Imatges de pÓgina

ages, by whom he made the worlds, and who repeatedly appeared to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.' I instantly and eagerly imbibed this sentiment; this, I thought, is the very truth, I will trouble myself no more about understanding the meaning of a Trinity in Unity, (about which my mind had really been perplexed,) and from that moment, without knowing the meaning of the word, 1 became what is called an high Arian.”—Pp. 31, 32.

Sir Patience Warde, her paternal uncle, was the intimate friend of the virtuous Lord Russel, who was beheaded in the reign of the second Charles, and he had himself narrowly escaped the like fate. He was afterwards one of those who had the happiness of conducting King William to this kingdom; and my grandmother, then a girl, having money given her on that occasion to throw among the populace in London, considered herself as entitled to be a partaker in her uncle's

triumphs. With what majesty and importance, when I had afterwards obtained a small portion of favour, by listening to her stories and flying to obey her commands, did she detail to me these histories! adding many an anecdote of the exemplary conduct of Queen Mary, of the fortitude of Lady Rachael Russel, of the disinterested patriotism of her virtuous lord, and of the piety of Archbishop Tillotson, contrasting with these the infa

mous character of the licentious Charles

and his equally licentious and still more tyrannical and bigoted brother. She had the offer, she said, of being one of Queen Mary's maids of honour:-I durst not ask her why she refused, but I remember thinking that I would not have done so. She died the following year."-Pp. 38-40.

At ten years of age, Mrs. Cappe was sent to York for the purpose of acquiring the female accomplishments then in vogue. In this period of her narrative she introduces to the reader her maternal grandmother, who had lately resigned the family mansion to ker son, just returned from the continent, and with her two maiden daughters had come to reside in that city.

"I had never seen her, but I had pleased myself with anticipating how well I would behave, and how delighted she would be to receive me. She was a very stately old lady, between seventy and eighty years of age, a complete aristocrat of the last century. When I entered the room, she was sitting on a great chair as on a little throne, her two daughters happening to be standing near her, as if they were ladies in waiting. When she saw me, not a muscle of her face relaxed. Is this her?" she haughtily inquired; Well child, how do your father and your mother do?' I was probably restrained at the moment by fear from bursting into tears, but when I returned to my lodging, excessive disappointment and sorrow brought on a violent headache. York, I told Mrs. D. (the person with whom I boarded,) did not agree with me, and that I must return home immediately. My elder aunt was sent for, who being both kind and judicious, succeeded perfectly in composing my spirits. My grandmother, she said, would love me when we were better acquainted, and in the mean time I should be dis graced for ever if I returned home without accomplishing the purposes for which I had been sent. This last argument was decisive, and although I continued silently to count days and weeks, I never sor rowed very deeply any more.

"This old lady had but two criterions for estimating character-rank and beauty: she did not consider the daughter of a country clergyman as possessing the one, and the small-pox had deprived me of all pretensions to the other. She was herself a woman of rank; and her family had risen, from the circumstances of the times, into great consideration,

Mr. Harrison, the father of Mrs. Cappe, died at 57 years of age, July 22, 1763; and this event broke up and dispersed the family. Mrs. Cappe was sent to Nostel, the seat of her mother's first cousin, Sir Rowland Winn, whose baronial hospitality is pictured by her with all the liveliness with which we recollect the principal scenes of our youth.

"Sir Rowland, the second of the family who had borne that name, was at that time between fifty and sixty years of age, and had been a widower many years. His manner of living was not wholly dissimilar to that of an English baron in ancient times, and was at once impressive of awe by its magnificence, and of respect, by the general happiness it appeared to diffuse. The splendid mansion, situated in an extensive park, approached by a long avenue of trees and sheltered on the north-east by a wood of stately oaks, which had firmly withstood the winter blasts of successive centuries, had all the grandeur, without the terrific gloom, of the ancient Gothic castle. The family consisted of not fewer than sixty or seventy persons, among whom were many workmen and artificers, who were constantly employed in it and dined regularly in the servants' hall. A pack of

fox-hounds was kept, not so much for the amusement of their master, although he was himself partial to the exercise of hunting, as for a sort of rallying point that should draw around it the neighbouring gentlemen. But it was at Christmas that the resemblance to the seat of the ancient baron was most striking. At this cheerful season, open house was kept for three days; all the farmers and cottagers upon the estate were invited along with their wives to dine in the great hall, precisely at two o'clock; where the worthy master of the whole family (for they all appeared as his children) presided at one long table with the men, and his amiable daughters at a second table with the women.

