« AnteriorContinua »
Deuxponts, was distinguished for his in- the causes of which nothing certain is telligence, noble character, and extensive known. Christina went from Inspruck knowledge. She declined his offer, but to Rome, which she entered on horseinduced the states-general, in 1649, to back, in the costume of an Amazon, with designate him for her successor. In 1650, great pomp. When the pope
Alexander she caused herself to be crowned, with VII confirmed her, she adopted the surgreat pomp, and with the title of king. name of Alessandra. She visited the From that time, a striking change in her monuments of the city, and attentively conduct was perceptible. She neglected examined every thing which could awakher ancient ministers, and listened to the en historical recollections. In 1656, she advice of ambitious favorites. Intrigues visited France, and remained at Fontaineand base passions succeeded to her for- bleau, at Compiegne, where the court was mer noble and useful views. The public then held, and at Paris. Her dress and treasure was squandered with extrava- manners produced an unfavorable impresgant profusion. Distinctions were con- sion, but her talents and knowledge were ferred upon the undeserving, and jealousy generally admired. She offered to mediproduced murmurs, complaints and fac- ate between France and Spain; but Maztions. In this state of confusion, the arin declined the offer, and succeeded in queen declared her intention of abdicating accelerating her departure from France, the crown. The old ministers, honoring under various pretexts. In the following the memory of Gustavus Adolphus, re- year, she returned. This second residence monstrated in the strongest terms, and, in France was rendered remarkable by above all, Oxenstiern expressed himself the execution of her grand equerry,
Mowith so much energy, that the queen de- naldeschi, who had enjoyed her entire consisted from her resolution. She now fidence, but whom she accused of treason. grasped with more firmness the reins of This act of vengeance, though defended government, and dissipated, for a time, by Leibnitz, is a stain on the memory of the clouds which had darkened her Christina. The French court testified its throne. She occupied herself again with displeasure, and two months passed be study, bought paintings, medals, manu- fore the queen showed herself publicly in scripts, books, maintained a correspond- Paris. In 1658, she returned to Rome, ence with many learned men, and invited where she received very unpleasing news several to her court. Descartes, Grotius, from Sweden. Her revenue Salmasius, Bochart, Huet, Chevreau, Nau- transmitted to her, and nobody would dé, Vossius, Conring, Meibom, appeared make her advances. Alexander VII rein Stockholm, and the queen conversed lieved her from this embarrassment by a familiarly with them on siterary and phi- pension of 12,000 scudi (dollars). After losophical subjects. Among the literary the death of Charles Gustavus, in 1660, amusements which she united with seri- the queen made a visit to Sweden, under ous studies, was the Grecian dance, which pretence of wishing to arrange her private she caused to be exhibited by Meibom affairs; but it was soon perceived that (q. v.) and Naudé. But new troubles oc- she had other views. As the crowncurred; and the conspiracy of Messenius prince was very young, she declared, that, hreatened not only the favorites of the in case of his death, she should lay claim queen, but the queen herself. Christina, to the throne. This project was unfavorwho loved whatever was uncommon, re- ably received, and she was compelled to sumed the determination to resign the sign a formal act of abdication. Other crown. In 1654, at the age of 29, she unpleasant circumstances induced her to assembled the states-general at Upsal, and, abandon Stockholm. She visited Sweden in their presence, laid aside the insignia of a second time in 1666, but returned to royalty, to surrender them into the
hands Hamburg without reaching the capital, of prince Charles Gustavus. She reserv- having heard that the public exercise of ed to herself a certain income, entire in- her religion would not be allowed her. dependence, and full power over her suite About this time, she aspired to the Polish and household. A few days after, she left crown, but the Poles took no notice of her Sweden, and went through Denmark and wishes. Finally, she returned to Italy, Germany to Brussels, where she made a where she passed the remainder of her public entry, and remained for some time. lise, at Rome, in the cultivation of the arts There she made a secret profession of the and sciences. She founded an academy, Catholic religion, which she afterwards collected valuable manuscripts, medals publicly confirmed in Inspruck—a step and paintings, and died, after having exwhich excited great astonishment, and of perienced many vexations, April 19, 1689.
