an image would give of the thing it represents, but rather such a one only as the shadow of a thing exhibits. In Gal iii. 24. the law is called "a schoolmaster to bring them "unto Christ ;" and there were many things in the law which would tend to
O MERCIFUL God, who hast made all men, and hatest nothing that thou hast made, nor wouldest the death of a sinner, but rather that he should be converted, and live; Have mercy upon all Jews, Turks, Infidels, and Hereticks; and take from them all ignorance, hardness of heart, and contempt of thy Word; and so fetch them home, blessed Lord, to thy flock, that they may be saved among the remnant of the true Israelites, and be made one fold under one shepherd, Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, world without end. Amen.
The Epistle. Heb. x. 1. (x) THE (y) law, having a (z) shadow of good things to come and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect. For then 2 would they not have ceased to be offered? because that the worshippers once purged should have had no more conscience of
make them the more easily comprehend such a redemption as that by Jesus Christ. If he, by his one oblation of himself once offered, made a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world, it would be the less difficult to them to understand it, because, under the Mosaic law, they were constantly making atonement and satisfaction for sins by sacrifices and oblations, and if he was to bear the sins of many, so that those sins should not be brought into account against them; they would remember that under the Levitical law all the sins of the people were put upon the head of the scape goat, and he was considered as bearing them away. Levit. xvi. 21, 22.
3. sins. But in those sacrifices there is a remembrance again made of 4. sins every year. For it is not possible(a) that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away 5. sins. Wherefore, when (b) he cometh into the world, he (c) saith, "Sacrifice (d) and offering thou "wouldest not, but a (e) body 6. " hast thou (ƒ) prepared me: In "burnt-offerings and sacrifices "for sins thou hast had no plea7." sure: Then said I, Lo, I come
(c) "He saith," i. e. it is said prophetically in his person.
(d)" Sacrifice," &c. This is from Ps. xl. 8, 9. v.5. (e)" A body," &c. The passage in
Ps. xl. 8. is, " mine ears hast thou open"ed," alluding to the practice of a master's boring his bondman's ear through with an awl, when the bondman declined his freedom, and preferred perpetual bondage with his master. See Exod. xxi. 1 to 6. and Deutr. xv. 12 to 17. and ante 104. note on Is. 1. 5.; and implying, therefore, that the Messiah had in like manner dedicated himself for ever to God's service. This reading, however, "a body," &c. is in the Septuagint, and it requires nothing to warrant it but the variation of a small part of three Hebrew letters.
(f)" A body hast thou prepared me," i, e. probably, "I am to take upon myself the human nature."
" in ;" which are offered by the law (g); Then said he, "Lo, I 9. "come to do thy will, O God." He taketh away the (b) first, that he may establish the (i) second. By the (k) which will we are sancti- 10. fied, through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ (1) once for all. And every priest standeth 11. daily ministering, daily ministering, and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices, which can (m) never take away sins: But this man, after he had 12. offered one sacrifice for sins, for ever sat down on the right hand of God; from henceforth (n) ex- 13. pecting till his enemies be made his footstool. For by one offer- 14. ing he hath perfected (o) for ever them that are sanctified. Where- 15.
(g) "The law,” i. e. the Mosaic dis- v. 8. pensation.
(b) "The first," i. e. " the sacrifice, v. 9 "and offerings, and burnt-offerings, "which are offered by the law."
(i) The second," i. e. " his coming v. 9. "to do God's will."
(k) By the which will," i. e. by the v. 10. performance of which will by Jesus Christ.
(1) "Once for all," not yearly, as was v. 10. the case with the high priest's offering at the feast of expiation, on the tenth day of the seventh month (see Levit. xvi. 29 to 34.) nor daily, as the ordinary priests offered, but once only.
(m) "Can never take away." (See v.11. the note on v. 4.)
(n) "Expecting," &c. This prob- v. 13. ably refers to the beginning of the prophetic Psalm cx. "The Lord said unto
my Lord, sit thou on my right hand, "until I make thine enemies thy foot"stool," and the writer might mean to call their attention to that Psalm, to intimate the certainty of Christ's success against his adversaries, and the heavy vengeance that would be executed upon
(2) "Perfected for ever," so that v. 14. no further sacrifice is necessary for them.
(p) "Whereof," i. e. of their being perfected for ever. The argument is this: the inspired passage in Jeremiah proves that they are perfected for ever, for it says, "their sins and iniquities will "I remember no more," and where remission of sins is, there is no occasion for any further offering for sin.
(q)" The Holy Ghost," i. e. the Holy Spirit which dictated to Jeremiah the following passage, which is Jer. xxxi. 33.
(r) This verse should be read in a parenthesis, and at the end should be added, " are these words." It is evidently for the sake of the seventeenth verse only that the passage in Jer. xxxi. is referred to.
(s) "The holiest," or "holy of holies," was a type of Heaven, the place where the ark was kept, and was separated from the holy place by a veil of blue,' and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen; see Exod. xxvi. 31 to 33. No one ever went beyond this veil, i. e. into the holy of holies, but the high priest, and he only once a year, and that not without blood; see Hebr. ix. 7. This was the veil which, upon our Saviour's crucifixion was rent in twain from the top to the bottom, Matt. xxvii. 51.; as if Heaven, which had been so long closed against mankind, should thenceforth, and in consequence of his death and passion be open to all believers.
()" Living," i. e. "having life in it: "leading to and giving life."
(u)Through the veil," &c. As the way into the holy of holics was through the veil, so the way now into Heaven is
the blood of Jesus, by a new and 20. living (t) way which he hath consecrated for us, through (u) the veil, that is to say, his flesh; and 21. having an high priest over the house (x) of God; let us draw 22. near with a true heart, in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled (y) from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water. Let us hold 23. fast the profession of our faith without wavering; (for he is faithful (z) that promised;) and 24.
through the flesh of Christ, which in this respect answers to the veil of the temple.
