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very infusible. Its specific gravity is 5.9. Chrome unites with oxygen in three proportions, forming two oxides and one acid. The protoxide is of a green color, exceedingly infusible by itself, but with borax, or vitreous substances, it melts, and communicates to them a beautiful emeraldgreen color. Indeed, the emerald owes its color to this oxide. The protoxide is employed at the manufactory of Sèvres, in France, to give a fine deep-green to the enamel of porcelain. It is applied without a flux, and melted with the enamel. Chromic acid, however, is the most important of the compounds formed by this metal along with oxygen. It is usually prepared for chemical purposes by mixing solutions of nitrate of barytes and chromate of potash, and digesting the chromate of barytes that is formed in dilute sulphuric acid. This abstracts the barytes, and the chromic acid is procured, by evaporation, in crystals of a fine rubyred color. It is very soluble in water, has a sour, metallic taste, and all the characters of a strong acid. It combines with the alkalies, earths and metallic oxides, forming salts, many of which have very rich colors. The alkaline chromates are soluble and crystallizable. They are of a yellow or red color, the neutral chromates being commonly yellow, and the bi-chromates, red or deep orange. The best known of these is the bi-chromate of potash, which is one of the most splendid, and, at the same time, one of the most useful salts. The manner in which it is formed is as follows:-Chromate of iron, or rather ferruginous oxide of chrome, reduced to fine powder, is mixed with half its weight of nitrate of potash, and heated strongly for an hour or two in crucibles. The resulting masses are then repeatedly digested with water, and the colored liquids, which are slightly alkaline, saturated with nitric acid, and concentrated by evaporation, till no more crystals of nitre can be obtained from them. The yellow liquid, being now set aside for a week or two, deposits a copious crop of crystals, whose form is that of a four-sided prism, terminated by dihedral summits. Their color is an intense lemon-yellow, with a slight shade of orange. 100 parts of water at 60° dissolves about 48 parts; but boiling water dissolves almost any quantity. Its solution in water decomposes most of the metallic salts; those of mercury, of a fine red; copper and iron, of a reddish brown; silver, dark red, and lead, of a beautiful yellow color, now much used as a pigment, under the name of chrome yellow. Chrome
yellow is largely manufactured in the U. States, at Baltimore, near which place is found one of the most remarkable deposits of ferruginous oxide of chrome in the world. The process consists in adding a solution of acetate of lead (or sugar of lead) to the rough solution of chromate of potash, from which the nitrate of potash has been just separated by crystallization. The acetate of lead is added as long as any sediment falls. The liquid is then filtered, and the yellow precipitate left on the filters, dried for sale.
CHROMIC ACID. (See Chrome.) CHRONIC (from xpóvos, time); a term applied to diseases which are of long duration, and mostly without fever. It is used in opposition to the term acute, which is applied both to a pungent pain, and to a disease which is attended with violent symptoms, terminates in a few days, and is attended with danger. On the other hand, a chronic disease is slow in its progress, and not so generally dangerous.
CHRONICLE, Strictly speaking, is a history digested according to the order of time. In this sense, it differs but little from annals. The term is mostly used in reference to the old histories of nations, written when they were comparatively rude. Chronicles belong to the sources of history, and many have been handed down from early ages; for instance, the two books of the Chronicles of the Hebrews, which belong to the Old Testament. With many nations, such chronicles were written under the authority of government, and priests, being the only men of learning among uncultivated tribes, were intrusted with this office. In the early Christian ages, also, clergymen were generally the authors of the chronicles; e. g., Eusebius, bishop of Cæsarea, collected from other historical works his Chronicle of ancient history. Hieronymus of Stridon translated it into Latin, in the fourth century, and others continued it. Many historical works of the Byzantines (q. v.) are also chronicles. We might mention, likewise, the Alexandrine chronicle (Chronicon paschale), published by Du Fresne; also the chronicles written by monks, particularly by the diligent Benedictines, in the middle ages, some of which embraced the whole history of the world, from its beginning to their own time (as the Chronicle of Rhegino, of Otto of Freisingen, &c.); others, the history of a certain period (as Liutprand's History of his Time, from 891 to 946), or of a single nation (as the History of the Franks, by Gregory of Tours; that of the Lombards.
