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12. Hiftory of ibe Campaigns of Christopher of attending the offices of public devo

Alexander Suvvaroff Ryminski, Field tion, and even gives lectures on subMarsbal General in the Service of bis Im- jeets of piety on Sundays and festivals. perial Mujefy the Emperor of all the Ruf

• The love of his country, and the fias, with a preliminary Sketch of bis pi- ambicion to contend in arms for its vase Life and Cbarater

. Translated from gory, are the powerful and predomithe German of Fred. Authing. 2 Vols.

nant emotions of his indefatig ble life; The writer declares himse tinumate

and to them, like the ancient Romans, ly acquainted with his hero, and has con

he sacrifices every other sentiment, and firmed his accounts of his glorious exploits by official documents. Suvvaroff confecrates, without reserve, all the fa.

culties of his nature. His military ca. was born 1730, and enlifted in the Rule fian army at 12. Norwithstanding, his of success and triumph, produced by

reer has been one long, uniform course age (69), his long and laborious

his enterprising courage and extraordi. marches, which form an enormous ago gregate of 6000 German ( 20,000 intrepidity and promptitude of execu;

nary prelence of mind, by his personal English miles; notwithstanding his rion, by the rapid and unparalleled wounds and military toils; he preserves

movements of his armies, and by their the gaiety of youth, is free from all corporeal weaknels and infirmity, which perfect assurance of victory in fighting must be attributed to the hardy habits life and character of Suvvaroff; his

under his banners. Such is the private of his life, his robust constitution, and public actions are displayed in a fuco rigid temperance. in the morcing, both in winter and ceeding volume." His first campaign

was as lieutenant-colonel in the seven summer, town and country, from a bed of hay covered with a white hirt, in forcing Genau he received a contu

years war against the Prussians, 1759. with a cushion for his pillow, and his

fion on his breast from a rebounding great.coat for his corerlid. He fleeps musket-ball

, but no mischief ensued. without body-linen; and in summer he

In 1762 he was appointed colonel of pafles day and night in a tent in his

the regiment of infantry of Aracan, garden. He washes frequently, wears

which was in garrison at Petersburg, only his uniform and a close jacket, and

and left there when the Empress went seldom, except in a wirtery march,

to be crowned at Moscow. He forwears gloves or a peliffe. After his

warded the new manquvres introduced Ica-breakfast, he waiks an hour, and

into the Ruffian service, and gave great then fits down to business, di&aring to

satisfaction to his Royal Mistress. He his secretaries, or writing his own dir. patches, with so much correlnefs of and sent to the war just commenced a

was advanced to the rank of brigadier, expression that he is never known to efface them. He dines from 9 to 12 ; The most inclement season of the year ;

gainst the confederates of Poland, at and, though his table consists of 20 co

and was advanced to the rank of major. vers, he is a rare example of tempe. general in 1770. In his operations this rance. Immediately after dinner, he palles a few hours in sleep; and supper ed in the Viftula, and received a con

year he narrowly escaped being drown. is not a meal with him. His principal fusion in his breast from a pontoon as occuparion and favourite diversion is

he war and its du:ies. Notwithstanding ceived many thots in his cloaths at

as dragged out; and, in 1771, re• his leverity, he is idolized by his solo diers, who are all equally the objects the citadel. In one of the engage

Landscron, where he failed of taking of his care.

He studies the military ments with the confederates they were science ; and, though he dinikes all

headed by the French brigadier general public entertainments, will mix with Dumourier, Gince become so notorious and promote the plealure of them, and

from his conduct in the early campaigns even dance and play at cards, not to in

of the present war; but he soon quitted terrupt the etiquette of public manners. He leaves the care of his paternal estate them, and returned to France. For to others, and has no villas, place, thal of Lithuania, in the battle of Sta.

his success in defeating the Grand-mar. Equipage, nor livery servants. He is a man of most incorrupt probity, immo from the Empress the order of Alex,

leviiz, in the end of 1771, he received vable in his purpoles, and inviolable in ander Newsky; and the late King of his promises. Sincerely religious on