(x) "The house of God," i. e. pro- .21. bably "all Christians," not over the Israelites only, as was the case with the Mosaic high priest.
(y)" Sprinkled" and "washed;" al- v. 22. luding to the sprinklings and washings required by the Mosaic law on the day of expiation. See Levit. xvi. 14, 15, 19, 24, 26.
(x)" That promised." This pro- v.23. bably alludes to our Saviour's assurance in his famous prophecy as to the destruction of Jerusalem. Our Saviour had foretold that before that great event
many should be offended," (that is, should fall off from professing his religion) "that because iniquity should
abound," (or have the upper hand) "the love of many should wax cold, but "that he that should endure to the end "should be saved," Matt. xxiv. 10. 12, 13.; and does not this passage in the Hebrews, from v. 23 to 25. afford strong internal evidence that it was written with a full knowledge of that prophecy, and to persons also who were well acquainted with it, that it was written whilst those circumstances our Saviour foresaw were occurring, viz. when iniquity was abounding or prevailing, and the love of many waxing cold, and when therefore the strongest exhortations to patience and perseverance were peculiarly proper, and that it was written before the destruction of Jerusalem (which is so often noticed as the day or coming of the Lord. See ante 25. note on Rom. xiii. 12.) but whilst that great event was looked for as near
let us consider one another, to provoke unto love and to good 25. works: not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some is; but exhorting one another: and much the more as ye see the day (a) approaching.
Crucify him, crucify him."
ye him and crucify him; for I "find no fault in him." The 7. Jews answered him, "We have "a (d) law, and by our law he "ought to die, because he made "himself the Son of God." When Pilate therefore heard that 8. saying, he was the more afraid; and went again into the judge- 9. ment-hall, and saith unto Jesus, "Whence art thou?" But Jesus gave him no answer. Then 10. saith Pilate unto him, " Speakest "thou not unto me? knowest "thou not that I have power to
crucify thee, and have power "to release thee?" Jesus an- II. swered, "Thou couldest have no
The Gospel. John xix. 1. PILATE therefore took Jesus, and 2. scourged (b) him. And the soldiers platted a (c) crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and they put on him a purple robe, and 3. said, " Hail, King of the Jews!" And they smote him with their 4. hands. Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, "Behold, I bring him forth to 66 you, that ye may know that I "find no fault in him." Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate saith unto them, 6. "Behold the man!" When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, saying,
approaching? The epistle to the He-
(a)" The day," i. e. the destruction
V. I. (b) "Scourged." The prophecy already referred to, Isaiah 1. 6. intimated plainly, that the Messiah was to undergo the greatest indignities: "I gave my "back to the smiters, and my cheeks to "them that plucked off the hair: I hid "not my face from shame and spitting." See ante 104. And this also fulfilled part of what was foretold in the prophetic chapter, Isaiah liii. 3. "He is despised "and rejected of men ; a man of sorrows, "and acquainted with grief: and we "hid as it were our faces from him: he "was despised, and we esteemed him "not."
power at all against me, except "it were given thee from above: "therefore he that delivered me "unto thee hath the greater "sin." And from thenceforth 12. Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, "If "thou let this man go, thou art
ple robe," in derision, treating him as a mock king.
(d) "A law." They probably al- v.7. luded to Lev. xxiv. 16. " He that blas"phemeth the name of the Lord, he shall "surely be put to death, and the con"gregation shall certainly stone him." According to John x. 31. 33, the Jews took up stones to stone our Saviour, because he said that he and his Father (viz. God) were one: and they told him that they stoned him for "blasphemy, and "because that thou, being a man, makest "thyself God." And when he asserted to them, Matt. xxvi. 64. and Mark xiv. 62. that he was the Son of God, the observation of the high priest upon it was, "Ye have heard the blasphemy." "And
they" (the Jewish council)" all con"demned him to be guilty of death," treating the assertion, that he was the Son of God, as constituting the crime of blasphemy.
66 not Cesar's friend: whosoever
"maketh himself a king speaketh 13. against Cesar." When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgement-seat, in a place that is called "the Pavement," but in the Hebrew, "Gabbatha.' 14. And it was the (e) preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour and he saith unto the Jews, 15. "Behold your king!" But they cried out, "Away with him, away "with him; crucify him!" Pilate saith unto them, "Shall I "crucify your King?" The chief priests answered, "We have no 16. "king but Cesar." Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took 17. Jesus, and led him away.
he, bearing his cross, went forth into a place, called "The place of 66 a scull," which is called in the 18. Hebrew, Golgotha;" where they crucified him, and two others with him, on either side one, and 19. Jesus in the midst. And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE 20. KING OF THE JEWS. This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew,
(c) "The preparation." This was, therefore, before the time for eating the passover: and according to John xviii. 28. they (i. e. the Jews) went "not into the "judgment hall, lest they should be de
filed, but that they might eat the "passover."
(f)"That the Scripture," &c. Not that they had any intention that it should, or had any thought of it: but this is a strong instance of stating as the object what was merely a consequence. See note
and Greek, and Latin. said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate," Write not, The King "of the Jews; but that he said, ""I am King of the Jews." Pilate answered, "What I have "written, I have written." Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout: They said therefore among themselves, "Let us not rend it, "but cast lots for it, whose it "shall be:" that (f) the Scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, "They parted my raiment
among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots." These things therefore the soldiers did. Now there stood by the cross of 2 Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleopas, and Mary Magdalene. Jesus therefore saw his mother,
and the (g) disciple standing by whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, "Woman, behold 27 thy son!" Then saith he to the disciple, "Behold thy "mother!" And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home. After this, Jesus 28. knowing that all things were now