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miliced onions are added. It is then dried, erally admitted to be the first typographand serves as a relisher with toasted bread ical work executed in England. Čaxton or bread and butter. The best caviare is continued to exercise his art for nearly 20 that from the Crimea. From Kerch and years, during which time he produced Jenikale, in that province, 1500 barrels between 50 and 60 volumes, most of which are annually exported to Moldavia and the were composed or translated by himself. countries on the Danube.

Caxton died about 1492, and was buried, CAXAMARCA, or QUAXAMARKA; a prov- according to some accounts, at Campden, ince of Peru, bounded N. by Jaen, E. by in Gloucestershire; though others state his Chacapoyas, S. E. by Caxamarquilla, S. interment as having taken place at St. by Huamachuco, W. by Sana and Trux- Margaret's, Westminster. illo; population, 46,000. The country is CAYENNE, or FRENCH GUIANA; a provgenerally mountainous. It abounds in fruits ince or colony in South America, belongand cattle. The inhabitants are, for the ing to France; bounded N. and N. E. by most part, Indians, and chiefly

weavers. the Atlantic ocean, E. and S. by Brazil, Cazamarca; a town of Peru, capital and W. by Dutch Guiana; between lat. of a province of the same name ; about 70 10 50% and 6° N.; population, 17,331, of miles from the Pacific ocean, 280 N. Lima; which only about 1000 are whites. This lat. 7° 3' S.; lon. 78° 35' W.; population, country was first colonized by the French 12,000. It was, at one time, a royal city, in 1635; in 1654, it was taken by the Engwhere the emperor Atahualpa was put to lish, and, in 1676, by the Dutch; but, in death, after having been defeated and im- 1677, it was restored to the French. The prisoned by Pizarro.

coast of the country is generally low, Caxton, William; an Englishman, marshy, and subject to inundation. The memorable for having first introduced the soil, in many parts, is very fertile, though art of printing into his native country. He in others dry, sandy, and soon exhausted. was born in Kent, about 1410, and served The climate resembles that of the West an apprenticeship to Robert Large, a Lon- Indies, though it is more salubrious. The don mercer. On the death of his master, most noted article of produce is Cayenne Caxton went to the Netherlands, as agent pepper, the fruit of the capsicum baccatum. for the mercers' company, in which situa- Other productions are coffee, sugar, cotton, tion he continued about 23 years. His rep- cocoa, indigo, maize, cassia and vanilla. utation for probity and abilities occasion- Cayenne ; an island of South America, ed his being employed, in conjunction with belonging to France, on the coast of the Richard Whitchill, to conclude a treaty of above province, separated from the main commerce between Edward IV and Philip land by the river Cayenne, which is about duke of Burgundy. He appears subse- 300 miles in length. The island is 18 miles quently to have held some office in the long and 10 broad, and has a fertile soil. household of duke Charles, the son of Cayenne; a town of South America, Philip, whose wife, the lady Margaret of on the north point of the above island, at York, distinguished herself

as the

patron- the mouth of the river Cayenne. It is the ess of Caxton. Whilst abroad, he became capital of the French colony of Cayenne, acquainted with the then newly discovered has a large and convenient port, and coninvention of printing. (See Faust

, John.) tains about 200 houses. Lat. 4° 56' N.; At the request of the duchess, his mistress, lon. 52° 16' W. he translated from the French a work, CAYENNE PEPPER, or CAPSICUM. Capwhich he entitled the Recuyell of the His- sicum is the name of several species of toryes of Troye, by Raoul le Feure, which South American and Indian plants, easily he printed at Cologne, 1471, in folio. This known by their hollow pods, of a shining book, considered as the earliest specimen red or yellow color, which contain many of typography in the English language, is small, flat and kidney-shaped seeds. The esteemed very valuable. At the famous principal species are, heart or bell-pepper sale of the duke of Roxburgh’s library, in (capsicum grossum), Guinea pepper (cap1812, a copy was purchased by the duke sicum annuum) and bird-pepper (capsiof Devonshire, for £1060 10s. After this, sicum baccatum). All the species of caphe printed other works abroad, chiefly sicum possess the same general qualities. translations from the French; and, at In hot climates, but particularly in the length, having provided himself with the East and West Indies, and some parts means of practising the art in England, he of Spanish America, the fruit of these returned thither, and, in 1474, had a press plants is much used for culinary purposes. at Westminster abbey, where he printed It is eaten in large quantities, both with the Game and Playe of the Chesse, gen- animal and vegetable food, and is mixed,