Pruffia adriled the Polis never to ha. principle, he takes every opportunity

zard GENT. Mag. February, 1800,

zard a second contest wish Suvvaroff. Bey, of Egypt, whom he afterwards In January, 1972, he suffered bimself betrayed; a man alike diftinguithed for to lose several days in a fruitless march his courage, frength, and beauty. Sure to Lithuania, ly not atending to ad- varroff, flipping down the fieps of a vice that the confederales mcant to lur- convent, receives such a shock that he prise Cracow. The liege of the castle was conveyed to Bucharest, and, by the of this place added lufre to Survaroff, help of a skilful physician, recovered his and terminaied the Lithuanian coure health in a fortnight, and joined the deracy. His next campaign was in the army in August He çare the Turks first war against the Turks, under a third defeat in a pitched battle near Field-marli al Romanzw, in 1773-4: Nidrow, and cook their splendid camp; After an extraordinary embarkation of and his fever returning, obliged hiin to the troops on the Danube, a lucky el


home to Rullia, and, in the mean cape from the Spahis, who had nearly time, peace was concluded with the surprized him nieping, " was the firn Turks. He foou received an order to acquaintance that Suvvarcff made with proceed, wiin all possible hafte, against the Turks, to whom the very warne of the rebel, or, as he uled to call him, this wirrior is fince become so formida- the robber, Priga: (chew, uho had met ble. The advantage which he obtain with one defeat, and was retiring into ed in this action seems to have been a a spot in the centre of a lake, whither prelude to the numerous vi&ories which suvvaroft pursued him, through bar. he has since obtained over the Otto- ren and burning deserts. His forces mans." A heavy piece of arrillery were reduced, and he was closely pur. bursting; and the lance of a Janissary, lued and watched." They were al. endangered his life and wounded bim. ready upon his track, in the thicke The first place which he made hin elf part of the wood, wlien the hermit, master of was Turiukay. Immediately many of whom are scattered about this after the victory, the dilparched an ac- country, and support themselves by count of it 10 Field marshal Roman. fishing, gave information that Pugaczow; the style of the relation is truly schew bid arrived there that morning, laconic and original, and displays, in and that some of his owo people had fome degree, the character of the wri• bound him hand and foot, and taken The following is a feeble transa. him to Uralk.”

.” He had at one time tion of it: “Honour and glory to colle&ted such a force, and was followed God! glory to you, Romarzow! We with such enthusiasm, that, if his un. are in possession of Turtukay, and I am derstanding had been equal to his couin it. Suvvaroff.” The Empress re- rage, and his moderation had kept pace warded him with the cross of St. George with his power, he might certainly have of the second class, and a letter. The polleffed limfeit of Moscow, and made Turks loft their fine foilla of boats the Imperial Catharine cremble on her and artillery, and the soldiers made a throne.” He was conveyed, under the considerable booty in eff its as well as escort of Survaroff, in a large cage on in gold and silver; and, when they af. a carriage, and afterwards in a wag, terwards attended divine service for gon, with his ton, a boy of 12 years of public thanksgiving, they presented the age, who inheriicd, and at that early priests with roubles and picces of gold. peri, d displayed, the turbulent qualities Suvvaroff was attacked with a violent of his faiber, to Moscow, wbere he fever, which obliged him to go to Bo suffered the punishment due to his charest for the recovery of his health ; crimes. In 1774 Survaroff affifted at but, before this was effected, he set off the elevation of Schalim Geray to the again for the army, for a second expe- dignity of Khan of Crimea, who was dition on the Danube, though still in afterwards driven out by his prode so languid a flate that he could not cessor, and abdicated his dignity. walk without the support of two men, The Empress published a manifesto, and his voice so weak that it was abro. ordering all the Tartars to take the lutely necessary for an officer to be al- oath of fidelity to ber, with which they ways at his úde to repeat his com- complied. The whole of this ceremands. After an obstinate refiftance mony was performed with the greater on the part of the Turks, they were folemnicy, amidit continual discharges completely defeated, and lost their com- of artillery and songs of joy. “When mander, Śary Mehmed Bacha, the se. the whole was concluded, a grand feast cond in command the famous Ali was given in an immense open place in