She was interred in the church of St. or Consecrated Night. The feasts of the Peter, and the pope erected a monument martyr Stephen and the evangelist St. to her with a long inscription. She had John were united with it, and a feast of asked only for these few words: Vixit three days' continuance was thus formed. Christina annos LXIII. Her principal In the ecclesiastical year, this festival gives heir was the cardinal Azzolini, her intend- name to a period extending from the first ant. Her library was bought by pope Sunday of Advent to the feast of EpiphaAlexander VIII, who placed 900 manu- ny, Jan. 6. Some say that Christmas scripts of this collection in the Vatican, has always been celebrated in the church. and gave the remainder of the books to In the Catholic church, three masses are his family. Odescalchi, the nephew of performed-one at midnight, one at dayInnocent XI, purchased the paintings and break, and one in the morning. In the antiquities. The duke of Orleans, regent Greek and Roman churches, the manger, of France, bought a part of the paintings the holy family, &c., are sometimes repfor 90,000 scudi, in 1722. The value of resented at large. Some convents in these collections may be learned from the Rome, chiefly the Franciscans, are fatwo works which give a description of mous for attracting many people by such them, namely, Havercamp's Nummophy- exhibitions. The church of England lacium Regina Christine, and the Muse- celebrates this feast, as do the great body um Odescalcum. The life of Christina of European Protestants. In the U. presents a series of inconsistencies and States, it is little regarded, except by the contradictions: we see, on one side, mag- Episcopalians. The custom of making nanimity, frankness, mildness ; on the presents on Christmas-eve is derived from other, vanity, severity, revenge and dis- an old heathen usage, practised at the simulation. Her knowledge of the world, feast of the birth of Sol, or, in Germany, her acuteness and penetration, did not on the occasion of some feast peculiar to preserve her from visionary projects, from that country (at least the Ruprecht seems the dreams of alchemy and astrology, and to have had such an origin); but it has other illusions. She left some small works, become consecrated by ages, and conin which her character and manner of tributes a great deal to make this festival thinking are perceptible, and which, for an interesting event to families. In the the most part, are contained in Archen- north of Germany, this custom prevails holz's Memoirs of this princess (1751,4 most, pervading all the classes and relations vols. 4to.). The authenticity of the let- of society. In some German churches, ters which appeared in 1762, under her sermons are delivered on Christmas-eve name, is not proved.
for the benefit of children, who attend, Christmas, the feast of Christ's birth, carrying each a little taper. In the Cathwas, according to many critics, not cele- olic church, the officium pastorum is sung brated in the first centuries of the Chris- in which a chorus of children respond to tian church, as the Christian usage, in the priest. general, was, to celebrate the death of re- CHRISTOPHE, Henri, king of Hayti, was markable persons rather than their birth. born Oct. 6, 1767, in the island of GrenaThe death of the martyr Stephen, and the da, as stated by some, but, as others say, massacre of the innocents at Bethlehem, in that of St. Christopher. According to had been already long celebrated, when, the latter account, he was carried to St. perhaps in opposition to the doctrine of Domingo, at the age of twelve, sold as a the Manichæans respecting the birth of slave, and employed by his new master in the Savior, a feast was established, in the business of a cook, which calling he memory of this event, in the 4th century. exercised at the Cape. Others relate that, In the 5th century, the Western church after having served in the American war, ordered it to be celebrated for ever on the and received a wound at the siege of Saday of the old Roman feast of the birth vannah, he went to St. Domingo, and was of Sol, on the 25th of December, though employed on the plantation of Limonade, no information respecting the day of in the capacity of an overseer, wherein he Christ's birth existed. In the East, Christ- displayed his characteristic severity. From mas was celebrated on the 6th of January. the commencement of the troubles among From the gospel of St. Luke, it was the blacks, he took a decided part in favor known that Christ was born during the of independence, and signalized himself night, and therefore divine service was by bis energy, boldness and activity, in performed in the night of Dec. 24–25, many bloody engagements. Toussaintfrom which circumstance Christmas is Louverture, the acknowledged chief of called, in German, Weihnachten, i. e. Holy the blacks, at length gave him the commission of brigadier-general, and employ- with an appropriate order of knighthood; ed him to suppress an insurrection head- and, to complete the imitation of feudal ed by his nephew Moyse. This object sovereignties, he was solemnly crowned was speedily accomplished by Christophe, at the Cape, June 2, 1812, with the cerewho made himself master of the person monies customary in Europe. He also of Moyse, and succeeded him as govern- sought to perpetuate his name by the or of the province of the North. The ex- compilation of the Code Henri—a digest ecution of Moyse excited new troubles at founded upon the Code Napoléon, but not the Cape, which the activity and intrepid- servilely copied. On the contrary, it was ity of Christophe completely suppressed. judiciously adapted to the situation