in greater or less proportion, with almost ing on wax, and many other subjects. If all kinds of sauces. The Cayenne pepper he has sometimes misunderstood the anused in cookery is made from the fruit cient authors, and committed some errors of different species of capsicum. This with respect to ancient monuments, he has, fruit, when ripe, is gathered, dried in the nevertheless, treated with great success of sun, and then pounded; and the powder the processes and materials employed in is mixed with a certain portion of salt, and the arts by the ancients. He died in 1765. kept for use in closely-stopped bottles. It Integrity, simplicity and disinterestedness is very generally used as a poignant ingre- were united in his character with occadient in soups and highly-seasoned dishes. sional traits of dogmatism. He has left Its taste is extremely

acrid, and it leaves a numerous works, tales as well as antiquadurable sensation of heat on the palate, rian researches. Among the latter is his which is best removed by butter or oil. Recueil d’Antiquités Egyptiennes, &c. When taken in small quantities, Cayenne (Paris, 1752–67, 7 vols.). Caylus was is a grateful stimulant; and, in medicine, also an industrious and skilful engraver, it is used both externally and internally, to and has furnished a collection of more promote the action of the bodily organs, than 200 engravings, after drawings in the when languid and torpid; and it is said to royal cabinet, and a great number of heads, have been

found efficacious in many gouty after the first masters. His mother, niece and paralytic cases. The Guinea pepper, of Mad. de Maintenon, made herself known or annual capsicum, is considered the most by a spirited little work—Mes Souvenirs. hardy of this whole tribe of plants; and, in CAYMAN. (See Alligator.) many parts of the south of Europe, its fruit CAZOTTE, Jacques, an author, distinis eaten green by the peasants at their guished by facility and liveliness of style, breakfasts, and is preferred by them to on- born in 1720, at Dijon, studied with the ions or garlic. The fruit of all the species Jesuits, and went, in 1747, to Martinico. may be used in domestic economy, either On his return to France, he lost $50,000 as a pickle, or when dried before a fire, and in letters of exchange upon the order of ground to powder in a common pepper- the Jesuits, to whose superior, Lavalette, mill

, as Cayenne pepper. (See Capsicin.) he had sold his possessions in Martinico. CAYES, LES, or Aux Cayes; a seaport The lawsuit which he commenced, on town on the south coast of Hayti; 30 miles this occasion, may be considered as the S. S. E. Port-au-Prince; lat. 18° 13' N.; beginning of all the proceedings against lon. 74° 31' W. This town, a few years the Jesuits in France. Cazotte shone in since, contained 12 or 15,000 inhabitants. society among the beaux esprits. His roIt is now very much reduced. The harbor mance of chivalry, Olivier, published in is inferior, but the surrounding country is 1763, and, subsequently, his Diable amoufertile.

reux, the Lord Impromptu, and Euvres Caylus (Anne Claude Philippe de Tu- morales et badines, are proofs of his rich bières, &c.), count of, an archæologist, imagination, and his talent for writing with born Oct. 31, 1692, at Paris, received an ease and precision. Being received into education equally solid and splendid. Af- the order of Martines de Pasqualis, Cazotte ter having served in the army during the lost himself in cabalistic dreams. With war of the Spanish succession, he left the the assistance of Dom Chavis, an Arabian service in 1915, accompanied Bonac on monk, he translated four volumes of Arahis embassy to Constantinople the follow- bian Tales—a continuation of the Arabian ing year, and visited Greece, Troy, Ephe- Nights, forming the 37th and 40th volumes sus, Byzantium and Adrianople. In 1717, of the Cabinet des Fées. Though at the he returned to Paris, according to the wish age of 70 years, he wrote them at midnight, of his mother, and began here to arrange after his return from the circles in which his extensive collections. He commenced he had been visiting. Chavis dictated the a great work on Egyptian, Grecian, Etrus- outlines, and Cazotte wrought up the stocan, Roman and Gallic antiquities, with ries. He completed the task in two winnumerous plates. He was a member of ters. The comic opera Les Sabots he the academy of painting and of the acad- composed in one night. In the revolution, emy of inscriptions, and divided his labors which he opposed with all his power, between them. He made a chemical ex- he was thrown into the prisons of the amination of the ancient method of en- Abbaye, with his daughter Elizabeth, in caustic painting, investigated the mode of 1792. When the massacre of the prisoners painting on marble, the art of hardening took place, Sept. 2 and 3, Cazotte being copper, the mode by which the Egyptians delivered into the hands of the assassins, raised great weights, the mummies, paint-. his daughter cast herself between him

