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Marquis of Hastings' Speech in the College of Fort William. 135 op the following creed, which they begun in this world, will be continued acknowledge as their belief.
until all the souls of the wicked, who “ There is one God, but ao Trinity departed this life ignorant of the gosof persons in the Godhead. That the pel, as it is held by the Shakers, have Son is inferior to the Father, and in an offer of it, and if they become the work of creation was used as a Shakers, they shall be saved ; if not, subordinate agent. That the principal they shall be made eternally miserable. excellency of the man Jesus Christ, They believe the Bible is of no use consisted in his being filled with the now, farther than to prove the introDivine Spirit. They deny the propitia- duction of their new dispensation. It tory nature of the atonement of Christ, is the old heavens which have passed and hold that he suffered only for our away. They deny the charge of worexample, to shew us how we are to shiping Anna Lee. They trace the erucify the flesh, that is, to eradicate origin of their denomination from the eur natural propensities and affections. French Jumpers. They believe that none of those who “Thougli' they disavow worshiping died before Christ went to heaven, but Anna Lee, yet in their hymns ihey that a number of them went with him address their parents and their moto that blessed place, after his resur- ther. It is my opinion they worship rection.
her as much as they worship Jesus of “ They believe that the plan of sal- Nazareth.” ration was not developed, nor perfect Such, Mr. Editor, are the Shakers, holiness required of those who then and a stranger compound of contraprofessed religion. But that Christ rieties cannot be found amongst the has come a second time,' without sin professors of Christianity. The acunto salvation,' in the person of a count is evidently drawn up by a Calfemale; and now the plan of salvation vinist minister, whose woeful lack of is perfectly revealed and understood charity is conspicuous on the occasion, by all Shakers; perfect holiness is “I wept,” (says he,) " at the awful now required and attainable, and the disappointment they must experience example of Christ is to be literally when they enter the eternal worldfollowed.--Hence they.svill not permit when their sandy foundation shall be the members of their church to marry, swept away, their hopes fall, and they nor those who are married, when be for ever undone!" This is a rash they unite with them, to live together and precipitate judgment. Charity, as husband and wife. They believe which thinketh and hopeth all things, they are the children of the resurrec- would indulge something more fation, and must neither marry nor bevourable respecting even the poor given in marriage, but be as the angels Shakers, both as to this life and as to of heaven.
the life to come. Granting either “ They deny the doctrine of God's Trinitarianism or Unitarianism to be deerees, and of justification through false, the head and the heart will be faith on the inerits of Christ ; but set right in a better world. Punisi:believe, when they confess their sins to ment awaits inveterate and unrepented their ininistry and are absolved, they vice, whilst involuntary crror claims then live perfectly holy and free from the pity and will receive the forgiveevery taint of sin. They believe the ness of the righteous as well as the day of judgment commenced when merciful Judge of the Universe! HapChrist appeared the second time in piness must finally embrace the creathe person of Anna Lee, and that it is tion of God. still progressing. That her spirit dif
JOHN EVANS. fused on the ministry enables them to judge, acquit or condemn, and that they confer a portion of that same Marquis of Hastings' Speech at the spirit on all that they account worthy
last Examination in the College of of eternal life, which lives in, and
Fort William. continually governs them.
[The Noble Marquis having resigned “ They say the resurrection is past, his post of Governor-General of India, and will never be a resurrection of thé is said to be on his way to England, body. They believe that judgment, and Lord Amherst is gone out to suc
ceed him. We believe that the admi- could I venture to suppose that my nistration of the Marquis has been inculcations had any share in exciting just, liberal and beneficent, worthy of this generous tone! I have, endeahimself and of his country. All his voured to infuse the sentiment: but public speeches that we have scen I am too sensible that a more potent have been constitutional, (for the prin- instigation has produced the couduct. ciples at least of the British Constitu- General information is now so widely tion may be established, and are, we spread among our countrymen, that trust, recognized in the colonies,) phi. there are few who, even in their very lanthropic and Christian. Certainly, early days, cannot discriminate what the following conclusion of an address constitutes real glory, from the paat the Public Disputation in the Col- geantry of factitious and transient elelege of Fort William, held August 23, vation. They feel that dignity con1822, merits all these epithets. As a sists not in a demeanour which exaets farewell speech it is admirable, and a sullen, stupid submission from the we earnestly hope that Lord Amherst, multitude, but in a courtesy which and the future Governors-General of banishes apprehension, yet exercises our vast oriental possessions will ma- sway, because it plights protection. nifest the same spirit and act upon They comprehend that to inspire conthe same principles as the Marquis of fidence is to assert pre-eminence; Hastings. En.]