the wilds. The guests were seated on of a strong complexion, almost conthe ground, in the Tariar fashion, and ftuntly on horseback, and, nowithdiftributed in a number of imall groupes, standing his great age, an excellent all placed according to their rank. The companion. He wts very much atdioger confifted, principally, of boiled tached to cleanliness, but despised all and ro i meat; 100 oxen and 800 luxury. He was faithful in his friend. theep were killed on the occasion; and, Thips, and the friend of the poor; and as the laws of the Tartars did not per- his greatest pleasure was to be their bemit them to drink wine, but only lago. nefactor. He was a great eater, and at brandy, soo eimers (32.000 pidis) of meals drank pure lago-brandy. His that liquor were presided, and the servants touk him from table and carcompany allowed to drink at pleasure: vied him to bed like a prince. Surva. belides which, English porter was ser- roff regard-d him with great esteem ved to the chiefs, who dined at Surva- and attachment." The ci-devant Toft's table. This party drank healths Khan, Scham Gheray, who had Red in a large cup, which was banded round towards the left bank of the Cuban, rethe cable, accompanied by continual turned, in the Spring of 1784, into the cries of joy, and of Urrah and Allah. Crimca, to Woronitich, which was the The other companies did the fame, and place of his definition.

He paffed mith and happiness prevailed through some ycars in Ruffia, and afterwards the scene. Rullians and Tartars were returned. The Turks received him at mingled together; and, after dinner, Choczim in a manner suited to the digo races were performed on all sides be- nity of a khan. He then went to Con. tween the Tartars and C fracks. Some fantinople, but was not permitted to of the Tartars died in confequence of opter the city, and was sent into badrinking to excels, which they confi- nishment at Rhodes, where he was put dered as an honour at their great feasts. to death in the most perfidious manner. In the erening a second fealt was fer. According to the laws of Turkey, he ved, which continued great part of the could not be condemned to death, the night. A fimilar entertainment was khans, and all the descendiots of Geugiven the following dav, June 29. that giskai, being exempt from all capital of St. Peter and 'S:. Paul, the Grand punishments; but it was alledged, as a Duke's patrons, when a breakfast was pretexi, that he was no longer khan, given ; atter which, the Tartars so k fince he had voluntarily abandoned that lcave, embracing their Rullian bre- dignity." Suvvaroff was now named thren." The abdicated Khin, having general in chief, and attended Gen. Pobeen acknowledged by the Porte, ftiired temkia and the Einpress on her visit to up rebellion againft Russia, and nar. the Crimea, when the King of Poland rowly escaped being arrelted by Supe mer ber at Kanut, on the Doieper, as, Yaroff, who defeated the revolted No. according to the conftitutional laws of gays. Mursa Bey, chief of the Tcham- bis country, he could not pass the Dni. baluks, was wounded in a skirmish, but eper. The Emperor Joseph accompaTecovered. “ Mechmed Bey, chief of nied her to Cherson, and frequently the GodisTans, often joked with hiin at conversed with Suvvaroff on politicks table, on his being fill inclined to and miliary affairs. Bulgakow, the Barry; and Suvvariff, one day, asking Ruffian embassador to the Porte, came him whether he was serious, Muria to pay his court to his Imperial MilBey replied, with much funplicity, trels, which, though a mere compliance • Mechmed Bey is right;' and inime. with etiquette, gave umbrage to the diately requested the General to make Porte, which Toon commenced hostili. him a preient of a beautiful Tarcar girl ties with a formal declaration of war. of 16, whom he wished to marry. Kinburn was furiously boinbarded, and Suvraroff bought a young Tartar slave the Rullians, with Suyvaroff, repulled of a Cofack, for 100 rubles, and sent in a sortie from it. The General was her to Muría Bey, who accordingly wounded in the left arm, which dirmarried her. He lived fome years af. charged a great quaotity of blood, and ter cbis transaction, and died at the age there was no surgeon at hand to dress of 108 years, having almost reached it. He went to the sea-sidie with an the age of Aicila, King of the Huns. officer of the Cossacks and some men, He retained the vle of his faculties cill who washed his wound with sea water, the lal, except that his eyes could and bound it up with his cravat; after Scarcely bear the light. He was a man which he remounted his horse, and re