and the murderers, and prevented the ex- tice of the king; and, being presented ecution of their purpose ; but he was again with the reversion of the office of custos condemned to death, and executed Sept. brevium, was encouraged to push his for25. From the scaffold he cried with a tune at court. Having married the sister firm voice to the multitude, “I die, as I of sir John Cheke, he was, by his brotherhave lived, faithful to God and to my king.” in-law, recommended to the earl of Hert

CaZWINI, Zacharia Ben Mohammed, ford, afterwards the protector Somerset. an Arabian naturalist, descended from a Having lost his first wife, he took for a family of lawyers, who derived their ori- second the daughter of sir Anthony Cooke, gin from Anas Ben Malek, a companion of director of the studies of Edward VI; and, Mohammed, and had settled in Caswin, a by his alliance with this lady, herself emicity in Persia. From that place this au- nent for learning, still further increased thor received the surname under which his influence. He rose, in 1547, to the he has become celebrated. Of the cir- post of master of requests, and, soon after, cumstances of his life, we know only that to that of secretary. He endured, in this he was cadi of Wazith and Hillah, and reign, some of the vicissitudes which befell died in the year of the hegira 682 (A. D. his patron Somerset, but always recovered 1283). His most important work is on his standing, and, in 1551, was knighted, natural history—The Wonders of Nature and sworn a member of the privy council. and the Peculiarities of Creation of which His declining to aid the proclamation of Ideler, professor in the university of Ber- lady Jane Grey, secured him a gracious lin, has published the chapter on the Con- reception from queen Mary, although he stellations of the Arabians, and of which forfeited his office because he would not there are fragments in Bochart's Hiero- change his, religion. In 1555, he attended zoikon, in Ouseley's Oriental Collections, cardinal Pole and the other commissionand in Wahl's, Jahn's and De Sacy's Arab. ers appointed to treat for peace with Chrestomathias. It was the object of Caz- France ; and, on his return, being chosen wini, like Pliny, to describe the wonders knight of the shire for the county of Linof all nature. His work contains a com- coln, distinguished himself by opposing a prehensive view of all that had been writ- bill brought in for the confiscation of esten before him, but in so grand and orig- tates on account of religious principles. inal a manner, that it is of higher value His foresight led him into a timely correthan most of the original works which spondence with the princess Elizabeth, treat of the same subjects. There is an previously to her accession ; to whom, in abridged translation of it in the Persian. her critical situation, his advice was ex

CEBES of Thebes was a disciple of ceedingly serviceable. On her accession, Socrates. He is said to have saved Phæ- in 1558, he was appointed privy counseldon, a young slave, from moral ruin. Noth- lor and secretary of state. One of the ing more is known of his life. Three dia- first acts of her reign was the settlement loguesHebdome, Phrynichus, and Pinux, of religion, which Čecil conducted with or the Pictureare ascribed to him; but great skill and prudence, considering the most critics regard the latter as the work difficulties to be encountered. In foreign of a later Cebes, or of a Stoic philosopher affairs, he showed much tact in guarding under this assumed name. Since the re- against the danger arising from the Cathvival of learning, this interesting dialogue olic powers, and very judiciously lent suphas been often reprinted by itself

, or in port to the reformation in Scotland. The connexion with the writings of Epictetus, generaltenor of Cecil's policy was cauTheognis, Pythagoras, &c. Among the tious, and rested upon an avoidance of larger editions is that of Schweighấuser open hostilities, and a reliance on secret (Strasburg, 1806). There are many school negotiation and intrigues with opposing editions.