because he who dispels alarm from
another is the superior. They know S this is, probably, the last occa- that the observance and enforcement
sion I shall have for addressing of equity is imposed on them, not by the members of the College, I must their oath of office alone, but by the indulge a concluding observation on eternal obligation which the Almighty the nature and effects of the institu- has attached to power in rendering tion. To those who have doubted its man responsible for its due applicautility, (singular as it inay seem, I tion. In short, they condense the have heard there are some,) I will not notions of duty, of justice, of magnaurge the theoretical remark, that if an nimity and of laudable pride, into the individual be prone to sloth or dissipa- image of home. They ask themselves, tion, he must be more likely to give What is becoming our country, so way to idleness when there are no decorated with trophies, so rich in scifacilitations to industry, or peril of ence, so ennobled by liberty, towards public exposure, but I will rest the a dependent, unenlightened populaargument upon the rapid succession tion: The answer will be unvarying. of young men, who, after rigid and To use the words of a poet, “ As if impartial examination, have been de- an angel spake, I hear the solemn clared competent to the service of the sound.” It is an angel's voice within state by their acquirements in the ne- us, when conscience breathes a sulicessary languages : not to dry official lime dictate to our souls. In the case tasks alone. We have a proud con before us, she prescribes the extension sciousness that our functionaries have of gentle, cheering, parental encouthe capacity not merely of discharging ragement to the millions whom Provi. adequately their engagements to their dence has arrayed beneath our rule. employers, but that they possess also Wonderful and unexampled rule! Let the means of rendering incalculable it never be forgotten how that supreservices to the native inhabitants, by macy has been constructed. Benefit readily communicating explanation, to the governed has been the simple instruction or advice. The ability, but efficacious cement of our power. however, to do this would be of little As long as the comforts and the gravalue, were the disposition wanting. titude of the Indian people shall tesIt has not been wanting. With exul- tify that we persevere in that printation I have learned from all quarters, ciple, so long may Heaven uphold the kind, the humane, the fostering the domination of Britain here:-10 spirit manifested towards the Natives longer! by the young men whom the College has sent forth to public trusts. What a triumph it would be to my heart,
Three Original Letters of William Penn's to Richard Baxter. 137 Three Original Letters of WILLIAM the other hand, spoke of it with some Pexn's to Richard Baxter. confidence; for, in a letter which he
addressed to Richard Baxter soon afTHESE letters, copied from the terwards, he stated, that if he had brary, relate to a public disputation rendered him more ridiculous than he hetween Penn and Baxter. They will feared his principles of love would be rendered more intelligible to the
have borne.' From the same letter reader, by the following account of
we have reason to think that the meetthe controversy given by Mr. Clarkson in his Life of Penn, I. 158-161:
ing was not a well-conducted one ;
for William Penn says, that if he “In the year 1675 we find him should be informed, when Richard still living at Rickmansworth, where, Baxter's occasions would permit a as well as in other places, he became debate more methodically, and like eminent as a minister of the gospel. true disputation, (which he judged In his own neighbourhood, indeed, he more suitable before the same audihad converted many; and from this ence,) he would endeavour to comply, cause, as well as from a desire which though he was not without weighty others of his own Society had to live affairs almost continually on his hands, near him, the country about Rick- to furnish him with an excuse.' mansworth began to abound with “ This letter, and the public dispute Quakers. This latter circumstance preceding it, gave rise to a corresponoccasioned him, oddly enough, to be dence between the parties, in which brought forward again as a public dis. three or four other letters were exputant ; for the celebrated Richard changed. Of the contents of those Baxter, who was then passing that written by Richard Baxter I can find way, when he saw so many of the pothing, except what may be inferred inhabitants of this description, began from those which are extant of William to be alarmed for their situation. He Penn. I shall, therefore, pass both of considered them as little better than them over, observing only, that Willost people, and was, therefore, desir- liam Penn's last leiter inanifested a ous of preaching to them, in order, to spirit of forgiveness, which exalted his ose his own words, 'that they might character, and a spirit, by which it once hear what was to be said for their