turned to the field of battle. Divine bad weather, obliged to raise. He loon service was afterwards celebrated, and after reecived orders to recommence public thanks returned to God, for this it. He told his soldiers that the Russian signal vi&tory; the troops were drawn armv had twice laid fiege to Ismail, and up in different detachments from the twice retired from it; the third time, point of the peninsula to a considerable nothing remained for them but to condifiance from the town. They accom. quer or to die with glory. They le. panied the Te Deum with three dif- conded his resolusion, and the place charges of musketry and heavy artil. was defended with equal spirit by an lery; the greater part of the wound:d ola, experienced lerakier. It was taSoldiers insisted on being admitted intoken in a general atlault by land and the ranks on this occasion; and Surva- water, and the garrison surrendered, roff enjoyed this glorious 1pectacle from when a contest for the rich poniard of the rampar:s of the town. As the front the Turkish commander brought on a of the lioc prelenied itself towards Oc. general matíacre of the prisoners, and zakow, great numbers of Turks were him among the rest. "In this one seen running to the shore on hearing dreadful day the Ottomans loft, by the the thunder of the cannonade which ce- superiority of the Russian arms, allebrated their defeat. Suvvaroff re. though their munihers were far infe. ceived the command of the feet on the rior, 33,000 men killed or dangerously Black Sea; the Turkish fleet sustained wounded, and about 10,000 officers an immense lofs from that of the Prince and soldiers taken prisoners; 6000 wo. of Nassau, and at length returned to men and children, 2000 Christians of Constantin »ple. Siege was now laid to Moldavia and Armenia, and about sco Oczakow, and Suvsaroff received a ball Jews, must be added to the number. in the nape of his neck, and his horle On ihe part of the Russians, the loss, died as a Toldier was taking off his lad- according to the fficial report, confift. dle; and, by the blowing-up of the ed of 1850 killed and 2500 wounded. magazine at Kinburn, he received fem

To prevent this unexampled heap of veral wounds. Oczakow was taken by dead bodies from occafioning epidemiassault, after four months regular ato cal disorders and the plague, he 10,000 tack. Sultan Selim alcer led the Turkish priloners were employed in carryir.g off throne, and augmented his ariny; but ihe bodies of their countrymen, and of he fuffered a great defeat, in the battle their houses, and, as pits could not be of Forham, from Suv:roff and the dug quick enough in the frozen earth, Prince of Cobourg, and in a second they were all thrown into the Danube, battle at Rymnik, for which Suvvaroff and the whole business was cumpleted Wis created a cornet of Russia and the in fix days. The Rulhans buried their Empire, and received letters from the own dead without the city, and the of. Emperor Joseph and the Empress officers in the cemetery. Of fo large a Russia. Bender and Belgrade surren. garrison as that of Ismail, only one dered on this last defeat. Suvvaroff en

man escaped; being slightly wounded gaged in a friendly intercourse with the and falling into the Danube, he got to Seraskier of Brahilow, and lettled ar. the other side on a plank, and carried ticles for preventing the effusion of to the Grand Vizier the first news of blood between the two armies; but in the loss of the town. The riches cap furmountable obstacles prevented the tured there were of great magnitude execution of this plan; and, had Hassan and importance, and the foldiers made Bacha lived, it is presumed peace would a considerable booty, befides ammunihave taken place.

His succeflor as tion and military stores, corn and pro. grand vizier, Jussuf Bucha, cr fed the vifons, and 10,000 houses and rich Danube ; but the junction of Cobourg trappings, 345 itandards, almost all and Suvvaroff reduced him to a dilemftained with blood, of which owo were ma from which nothing but the armis. Sainjack great banners of the fovereigos tice agreed upon at Reichenburg could of Bender and Ismail, of which there extricate him; and, after it expired, are but five in the Ottoman empire, Cobourg was recalled by his new mal- the superb and unique great bauner of ter, the Emperor Leopold, to his new the khar of the 'Tartars, and feven rich command in Hungary. Suvvaroff was burschuks, or horses' tails. The total therefore left alune to lay fiege to Il. value of the riches found in Ismail was mail, which, for that time, he was, by climated at 10 millions of piaftres. the advanced state of the season and Suvvaroff took not even a horic. Sau