of He commanded there in 1802, when Le- Hayti. In 1813, some cases of defection clerc arrived with a French army, des- occurred among his subjects, which tendtined for the subjugation of the Negroes. ed to exasperate the violent and suspicious Most of them, deceived by the promises temper of Christophe, and prompted him of Leclerc, at first gave way to his de- to impolitic acts of cruelty. In 1814, he signs; but Dessalines and Christophe re- and Petion suspended hostilities, not by a sisted from the beginning, and were de- formal agreement, but, as it were, by tacit clared outlaws. Christophe was compel- consent. For several years in succession, led to make his peace, but resumed arms after this, the efforts of the French to reagain upon the perfidious seizure of the gain their authority in the island gave a new person of Toussaint. The climate aided turn to the policy of Christophe's governthe heroic efforts of Dessalines and Chris- ment. He constantly refused to hear any tophe, and, at the close of 1805, there was proposition from the ex-colonists, short of no longer a French force in Hayti,—for so an acknowledgment of the unqualified inthe island was now denominated by the dependence of the island; and he adopted insurgent chiefs. During the short-lived the most decided measures to counteract government of Dessalines, Christophe was the attempts made by France. Beside his general-in-chief of the Haytian army; and, military preparations for defence against agbeing the senior officer, and most distin- gression, he multiplied, through the agency guished among the blacks, possessed, of of the press, writings calculated to render course, powerful claims to succeed him the views of the ex-colonists odious, and in authority. But the popularity of Pe- to maintain the spirit of independence tion in the South balanced that of Chris- among the emancipated blacks. To furtophe in the North. In February, 1807, ther the same object
, he conceived, and, an assembly convened at the Cape ap- at one period, seriously set about effecting, pointed Christophe president for life of the plan of substituting the English lanthe state of Hayti ; and, about the same guage in the island in place of the French ; time, a republic was organized at Port-au- his intercourse with the English and Prince, with Petion at its head. A civil American merchants having communicawar between the two chiefs ensued, but ted to him a partiality for their language. did not prevent Christophe from taking This project entered into a system of genjudicious measures to establish public or- eral education, which he devised for the der in the territory which he governed. Haytians. Things continued to proceed He organized the administration, the tri- in this way until the death of Petion, in bunals, the marine, and the army, made 1818, and the accession of Boyer. Dissuitable regulations for the encourage- contents had increased, meanwhile, among ment of agriculture, commerce, and other the subjects of Christophe, who contrasted branches of industry among his people, the mild and easy rule of Boyer with the and, by his energy, attained the most flat- iron despotism under which they groaned; tering results.
His military force was and the army itself was ripe for a change. placed on a respectable footing, and his Insurrection began among the garrison of finances were brought into a flourishing St. Marc, which mutinied in a body, killcondition. He constructed fortifications, ed the governor of the town, and sent a and was enabled to set the French at de- deputation to Boyer, signifying their defiance. Following the example of Napo- sire to join the republic. Boyer hastily leon, whom he imitated, he abolished the assembled a force of 15,000 men, and republican forms, March 28, 1811, and marched to the support of the insurgent was proclaimed king of Hayti, by the garrison. At this time, Christophe was name of Henri I. The dignity and title confined, by illness, in his fortified palace were made hereditary in his family; a of Sans Souci, where he commonly residhereditary nobility was created, to give ed. The insurrection soon spread to the lustre and strength to the new institutions, Cape, where Richard, duc de Marmalade, and one of the first dignitaries of the king- supplied them with money to carry on dom, proclaimed the abolition of royalty the contest. The battle of Laufen, in at the head of the troops. The élite of 1534, restored the father of Christopher to Christophe's army, composing his guard the government of Wurtemberg. "Chrisof about 1500 men, continued faithful to topher himself, whom his father disliked, him for a while, but, when marched up went into the French service. After eight to oppose the insurgents from the Cape, years, he was recalled. In 1550, his father joined with the latter in demanding the died; but he could not consider himself deposition of Christophe. Perceiving his securely possessed of the dukedom until case to be desperate, and resolved not to 1552, when he immediately began to devote gratify the insurgents by becoming their himself in every way to the improvement prisoner, Christophe shot himself with a of his subjects. He reëstablished the Lupistol, October 8, 1820. His corpse re- theran religion, which had been prohibited mained exposed several days on the high- during the interregnum, and, in so doing, way, and his oldest son was massacred; gratified the wishes of his subjects. But but Boyer protected his widow and daugh- he did not appropriate the possessions of ters from injury, and enabled them to re- convents, and other ecclesiastical establishtire to Europe in the possession of a com- ments, to himself, as so many or most of petent fortune.