was apparent that, whatever he might recovery.'. This coming to the
ears of think of the doctrine or temper of his William Penn, he wrote to Baxter, opponent, he believed in the soundand one letter followed another, till ness of his heart. The conclusion of at length it was mutually agreed, that it was this : ‘in which dear love of they should hold a public controversy God, Richard Baxter, I do forgive on some of the more essential articles thee, and desire thy good and felicity. of the Quaker faith. What these were And when I read thy letter, the many I could never learn. It is certain, severities therein could not deter me however, that the parties met, and from saying that I could freely give that they met at Rickmansworth. It thee an apartment in my house, and is known also, that the controversy liberty therein ; that I could visit, and began at ten in the morning and lasted yet discourse thee in much tender till five in the afternoon, and that the love, notwithstanding this hard enterdisputants addressed themselves, each tainment from thee. I am, without in turn, to two rooms filled with peo- harder words, ple, among whom were counted one “.* Thy sincere and loving Friend, lord, two knights, and four conforma.
""WILLIAM PENN.'” ble ministers, that is, clergymen of the Established Church.
The letters now printed, it is be“Of the issue of this controversy lieved for the first time, shew that the I can find no record. Richard Baxter first conference was succeeded by a seems to have been satisfied with him. second, and that the irritation proself on the occasion, for he says, in duced on the former occasion was allusion to it, that the success of it mollified on the latter. The temper gave him cause to believe that it was of both disputants appears to have not labour lost. William Penn, on been exhibited little to their advan
tage in the dispute. The concluding sions to shun the matter and erade letter, however, manifests the “spirit the dint of argument: and this to be of forgiveness," which the biographer inviolably observed on both hands. applauds in William Penn: it is pro- “4. That so doing there shall be no bable that the letter which he quotes, interruption of either side. as well as this, was written after the “5. Name what place thou pleasest, second disputation.
but that which I am forbidden.
“ To all which we desire thy return
by this bearer to thy friend, LETTER I.
• Wm. PENN. “ RICHARD BAXTER,
“ The 6th day of 8th Month. “ Though thou hast reprobated the Quakers and their religion with what
“ P.S. I hope at the end of this envy and artifice thou art capable of, conference we inay have a little time
to debate the merits of John Faldo's accompanied with the indecent carriage of thy landlord, (a manifest cause and thy subscription, at least in breach of those laws of conference
a few particulars.* thou wert so precise in making,) and that this entertainment is doubtless " For Richard Baxter." argument enough of an infirm cause, and of as virulent and imperious a behaviour, yet the spirit of Christi.
LETTER II. anity in us inclines us to offer thee « Richd. BASTER, another meeting, both to shew that “ I have received a letter from thee we are not afraid of our cause, or thy of the 10th inst. just now, being the abilities, and to prevent those tedious lith, and about six at night. In the harangues, and almost unpardonable first place, it looks like a design, I evasions and perversions thou wert mean not to meet me, (though it be guilty of, and which we were obstruct
to offer a meeting, such an one as it ed from discovering in any quick re, is,) for by the date it was, for ought turns, least we should be clamoured I know, night and almost half a day against as interrupters and violaters of those rules mutually agreed upon; that had not read thy Principles of
a coming less than two miles. A man we desire, therefore, another meeting, Love, and heard thee dispute, would and that it may be on the 7th instant, think that this letter lay
at about eight in the morning. The Rickmansworth, by order, till I should matters we offer to debate, are, “1. Concerning the true and false charitable. The beginning of this un
be gone to London, but I am more ministry. “2. Concerning the true and false yet enough; of what? Raillery, slan
happy epistle tells me if I have not church.
ders, interruptions, dirty reflections ? “ 3. Concerning the sufficiency of Yes, too much, had R. B. pleased; the light within all men to eternal but of reason, good language, order salvation, and what else it shall please and personal civility, little or none thee to add.
fell from R. B., l'affirm : well, but “ And to render this desired confe- my vain ostentation of my forecardness rence more distinct and intelligible, to another meeting, shall be no cover with respect to a particular discussion to my shame. I thought I had been of things, we offer this method, shameless; there's hopes of me, I see..
