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unnecessary to repeat it here. It may be almost superfluous to observe, that reflected verbs, implying no action done to another, are incapable of being inflected in the passive voice.
69. Having studied the full examples of conjugations, the learner will here see the original simplicity, and remarkable regularity, of the Irish verbs. That the imperative is the root, from which all the other parts are formed, will be evident, on the slightest inspection. The same observation occurred to Mr. Stewart (Galic Grammar, page 82); but it is somewhat singular, that, in giving the examples of the conjugations, he does not place the imperative first in order.
70. The form oo buailęó, corresponds more exactly with the general rule; although do bualaó is more common. The same may perhaps be observed of some other verbs, but the difference is so inconsiderable, that it does not seem worthy of being noted as an irregularity.
71, 72. When these references were made, for notes, it was intended to insert the observations, which have already been made, at notes 57, and 59.
73. In the following tables, as many of these verbs as occurred to the author's observation are inserted. He does not pretend to say, that the lists are complete; but they contain, at least, the greater part of such words; and the learner will easily attain the knowledge of any others, in the course of reading, and speaking.
74. Some of the foregoing verbs may be otherwise formed, in the infinitive; as,
Corain,-00 cosaint,-00 cornari), defend.
Sanjal,-rarlao,-ramailo, compare. Note, that t is often added to n, where it might be well omitted; as,
len, do leannynd, for do leanrurn follow. 75. This, with the three foregoing blank references, is intended to point out words, in which there is some deviation from the general rules. But these irregularities are more owing to local idioms, than to any radical variety of expression; and they are noted here, that the learner may not hesitate in generally inflecting all verbs, according to the common rules.
If the imperative tjoman, drive, were used, there would be no irregularity in this verb, in which the “" is the leading and radical vowel.
76. It has been justly observed by General Vallancy, that " from the description given of the irregular verbs, by MCurtin and Molloy, they are sufficient to deter any one from attempting to learn this language; whereas, they are neither more numerous, nor more difficult, than those of the Latin, French, and English languages.”
77. Nim, I do, in old manuscripts is written gnim; and niñeas, I did, is written poigner. M‘Curtin remarks that 3 should always be retained in this verb, to distinguish it from mi, not; but this is not observed in the Irish Bible, or many correct modern works.
The preter interrogative of all the irregular verbs, except abg, say, is formed of a or an, instead of nar.
78. The imperative ab4 is propounded of ad, and beir; as also the preter oubit, of oo and beiro. Thus, in ancient manuscripts, we read, amyl ir beirt an file, as the poet says ; 40 beart an file, the poet said. Hence oubras and, dubit, will not admit of do as the sign of the preter, because this particle is compounded in the verb itself. Deirim dearaid, &c., are also contractions of do and bler.
The participles rao, rada, and the passive ráite, said, are from an obsolete verb, raitear, it is said or called ; to be found in old manuscripts.
79 80. Tab4 is compounded of to, an obsolete particle, or sign of the dative, and beir; and probably means give. Beir
: is often used alone, in the imperative, to signify give, bring, carry, lay hold on, overtake, or bring forth young.
The preter tense of tabs ir tugar, tug me, I gave or brought. The preter of beir ir nugar, rug me, I took, laid hold on, touk, cr brought forth.
Give a drink to me.
Bring it with you.
Give it from you.
Lay hold on this.
I will give it to you, Bearamojo orla.
We shall overtake them. Beara me cloidear ljom. I will brir.g a sword with me.
Beara li clan.
She will bear a cbild. Chu5 T 04th e.
She gave it to me. Thug re leir é.
He brought it with him. Rug se leir é.
He took it with him. Rug 11 omra.
She overtook them. Rug ij mac.
She bore a son. 81 The entire imperative is thus formed:
1. Tigeamoir, let us come. 2. Tam, come thou.
2. Tigióe, come ye. 3. Tigead, re, let him come. 3. Tigidir, or tigeaö rjad,
let them come. The participle teact, is also found written tiaċt, tigeaco, and toigeaco.
82. The obsolete verb rigim; preter, rainic to arrive at, or come to, is sometimes used in the preter. It seems to be compounded of ro and tigim, ro and tainic.
83. It is probable that e is the radical letter in this verb, as in the Greek and Latin eo, I go; hence te go, having o prefixed.
In ancient manuscripts, do veac is found, instead of do cuajo, in the preter ; as, sočajó veac on maj, a troop went over the plain.
The participle passive is used, compounded with in, or jon, fit or proper to be done; as, jondulta, fit, or proper to go or to be gone.
84. Fag signifies also get, and may be so translated throughout. In the north of Ireland it is pronounced as if written fog.