parties in the neighboring countries, with Cecil, William (lord Burleigh). This a view to avert the dangers which threateminent English statesman was son to ened his own. This, upon the whole, was Richard Cecil, master of the robes to a course almost necessary,

considering the Henry VIII, and was born at Bourne, in situation of England, with a powerful, disLincolnshire, in 1520. He studied at St. satisfied party at home, much dangerous John's college, Cambridge, whence he enmity on the part of Catholic Europe, removed to Gray's Inn, with a view to and an alliance existing between Scotland prepare himself for the practice of the law. and France. On the suppression of the Having carried on a successful controver- northern rebellion, in 1571, Elizabeth sy with two Irish priests on the subject of raised him to the peerage by the title of the pope's supremacy, he obtained the no- baron Burleigh, and, the following year,


made him a knight of the garter. He is he went to France as assistant to the charged with being deeply engaged in fo- English ambassador, the earl of Derby, menting the troubles which caused the and, in 1596, was appointed one of the flight of the imprudent and unhappy Mary secretaries of state. On the death of sir Stuart into England; and, after the dis- Francis Walsingham, he succeeded him covery of Babington's conspiracy, he never as principal secretary, and continued to ceased urging her trial and condemnation. be a confidential minister of queen ElizaHe endured, for a short time, the hypo- beth to the end of her reign. Having secritical resentment of Elizabeth at the ex- cretly supported the interests of James I, ecution of the queen of Scots, but, after a previous to his accession to the crown, while, recovered his former credit. At and taken measures to facilitate that event, the time of the threatened Spanish inva- he was continued in office under the new sion, he drew up the plan for the defence sovereign, and raised to the peerage. In of the country with his usual care and 1603, he was created a baron; in 1604, ability. But, soon after, losing his wife, viscount Cranbourn; and in 1605, earl of to whom he was warmly attached, he be- Salisbury. The same year he was chosen came desirous of retiring from public chancellor of the university of Cambridge, business, and of leaving the field open to and made a knight of the garter. He was his son Robert, afterwards so celebrated as the political rather than the personal faearl of Salisbury. He was persuaded, vorite of the king, whom he served with however, to keep his employment, and zeal and fidelity; and, as he was certainly one of his latest efforts was to effectuate a the ablest, so he was, perhaps, the most honpeace with Spain, in opposition to the est, minister who presided over the affairs more heated councils of the earl of Essex. of state during that reign. In 1608, on This great minister died in the bosom of the decease of the lord high treasurer the his family, and in the possession of all his earl of Dorset, that office was bestowed on honors, in 1598, being then in his 77th lord Salisbury, who held it till his death, year. He left behind him the character in 1612. This event took place at Mariof the ablest minister of an able reign. borough, as he was returning to London How far the emergencies of the period from Bath, whither he had gone in a very ought to excuse a portion of his dark and debilitated state of health, to use the mincrooked policy, it may be difficult to deter- eral waters. An interesting account of mine. But it is easy to decide, that al- this journey, and of the last hours of this most every school of politicians, under eminent statesman, drawn up by one of similar circumstances, have countenanced his domestics, may be found in Peck's similar laxity under the plea of expedien- Desiderata Curiosa. Lord Salisbury was cy. The private character of Burleigh the author of a Treatise against the Pawas highly regarded; for, although he pists; and of Notes on Dee's Discourse failed not to improve his opportunities as on the Reformation of the Calendar; and a courtier, he always exhibited a probity some of his letters, despatches and speechwhich conciliated esteem. He possessed, es in parliament have been published. in a high degree, the solid learning, grav- CECILIA. There are several saints of ity and decorum, which, in that age, usu- this name in the Catholic church. The ally accompanied elevated station. In his most celebrated, who has been falsely remode of living, he was noble and splendid, garded as the inventress of the organ, and but, at the same time, economical, and who is the patron saint of music, is said to attentive to the formation of a competent have suffered martyrdom A. D. 220. Her fortune for his family. His early occu- pagan parents, says the legend, betrothed pation as a statesman precluded much her, contrary to her wishes, to Valerian, a attention to literature; but he is mentioned young pagan. But she had internally as the author of a few Latin verses, and vowed to the Lord a perpetual virginity; of some historical tracts. A great number and, whilst the instruments sounded, she of his letters on business are still extant. sang in her heart only to the Lord (can