“1. That some one of the afore. But, R. B., why ashamed? For thy mentioned particulars be thoroughly senseless, headless, taleless talk, I debated before any other be insisted profess I was more than ashamed, for on.
“2. That two or three on each side shall have liberty to speak, but so as but one only at a time.
* John Faldo, an Independent minis. “3. That there shall be as strict and ter, published in 1673, a work in 8vo., close keeping to the matter in hand
entitled “ Quakerism no, Christianity,
to the second edition of which was preas may well be, to prevent imperti- fixed a commendatory epistle by R. Baxter nent preachment and trifling excur- and twenty other Divines. Ed.
Three Original Letters of William Penn's to Richard Baxter. 139 I was grieved: has my last kind letter house, since invited to it. Thus much had no better success. I perceive the at present from scurry of the mind is thy distemper,
Thy friend, I fear its incurable. I would say I
“ WM. PENN. had rather be Socrates at the day of
“ London, judgment than R. Baxter, but that he “ The 11th of the 8th Mo, 1675. would tell me that I am nearer akin
“For RICHARD BAXto Heathens than to Christians; anıl the truth is, than such merely nomi
at nal ones I desire to be. In the next
“ Charlewood.” place, be pleased to know that I came late from London the last seventh
LETTER III. night, and am upon appointment at “R. BAXTER, London this week. So that time, once inine, is irrecoverably gone till into my hands at our parting, I have
“ The paper it pleased thee to put the next 6th day at soonest, vulgarly at last got time to peruse, and I will Friday. I am also to attend upon the
assure thee, it is not two whole days Parliament, as I was all the last ses, since my many occasions would give sions, on the behalf of many poor and leave to consider it. The civility and lamentable sufferers for pure con- kindness I received from thee at our science ; insomuch as not receiving conference have prevailed with me to any reply to my last, had I not gone overlook the asperity of it, though, if so early, my wife and part of my I speak for myself, I am not apt to family had come up with me for this exact the uttermost farthing, or make session and term.*
the worst use of man's infirmities. “However, I shall never refuse a The truth is, there appeared matter day (in my power) to Richard Baxter, of great advantage against a man that but to use his terms, not at his time had ever been author of
Defence and rates. I shall discourse on either of the Principles of Love. Yet it so of the points mentioned the other happens that the objections, over and night, or if he will I shall undertake above the mode of making and mato prove R. B. a perverter, traducer naging them, are very light'; and, if I and forger ; a charge black, but it inistake not, (I am sure I would not,) shall stain me if I dont make it good, more than three-fourths is granted; so little is he man of true love; next, so that I could not see any ground for I shall choose short argumentation; that severity from the person most 3dly, that at the conclusion each of of all concerned, much less from an us may have time to sum up his sense unprovoked stranger. But that which in a conscientious manner, by way of heightened my wonder was to see thy repetition and recommendation to the
name to a_late Epistle recommendapeople ; 4thly, I utterly refuse the tory of J. Faldo's book, that seem so limitation of time; let the conference much to rate at us for sharpness. I end with the matter, or by consent hope thou wilt not be displeased with upon the place. I am not so flush of this freedom. 'my time, nor so ill-disposed of that I “ Herewith I return thy paper, and should leave London, my conscien- this in answer to what is material in tious employment for the relief of thy objections. That by the Spirits poor sufferers, several appointments being the rule I understood what the not in my power to undo, (to say apostle did when he said, that as nothing of my own worldly concerns
many as are led by the Spirit of God that are great,) to ride down to they are the sons of God. And if I Charlewood, but for two hours' talk am to be censured that I write not with R. B. Besides, I cant confine more philosophically, the apostle must myself precisely to an hour, as those keep me company. I did not mean that are accustomed to notes and hour that all instruments or means were glasses. I refuse not iny neighbour's always excluded, only that under the
gospel especially, the Spirit, by the
holy inspirings of it, in a more immeThis is scarcely intelligible, but it is diate manner than formerly, was emiaccording to the MS. ED.
nently the rule of the saints. As