"The venerable boar's head, decorated with evergreens and an orange in his mouth, according to ancient custom, was the centre dish at each table. A band of music played during dinner; after which, the particular circumstances of every farmer and cottager were carefully inquired into, and many little plans formed for the alleviation or relief of their various anxieties or distresses. In the afternoon, some of the daughters of the most respectable farmers were invited to partake of tea, coffee, cakes and sweetmeats; and the evening concluded with a dance, in which they were permitted to join with the young ladies of the family and their other visiters, of whom there were sev'eral from Wakefield, Pontefract and the surrounding neighbourhood. At nine, the dancing ceased; the farmers' wives and daughters returned home, and the family and their guests adjourned into another apartment to supper.

"The broken meat was regularly distributed three times a week, and milk given every day to the poor inhabitants of two large villages, which adjoined the west side of the park. I do not affirm that this mode of charity was, of all others, the most useful or enlightened, but to a passing observer it was strikingly impressive; and the whole effect on a young mind was greatly increased by the other appendages of a large establishment, such for instance as the number of orderly attendants, all arranged in their proper ranks, and the respectful manner of the neighbouring gentry. The fascination, however, would not have been complete, or at least it would have continued but a very short time, had not the appearance, character, manners and occupations of the possessor himself supplied the finishing charm. His person was singularly graceful, his countenance beamed with benevolence, and in his address there was all the politeness, without the formality, of what is called the old school.

He had been early left a minor, under the guardianship of his uncle, my mother's father, and of Dr. Trimnell, Bishop of Winchester, who had married one of his aunts; his father and mother having both died at Bristol, within a week of each other, when he was very young. He was sent by his guardians to Geneva, where he principally received his education, and where he imbibed those principles of civil and religious liberty which afterwards united him in close friendship with the late highly revered Lord Rockingham, and the upright, virtuous Sir George Savile. Before their day, however, (about the year 1732,) he stood a contested election for the county of York, on the Whig interest, against Sir Miles Stapleton; but losing his election, and not choosing to represent a borough, he never had a seat in parliament: but as a magistrate, he was active, judicious and indefatigable, regular in his hours of doing business, exact in the distribution of justice, and very careful of his time. It was his constant custom to rise early in a morning; in winter, long before day-light, and to kindle his own fire. His letters were usually written before the family breakfast, which was always exactly at nine o'clock; and he afterwards gave audience to a crowd of various descriptions of persons, in succession, who were generally in waiting for his assistance or advice. He was not possessed of shining talents, or eminent for literary attainments; but his judgment was accurate and discriminating; and although he was uniformly cheerful and condescending, yet there was an air of dignity about him which forbad every approach to undue familiarity. No one ever thought of asking him an improper question or of making him an impertinent reply: and he possessed a certain readiness and point in his manner which seldom failed of producing the desired effect. I shall give the following specimen related to me by one of his daughters.


"Being in want of a servant to attend upon his person, one, who he thought would suit him, declined the place, because he could not submit to clean his master's shoes. If that be the whole of your objection,' returned the baronet, it may be easily removed; you can fetch the brushes and the blacking and I can clean the shoes myself.' The difficulty was instantly overcome; the man ashamed of his folly, requested that he might be engaged on any terms his future master might think proper, and he lived with him afterwards above thirty years, until the time of his death.

"Sir Rowland attached himself with great earnestness to the Foundling Hos

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pital at Ackworth, three miles distant from Nostel, for the reception of deserted young children, which was at that time an appendage to the Foundling Hospital in London. It was his delight to visit these children, which he generally did two or three times in the week; examining their diet, inquiring into their health and respective improvements and investigating the conduct of the matrou, master and other assistants. Many of the children, and especially the boys, he knew and distinguished individually, and had great pleasure in observing whatever appeared promising in their disposition and talents: never shall I forget the animation and fine expression of his countenance, when, on his return, he delighted to detail the various little occurrences which had interested him, to an attentive and affectionate group of family auditors."-Pp. 80-84.

Sir Rowland died in the year 1765: "The fatal disease was a pestilential carbuncle, which was not understood by the surgeon who attended, and a mortification came on very rapidly. In the delirium which preceded death, the worthy patriot repeatedly desired his attendants to take away that man from before the king,' meaning Lord Bute, whose maxims of government he wholly disapproved. So strikingly in him was exemplified the elegant compliment of one of our most popular poets to Lord Cobham :—


Besides the writer of these Memoirs, Mr. Harrison left a son, who was educated for the church, but who was of too unsettled a turn to distinguish himself in his

in consequence of a fall from his horse, Sept. 2, 1787. To him the following interesting extract refers:

"Such was the state of the family at Nostel, when I became an inmate in November 1763. I was received by Sir Rowland in the kindest manner: Assure yourself, my dear, and tell your mother,' said the honoured invalid, as he lay upon a couch in his library, on my first entrance, that I will take care of the interests of your brother; and he lost no time in endeavouring to fulfil his promise. As soon as he was able to sit up, he wrote a long letter to Archbishop Drummond, who then filled the see of York, and with whom he was in habits of great intimacy, requesting his advice respecting the course of study which a young man intended for the church ought especially to pursue; adding, that he made the request in behalf of a near relation about whose welfare he was very solicitous. The Archbishop returned an answer at great length; filling many sheets of paper with a detail of the authors that should be studied, and the books consulted; adding, that he had copied it from a plan he had lately sketched out for the use of a near relation of his own."-P. 87.