A large treasure was the Protestant princes did, but formed out found in fort Henri, which Christophe of it a great fund, called the Wurtembergihad amassed from the customs on mer- an church property, to be used for supplychandise. His palace was dismantled by ing the wants of the church, and for other the populace, who seemed to take pleas- beneficent purposes. The Wurtembergiure in defacing what had cost them so an cloister schools, for the education of much toil to construct. Thus ended a young clergymen, and the great theologireign, from which the friends of the blacks cal seminary at Tübingen, are his work. anticipated much and with justice. Chris- He improved the schools, so that educatophe's policy was probably better calcu- tion in Wurtemberg, even at the present lated than that of Petion and Boyer to time, is, perhaps, in a more flourishing advance the prosperity of Hayti. Agri- state than in any other part of the world. culture and commerce flourished under He extended the liberties of his subjects, him, and declined under the latter; but, and established a civil code, which still his government being purely a military exists. At the same time, he was contindespotism, in which he himself was every ually attentive to the state of Europe. thing, and the wishes of his people were The fate of Protestantism in Germany totally disregarded, the administration de- was a subject in which he took great ingenerated into a system of tyranny which terest. He had an interview with Cathaproved insupportable. (An. Necrol., 1821 ; rine of Medicis and the Guises, in order to Franklin's Hayti; Malo, His. d'Hayti) alleviate the fate of the Huguenots, and
CHRISTOPHER, duke of Wurtemberg; contributed much to the religious peace born in 1515; one of the wisest rulers at Augsburg in 1555. He endeavored to mentioned in history. His youth was a unite the Protestant princes of Germany, constant scene of adversity. When he and was intrusted with many highly honwas but four years old, the confederated orable commissions by the empire. He Suabian cities expelled his father, the ruled 18 years, and died in December, duke of Wurtemberg, from his dominions, 1568; but lives still in the memory of the and sold the dukedom to Austria. Chris- people of Wurtemberg, who regard him topher was brought to Vienna, and was as the model of a ruler. J. C. Pfister has hardly saved by his tutor, Tyfferni, from well described the life of Christopher. the hands of the Turks, when that city CHRISTOPHER, St.; a saint whose name was besieged by Solyman. He was à and worship are celebrated, but whose second time preserved from captivity, by history is little known. He is reported to the same individual, in 1532, when Charles have been a native of Syria or Cilicia, V intended to bury his person and his who was baptized by St. Babylas, bishop claims on Wurtemberg in a Spanish con- of Antioch, and received the crown of vent. Christopher had been conveyed martyrdom, in Asia Minor, about the midalmost to the frontiers of Spain, when he dle of the third century. Relics of him fled, and safely reached Bavaria, the duke are found in several places, principally in of which was his uncle, and, together with Spain. The Eastern church celebrates Philip of Hesse, now commenced a war his festival on the 9th of May; the Western, against Austria, to compel her to resign on the 25th of July. His intercession was her claims to Wurtemberg. Francis I particularly sought in the time of the
plague. Christopher, or Christophel, liter- most beautiful and durable pigments in ally means bearer of Christ. He is repre- the arts. It is found disseminated in sented as a giant, bearing the child Jesus grains and imperfectly crystallized massupon his shoulders through the sea, which es, occasionally in regular octoedral refers to a legend of this saint. The St. crystals, its primary form,-of a black Christopher of Hemmling is one of the color, a shining and somewhat metallic finest pictures in the gallery of Boisserée. lustre. It scratches glass, is opaque, and (q. v.)