85. The passive infinitive, and participle, are not in use. Do Frić was formerly used, as well as fuaras, in the preter; as do Frić Philip, Philip was found.
The future affirmative, geabad, and geabar, are borrowed from gab, have, take, or receive.
86. Feuc signifies behold, or take a view of anything. Derc, and anarc, observe, or look at; with which may be classed breačnaig, notice, remark. Cim, I see, or perceive an object. Fejc, or flac, is used after negative, interrogative, and conditional participles; as, na feic 4 n, do not look on that; ma feic tu, it you see. And, in the imperative, first person plural, Falciom, or fejciom, let us see.
87. The passive infinitive and participle are not in use. Facear, or as it is sometimes written feictear, is often used
impersonally, with a dative or the person, (as in other languages,) to express, think, or imagine; as, na habý a braicear orze, do not say what you think ; ma citear orzt, if you imagine Το which may be added the ancient preter, concas; as, oo concas dansa mar an gceadna, it seemed good to me also.
88. eiro, listen, is more commonly used, in the imperative, than cluin, hear. In ancient writings, cluas was the imperative of this verb; but it is now used to signify an ear.
Cloism is used, as well as clujnim, in the present indicative; and do clor, (still used in Munster,) was the original preter, instead of do čualar ; as, do clor juč a Rama, a voice was heard ir. Rama.
89. This can be done only with adjectives signifying quality As to numerals, they are expressed adverbially by prefixing an, anra, or, more commonly, 'ran, in the, (see page 91, rule 7,*) to the ordinal adjective, and adding ait, place; as, 'ran treas ait, thirdly, i. e. in the third place. To express once, twice, &c., fa, upon, about, is used with the cardinal adjective; as fa 0o, fa ori, &c.
90. Adverbial expressions of this kind are very numerous; but those here exhibited will afford a specimen of the manner in which they are formed.
91. These words are commonly called inseparable prepositions. but, as the predicate no relation, they are more properly denomiwated adverbial particles.
To those here asserted, some anthors have added the follow.
} Good, as,
Dağmuintir, good people. Droč, bad.
Dročrruinte, ill taught. Prior), first.
Priorijavbar, first cause. Fejl, very bad.
Féilgnjom, a very bad action. Rojn, before.
Rojnirajote, before said.
Romaić, very good. Sjor, continual.
Sjoruirge, constant rain. Tiomna, a will.
Tiomcuft, a friendly visit. Tuat, rusticity.
Tuatclear, rustic cunning. But the five first of these are adjectives; the three next separable adverbs; and the two last, nouns.
The following particle was inadvertently omitted - viz. : Sár, very great; as, fáróorijain, very deep.
92. Wur is only an abusive pronunciation, and orthography, for muna, although it is very common. See note 48.
93. It appeared simpler to give the following alphabetical list of prepositions, than to class them according to their influence, as usually done, which infringes on the business of syntax.
94. Some other words have been enumerated as prepositions ; such as, amac, out, call, beyond, ruas, up, and the like ; but the se are evidently adverbs, requiring the preposition de, or, as it is commonly written, po, after them; as, taob amać don This, the outer side of the house.
Do, and go, both signify to; but the difference between them (as well remarked by Mr. Stewart) is, that do implies motion towards, and go motion terminating at an object; as, cuajo re do thig an rig, he went to, or towards the king's house; tajnic re go thig an rig, he came unto the king's house.
De is not used as a simple preposition; but it is clearly distinguished from oo, to, in compounds; as, diom from me, de, or óe, from him.
95, 96, 97, 98, 99. These words are uever used separately, as nouns, yet they appear to have a clear and distinct signification, which may be ascertained from the corresponding phrases.
100. It is more probable that de, of, is the simple preposition, in such phrases as do bj¢; although it is always written do.
101. Some other conjunctive phrases might be added to these ; but, as they are formed by the combination of the simple conjunctions with other words, it did not seem necessary to insert them.
The common conjunction agus, and, or, as it is often pronounced is, was inadvertently omitted in this table.
102. With these perhaps may be classed njar, neither.
103. For the use of muna, and mur, see note 92. Many words are used with ma, and go, to form a variety of conjunctive phrases, the meaning of which is always ascertained by the leading word.
104. No language abounds more in passionate interjections than the Irish : but it would be vain and useless to attempt an enumeration of them.
105. This is certainly a common, but it is not a correct mode of speaking and writing. The Scottish Galic changes n into m, before labials ; as, an bás, the death, they say am bár. This licence, for sound's sake, is more allowable than that used in the Irish.
106. This mode of separating the 4 and n, has been adopted in order to accommodate the written to the spoken language ; but