Cecil, Robert, earl of Salisbury, second tantibus organis, illa in corde suo soli son of lord Burleigh, was born, according Domino cantabat, dicens, &c.); that is, she to some accounts, about the year 1550; but prayed—O Lord, allow my heart and my his birth may, with more probability, be body to remain unpolluted. As soon as placed 13 years later. He was deformed, the bridegroom appeared, she forbade his and of a weak constitution; on which ac- approach, assuring him that an angel of count he was educated at home, till his the Lord protected her innocence. The removal to the university of Cambridge. unbelieving Valerian wished to convince Having received the honor of knighthood, himself of this assertion; she referred him

to the bishop Urban, who was concealed country, the art of ship-building, and thus among the tombs of the martyrs, and who laid the foundation of its commerce. He instructed him in the Christian religion, died after a reign of 50 years. His monand baptized him. When he returned to ument was erected in the temple of Mithe bride, he saw the protecting angel, nerva ; but, to preserve his memory alwho presented them both with crowns of ways fresh in their minds, the people heavenly roses and lilies. Valerian now consecrated to him the constellation of induced his brother Tubirtus to embrace Aquarius. (See Attica.) The researches the Christian faith. The Roman prefect which are making among the records of Almachius caused both brothers to be Egyptian history, since the key to their beheaded, as zealous professors of Chris- mysterious language has been discovered tianity. Life was to be given to Cecilia if by the skilfully directed efforts of Young, she would sacrifice to the heathen gods. De Sacy, Zoega, Champollion, and others, But she remained firm in her belief. will undoubtedly throw great light on the Upon this, the tyrant caused her to be progress of civilization from Egypt to shut up in a bath of boiling water, in Greece, described in the half mythological, which she was found, the day after, un- half historical tales of the latter country. hurt. The executioner was then directed CECROPIA. (See Athens, vol. i. p. 442.) to behead her: he inflicted three blows, CEDAR; a name given to several species but was not able to separate the head from of juniper, to a species of pine, the cedar the body. She lived for three days, ex- of Lebanon, and to the cupressus thuyoides. horting the faithful and giving alms to the It is an evergreen, and of great durability. poor. As early as the 5th century, we The most celebrated kind is the find a church in Rome dedicated to her. Cedar-Larch, or Cedar of Lebanon (pinus Pope Paschalis, who was very anxious to cedrus, L.), distinguished, by its strong, ragather relics, endeavored to discover her mose branches, from all other trees of the body. She appeared to him, as he relates same genus. The general character of the in his letters, while he was sleeping, and shoot, even when the tree is young, is sinpointed out the place of her sepulchre. gularly bold and picturesque, and quite Paschalis caused the body to be disinter- peculiar to the species. The tree is a nared in 821, and placed it in the church tive of the coldest part of the mountains of which he rebuilt, where her monument is Libanus, Amanus and Taurus; but it is still to be seen. How Cecilia came to be not now to be found in those places in the patron-saint of music is not agreed. great numbers. Maundrell, in his journey The various opinions, however, seem to from Aleppo to Jerusalem, in 1696, could be united in this point, that it was either reckon only 16 large trees, though many through a misunderstanding, or through small ones. The forest of Libanus seems an allegorical interpretation of the words never to have recovered from the havoc above cited from her legend. Her wor- made by Solomon's forty score thousand ship, in this character, is very ancient. hewers. Beautiful specimens of this noble Among the poets, Chaucer, Dryden in his tree are to be seen at Witton park, ZionAlexander's Feast, and Pope, have sung her house, &c., in England, where it seems to praises. Raphael, Domenichino, Dolce have been introduced in 1683, and where, and Mignard have represented her in cel- as professor Martyn observes, there are ebrated paintings. In the picture of Ra- probably, at present, more cedars than in phael, she appears as the personification Palestine. of heavenly devotion. This is, indeed, a White-Cedar (cupressus thuyoides) is a heavenly picture.

small or middle-sized evergreen, naturally Cecrops, the founder of Athens, arrived forming an elegant head. Its branches there about 1550 B. C., from Sais, at the are not pendulous. Its leaves are of a mouth of the Nile (this emigration, how- delicate green color. It is a native of ever, has been questioned by some late North America, China and Cochin China. writers, e. g. Ottfried Müller), taught the In the U. States, it occupies large tracts, savage inhabitants religion and morals, denominated cedar-swamps. The wood is made them acquainted with the advan- soft, smooth, of an aromatic smell, and tages of social life, laid the foundation of internally of a red color. It is permanent the future city of Athens (Cecropia), and in shape, and very durable,

and is esteemed built 11 other places, whose inhabitants as a material for fences. Large quantities he instructed in agriculture. He also of shingles are made of it. It is a favorite planted the olive, and consecrated it to material for wooden wares, or the nicer Minerva, the patron goddess of Athens. kinds of coopers' work. He then introduced into his adopted Red or Common Cedar (juniperus Vir


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