"This very sketch of a course of study for the ministry was published in 1804 by his son, the Rev. Hay Drummond, Prebendary of this Cathedral, together with a selection from the Sermons of the Archbishop."

"Such in those moments, as in all the past,

'O! save my country, Heav'n,' shall be your last."

Pp. 94, 95. (To be continued.)

ART. II.-Details of the Arrest, Imprisonment and Liberation of an Englishman by the Bourbon Government of France. 8vo. pp. 160. Hunter and E. Wilson. 1823. 48. is case Mr. Bowring,

I stated by himself. Our opinion of it, already freely expressed, is fully justified by the "Details" here presented, which are authenticated by official documents. The pamphlet proves beyond dispute, that the French government had not even the shadow of a reason for their oppressive and cruel conduct towards our enlightened and virtuous countryman. His imprisonment was the result of some dark intrigue; the wanton act of a faction which has for some time swayed the Bourbon counsels, and which has put the very existence of the dynasty in jeopardy.

The British minister conducted himself in the affair with an appearance, at least, of decent regard to the honour of the country. Had he shewn more sympathy with the injured individual, and a greater indignation against the lawless proceedings of the Court of France, he might not merely have avoided blame, but have earned a title to praise, and have conferred a new and noble character upon our own government in the eyes of Europe. As it is, Mr. Bowring is left to enjoy his liberation and to obtain indemnity (if he chooses to seek it) by a suit against Louis the XVIIIth. or his ministers, in his own courts of justice !

We must refer the reader for an account of this memorable achieve

ment of the Bourbons to Mr. Bowring's own pages, which his ingenious pen could not fail to render interesting, but in which he has, by a sacrifice of his feelings, confined himself for the most part to a narrative of events, and to a statement of the alleged reasons in justification of his persecutors. We cannot, however, forbear giving an extract or two describing the interior of a French prison, and shewing what it is for an Englishman to become the victim of French espionage.

maker who was confined there, and from a collection of stale butter, apples and fragments of food, was often exceedingly offensive. A carpenter, a mild and amiable man, who had been imprisoned for some smuggling transaction, fixed some pegs, on which I was enabled to hang up my clothes. The same man had, at the instigation of an old ecclesiastic, erected a neat and commodious chapel for the unfortunate worshipers, within the walls of the prison, as mentioned before; and there I was accustomed to attend sometimes, to listen to the feats of the saints and martyrs of old time, to drink in sound legitimate doctrines, delivered no doubt with great ar dour, and for aught I know, resulting from strong conviction. On one occasion the preacher narrated the miraculous conversion of Clovis-a ferocious, perjured man-destroyer he, by the way and explained to his hearers that he was a most valiant fighter, who covered himself with glory,' and who led on the Frenchmen of old times to gather (as they always gathered) the laurels of victory: but once, when he was about to be beaten back, and finding his prayers to his own gods most unpropitious, he exclaimed, I'll try a new God-the God of the Christians-the God of my wife Clothilda.' On a sudden a bright cross appeared in the heavens (that was a pla giarism-but the prisoners were no professors of history,)-he dashed among the foe; they fled at the strokes of his mighty arm; they were scattered like dust in his presence. And so, my beloved hearers, (said the priest,) Christianity became the religion of the Francs, and travelled down even to you.' The prisoners are not compelled to attend the celebration of mass. I observed that the young and the old were habitual worshipers. The middle-aged seldom crossed the threshold of the chapel, and dealt liberally the appellations of bigots and hypocrites upon their companions. In the prison the state of the women is incredibly bad. There was among them one, a poor maniac, who was in the habit of tearing off her clothes till she was naked; she sat through the day on a dunghill, which she had collected from the filth of the prison, dashing her head constantly against the prison wall: her body was covered with sores and bruises, so as to be intolerable and inapproacha. ble, from its stench. Her gestures were horrible beyond any thing I had ever witnessed; and she sat, rotting, upon the rottenness beneath her, the subject of all the jests and ridicule of the wretches who surrounded her. There was another woman,-driven to insanity