by Paulus Diaconus; the English Chronicles, by Stow, &c.), or the history of single provinces, cities and institutions (as the Chronicle of the Abbey of St. Denis; the Chronicle of Cologne); also the history of individuals (as Eginhard's History of Charlemagne), and of single events. They have been published partly in large collections (for instance, Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum), and, until the 13th and 14th centuries, were mostly written in Latin. Of many of them the authors are not known. In this case, they are called after the place where they were written or where they were found.
These chronicles bear the impression of their time, displaying the ignorance and credulity of their authors, and abounding in religious and moral reflections. We must admit, in their favor, however, that they are not filled with political disquisitions and superficial reasoning, of which modern histories afford so many instances. The chronicles of the middle ages were not written with the purpose of supporting certain principles, but generally give simple facts; on account of which they are preferable, as historical records, to many modern works. Of course, they do not equal in value the result of the deep researches of a Gibbon or a Niebuhr. Young men, in search of historical knowledge, ought to apply themselves more frequently to these sources, and not trust so much to the writers who drew from them; and we can say, from experience, that they would find them very interesting reading. (For information respecting the chronicles of the middle ages, we would refer the reader to the treatises by Rösler, in Latin, particularly the preface to his Chronica Medii Evi (1798), and the directories of Freher and Adelung.) Chronicle is also often used as the title of newspapers. The most important of these is the (London) Morning Chronicle, an excellent paper of the whig party. (See Newspaper.)
CHRONODISTICH, CHRONOGRAM; a verse in which certain of the letters used signify Roman numbers, and indicate the year in which the event happened to which the verse relates; e. g., reges ConCeDant paCeM, where CCDCM make the number 1800. It is little used at present.
CHRONOLOGY (Compounded of Xoóvos, time, and Móyos, discourse) is the art of measuring time (see Time), distinguishing its several constituent parts, such as centuries, years, &c., by appropriate marks and characters, and adjusting these parts, in an orderly manner, to past transactions, by means of eras, epochs and
cycles, for the illustration of history. The principal means for marking the divisions of time are afforded by the motions of the heavenly bodies, particularly the sun and the moon, which produce the natural division of time into years, months and days. The necessities of life, requiring still smaller and more precise divisions of time (which can be measured only by artificial means), gave rise to hours, minutes and seconds. This division of time is called the artificial. Even in the natural division, however, there is something arbitrary, as it depends solely on the will what point in the motions of the heavenly bodies shall be taken as the point of beginning; for example, in the annual rotation of the earth, whether we shall take the longest day of summer or the shortest day of winter. The first lawgivers, therefore, fixed the civil beginning and end of the month, day and year, and, at the same time also, the smaller divisions of these larger portions of time. From this separation of the natural and artificial or civil division of time, arises a division of chronology into mathematical, astronomical and historical. Astronomical chronology determines the duration of the natural portions of time by the revolutions of the heavenly bodies; historical chronology treats of the civil divisions of time, of the methods of reckoning time among different nations, of ancient periods or remarkable epochs, &c. It is obvious that each of these divisions of chronology requires the assistance of the others. All historical chronology is grounded on the astronomical, which cannot determine the duration of the. periods of time without the aid of the civil division. Mathematicians and astronomers determine the natural periods of time as they are indicated by the motions of the sun and moon. It is left to legislators to determine by law on what day the year shall begin, how many days shall constitute a month, how many a week, &c. This civil regulation is the foundation of the calendar (q. v.) or almanac. Thus far must astronomical chronology be connected with historical; but the latter only can teach us the divisions adopted by different people. Historical chronology explains, 1. the form of the year among different nations, as it is regulated by lawgivers, founders of religions, and other founders of civil society: 2. those events which are selected by different nations as eras, that is, as points from which they begin their reckoning; e. g., the Yugs of the Hindoos, the era of Nabonassar, the era of the Seleucidæ, among the Chaldeans,
Syrians, Persians, Egyptians; the creation of the world, among the Jews; the birth of Christ, among Christians; the Olympiads, among the Greeks; the building of Rome and the consular era, among the Romans; the Hegira, or flight of Mohammed, among the Mohammedans, &c. As so many different eras render the reckoning of time difficult, it, 3dly, selects a form of the year and an era to which it refers those of other nations, and by which it arranges the history of all nations and times. The European chronologist and historian must refer the eras and years of all people to those used in modern Europe. Mathematical and astronomical chronology is taught in the manuals of astronomy. Among these may be mentioned the Astronomie of Lalande (2d vol. p. 270, 2d ed.) The Manual of Astronomical and Technical Chronology (from the sources) of D. L. Ideler (vol. 1, Berlin, 1825, vol. 2, 1826) is an excellent work. This savant has done much for the advancement of this science by his extensive researches. (See Epoch and History.)