has a specific gravity of 4.03. According CHRISTOPHER, St. (commonly called St. to Vauquelin, that of France consists of 43 Kitts); an island in the West Indies, be- chromic acid, 34.7 oxide of iron, 20.3 alulonging to Great Britain, discovered by mine, silex 2. But chemists, at the presColumbus in 1493, about 15 miles in ent day, consider the chrome in this minlength, and, in general, about 4 in breadth, eral in the state of an oxide, and not of an but towards the eastern extremity, not acid; accordingly, the mineral is now more than 3. Between that part and the more correctly denominated the ferrugirest of the island is a strip of land 3 miles nous oxide of chrome. It is found in great in length, which does not measure half a abundance in Maryland, at the Bare hills, mile across.
This island contains 43,726 near Baltimore, and is contained in a acres, of which about 17,000 acres are ap- steatitic or serpentine rock. It also ocpropriated to the growth of sugar, and 4000 curs in small quantities at numerous other to pasturage. As sugar is the only com- places in the U. States, and has many lomodity of any consequence that is raised, calities in other countries. except the necessary articles of food, and CHROMATIC, in music ; one of the three a little cotton, it is probable that nearly ancient genera—diatonic, chromatic and one half of the whole island is unfit for enharmonic. The word chromatic has cultivation. The interior part of the coun- been adopted, as it is believed, because try consists, indeed, of many rugged preci- the Greeks were in the habit of designatpices and barren mountains. Of these ing this genus by characters of various . the loftiest is mount Misery (evidently colors, or, as some say, because the chroan extinguished volcano), which rises matic genus is a mean between the other 3711 feet in perpendicular height from two, as color is a mean between white
The general average produce of and black (this seems to be a very poor sugar for a series of years is 16,000 hogs- explanation); or, lastly, because the chroheads of 16 cwt., which, as one half only matic genus, by its semitones, varies and of the whole cane land, or 8500 acres, is embellishes the diatonic, thus producing annually cut (the remainder being young an effect similar to that of coloring. In canes), gives nearly two hogsheads of 16 modern music, the word chromatic simply cwt. per acre for the whole of the land in means a succession of semitones, ascendripe canes. This island is divided into ing or descending. Thus the expressions nine parishes, and contains four towns and chromatic semitone (the interval which is hamlets, viz. Basseterre, the present capi- found between any given note and that tal, as it was formerly that of the French, same note raised by a sharp or lowered containing about 800 houses, Sandy Point, by a flat), chromatic scale, chromatic moduOld Road and Deep Bay. Of these, the lation, are terms in use. two first are ports of entry, established CHROME; the name of a metal, which, by law.
The fortifications consist of combined with oxygen so as to be in the Charles Fort and Brimstone Hill, both state of an acid, was discovered by Vaunear Sandy Point, three batteries at Bas- quelin, in an ore of lead from Siberia. seterre, one at Fig-tree Bay, another at l'his metal has since been found combinPalmetto Point, and some smaller ones of ed with iron in the U. States, and at Unst, no great importance. Population, in 1823 one of the Shetland isles. It
also -4, according to Humboldt, 23,000, of
Humboldt, 23,000, of to be the coloring principle of the emerald whom 3500 were free persons, and 19,500 and the ruby, and has received its name slaves. Official value of imports and ex- from its property of assuming brilliant ports :
colors in the combinations into which it Imports. Exports. In 1809 £266,064 132,845 enters. Chrome, which has hitherto been 1810 253,611 89,362
procured in very small quantities, owing Lon. 62° 49 W.; lat. 17° 19 N.
to its powerful attraction for oxygen, may
be obtained by mixing the oxide of chrome CHROMATE OF IRon, or CHROMEISEN- with charcoal, and exposing the mixture STEIN, is a mineral substance of very con- to the most intense heat of a smith's forge. siderable interest, as affording one of the It is brittle, of a grayish-white color, and