tisfied with the glory he had gained ately set at liberiy, and the remainder there, he departed from Ilmail as he next day. The king and the magis. came thither, nor did he even open a trates of Warsaw p.oposed a capitulaletter brought him from the Emperor tion, which was accepted on better Leopold just before the affault, an. terms than they could have expected, bouncing his compliments to him on a complete amnely, and the refiora. Coronation. Though the king of tion of the king. “ Gen, Ifinier conSwedeo had the preceding year figned duéled the deputies to S. who was a treaty of peace with Rutfia, the war leated before his tent; but perceiving with the Turks having been termina- them much embarraffed on approachted, the mia fters of bureign powers ing him, he forang from his feat, endeavoured to simulate Sweden to å threw his sabre at his feet, and, crying rupture wish Russia; but they did not in the Polish language, pakoi fucceed. S. was appointed to the com- (peace), ran up to them, embraced mand of the troops in Finland, and them, brought them into his tent, and put the province in a state of defence, feated them on the ground by his fide, Peace was concluded with the Turks, They built into tears, expressing by jo Dez. 1791, by Count B. bore'dr, at by this mute eloquence, which was far Jotiv, dear which Porce Poremkin more expressive than words, all the died a few months before. The Porte lentiments of joy, gratitude, and ad. ceded to Ruffia the important town of miration, with which they were alOczuckow, and all iis diftri&t to the feeted. S. entertained them with kind. Dnieper; a loss severely felt by the pels, ordered them fome refreshment, Grand Seignor, who fered himfulf and requested the determination of ihe with the hope of reak:og the Crimea. magiftrates 10 24 hours." Their anS. received the command of the troops fer app?aiing evasive, S. proposed on the ironiser o: Turkey, and fot out fome stricter supplementary articles. for Clie in, whe e he erjored repole In the night of oa. 26, there was a from 1792 to 1794, no politici event great tumult at Warsaw, and an at. calling him forth in fignalize himlelt tempt to carry off the king, which the by military exploits,

mag i.ates opposed in a body; and After rhe Polith conf-deration of the king himself creared delays about May 3, 1791, a second soojk place at his entry into ne ciev. Ai lengila Grodno under the p:o:ection of the came a ieiter under seal from the king, Empress of Ruffia and the King of wish an unlimited power to the besrer Pruffia. In April, 1793, at the close of i to treat of peace. The general of this congrels, the Polish troops dif. was much concerned to observe to ma. persed over the Ukraine entered into ny delays and contradictions, and an. the service of Ruffia under various swered in few words, “ We are not at Ruffian commanders. At first they war with Poland. Her Imperial Ma. behaved themselves peaceably; but jesty did not send me hither as a miwhen the insurrection of Poland broke nifter, but as general in chief, to anout at Cracow, and Warsaw became nihilate the army of the intuigenis. I the theatre of so many bloody scenes, fail not enter into any subje&ts fotheir fatal influence speedily manifesto reign to iny dury." And when he was ed itself, and a muciay broke out advised to detain Count Potocki, who among them in the beginning of April, was ne of the princial leaders of the 1794. Suvvaroff was sent against revolution, as a hostage for the Rule them in May, and executed his com- fian prisoners, he rejected the idea, miffion by difarming them. After saying, “Why should we detain an various engagements with the Polish hoft? All the pritoners will be set at insurgents, he gave them a complete liberty without it; besides, it would defeat in Sept. 1794; when of 10,000 be a crime ro betray the confidence of men, 300 at mon cleaped, with 500 an enemy, who is come to negotiate prisoners

. The battle of Matschcwry, on the faith of an armistice." The Rufo in which Kosciouko was taken, and fans made their entry, followed by S. the furrender of Warsaw, afterwards surrounded with his adjutants and of: followed. The Poles had loft 13,000 ficers. He wore the uniform of an of men in the attack of the suburbs of Gcer of cavalry, without the least de. Praga, above 2000 drowned in the coration, and was followed by the Villula

, and 14,680 were taken pris regiment of Cherson, with a numerous foners, of whom 8000 were immedi. band of military mufick. He was re


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