"I was conducted then to prison" (at Boulogne), "and kept for some time in the outer apartment. The jailor, who, though sufficiently rapacious, was on the whole benevolent, seemed disposed to exact what he could for the use of the only tolerable apartment in the prison, which was his own bed-room; but I was told I could, in no case, have it at night, and must share the common fate of the prisoners, and be locked up in their apartments. All complaint was of course unavailing, and I was glad to get, on any terms, and for any part of the day, an abode less wretched than that to which those who surrounded me were condemned. Within the prison at Boulogne, as in the majority of prisons in France, all crimes are blended without distinction, and the alleviations of imprisonment de⚫ pend wholly on the pecuniary resources of the prisoner. There the debtor and the maniac are confounded with the felon and the murderer-the youngest pilferer with the most practised thief-the innocent mendicant with the hardened ruffian. No employment, but gambling; no habits, but drunkenness. For spirituous liquors, sold by the jailor for his own profit, I have seen the wretched inmates pawn the most necessary articles of dress. There were nakedness, and misery, and profligacy and daily masses, and great concern for the spiritual interests of the prisoners. It were well if those who built a chapel there, (as was lately done,) had given half its cost for the purchase of soup or straw."-Pp. 17, 18.

"The crowded state of the prison prevented the orders for my seclusion from being absolutely obeyed, except by day; for at night I was shut up as usual with the other prisoners, that is, with those who could afford to pay to the jailor ten sous (five-pence) per night, for the accommodation of a bed; the rest, without any distinction of crime, being allowed only straw, and that in insufficient quan tity. My apartment was in a state of terrible dilapidation; and from the grease and other materials belonging to a shoe,

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by a love affair, whose beauty, wild and frenzied as it was, could not but instantly arrest and fix the attention, who had dressed herself in fantastic finery, and who dealt out her measure of scorn and

contempt on the criminals who laughed at and tormented her. They were all mingled together-maniacs and prostitutes, female thieves and debtors. There is a Prison Society at Paris; the Bourbons are its patrons, and they receive from time to time its laudatory hommages."-Pp. 22-25.



ART. III.-Omnipresence an Attribute of the Father only a Sermon, preached at Leicester, on Wednesday, July 26, 1821, before the Unitarian Tract Society, established Birmingham, for Warwickshire and the neighbouring Counties. By Robert Wallace. Birmingham: printed and sold by Belcher and Son; and sold by Hunter, in London. 1822. 12mo. pp. 33.

HRISTIAN truth will be most


by men, whose knowledge of it is derived from the Scriptures, in the original languages. An acquaintance with the productions of its ablest uninspired advocates, is, no doubt, beneficial, but should not be generally substituted for the critical study of the volume of Revelation. It was the opinion of a late excellent man and distinguished scholar, that "the New Testament should be read, as if the book were newly published in the world, and, if possible, every interference of any sentiments professed among different sects of Christians most scrupulously shut out. Let the student," he adds, "thoroughly understand the diction and style of his author's composition, and deduce his own creed accordingly." The same writer then condemns that superficial and ill-considered mode of education, "whence springs, with other evil fruit, a harvest of theological coxcombs, devoted to a system, and puffed up with a vain conceit of profound knowledge not worth possessing: the building may look fair and stately to the eye of an unskilful or inaccurate observer, but its foundation is on the sand."

Mr. Wallace has been trained in a better school. Of his attachment to scriptural studies, and of his proficiency in them, he has given undoubted proof in a former publication.* The sermon now to be reviewed, contains some ingenious criticism; and, whether we invariably agree with its author or not, we must commend his attempt, and thank him for his labours. σε

His text is Exod. xx. 24, " In all places where I record my name, I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee;" virtually fulfilled, whenever any token which promise, he well observes, "was of the Divine favour appeared, although God himself was not visibly makes a transition to Matt. xviii. 20, present." (7, 8.) This preacher then

"Where two or three, &c. ;" an assurance which he considers as allusive to forms in the sacred writings of the a proverb found under a variety of Jews. That the declaration is personally applicable to Jesus, and that

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stration of his omnipresence, are very current, but, as Mr. W. justly reasons, very erroneous opinions. Our Lord's parting address to his apostles, in John xiv. 25, is conclusive against the supposition of his literal presence with them after his ascension. Admit," says the author before us, "that this passaget establishes the doctrine of Christ's omnipresence, and by the same rule you may prove in a manner equally satisfactory the omnipresence of Moses." "Be strong and of a good courage, for thou shalt bring the children of Israel into the land which Isware unto them, and I will be with thee." He argues this point with great force and success, § and appeals further to Deut. xi. 13, 15, xxix. 5, 6, as containing examples of similar phra seology. "What language,” he asks,


can be bolder and more figurative than this? Yet no one ever hinted or even conjectured that such language afforded any ground for the supposition that Moses was invested with the

Mon. Repos. XV. 44, &c.

+ Matt. xviii. 20.

Deut. xxxi. 23.

§ We say, with great force and success,

Memoirs of the Life of Gilbert Wake- because a mere identity of words and field, (1804,) Vol. 1, 341, &c.

sound is insufficient,


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