an account of a graduated pendulum for this purpose, proposed by doctor Robinson; and others have since been sold at the principal music-shops in London. The second is used by tuners of instruments, to measure the velocity of beats. On this point, the reader may consult doctor Smith's Harmonics, p. 210.
CHRYSALIS. (See Papilio.) CHRYSEIS. (See Achilles.) CHRYSIPPUS, a Stoic philosopher of Cilicia, distinguished for his skill in disputing. He was the principal opposer of the Epicureans, and is said to have written 700 different works, mostly of a dialectical character; but of these no complete work is extant. He died, at a great age, about 206 years B. C.
CHRONOMETER; a time-piece of a peculiar construction, at present much employed by navigators in determining the longitude at sea. In general, chronometers are much larger than common watches, and are hung in gimbals, in boxes six or eight inches square; but there are also many pocket chronometers, which, externally, have all the appearance of the better sort of pocket watches, and internally differ from these only in the construction of the balance. The balance and hair-spring are the principal agents in regulating the rate of going in a common watch, being to this what the pendulum is to a common clock; and this spring, in the former, like the pendulum in the latter, is subject to expansions and contractions, under different degrees of heat and cold, which, of course, affect the speed or rate of the machine; and the methods of correcting this inaccuracy mark the difference between the watch and chronometer. These are very numerous. (See Horology.) With American navigators, chronometers are more common than with those of any other nation. All the lines of packets between the U. States and Europe have them.— An instrument under the name of chronometer is also used by musicians for the accurate measurement of time. Two sorts have been invented for different purposes. The first supplies the motion of a conductor, and regularly beats time. In the British Magazine (ii. 283) may be found
CHRYSOBERYL (sometimes called cymophane, and, by the jewellers, Oriental chrysolite) was, for a long time, only known as occurring in semi-transparent, rounded pieces, in the alluvial deposits of rivers, along with other species of gems. Thus, in Brazil, it was found along with the diamond and topaz, and with rubies and sapphires in Ceylon. Distinct crystals were afterwards brought from Siberia, but their original situation still remains unknown. It is now known to exist, in beautifully distinct crystals, at two places in the U. States-at Haddam (Conn.) and Saratoga (N. Y.) They are found, at both these localities, in a granitic rock. The form of the crystal is, for the most part, a right rectangular prism, and a low, sixsided table (with reentering angles), formed by the crossing of three prismatic crystals. Chrysoberyl scratches quartz; is of an olive-green color, and vitreous lustre, and is often possessed of a bluish opalescence. Specific gravity, 3.754. It is composed of alumine 68.66, glucine 16.00, silex 5.99, protoxide of iron 4.73, and oxide of titanium 2.66.
Italy and England, to ask for assistance against the Turks. Having thus become known in Italy, he returned there, about the year 1395, and was appointed professor of Greek literature at Florence. He remained about three years in Florence, where he collected around him a great number of scholars, of all ages and ranks, and excited universal enthusiasm as much by his dignity, and the grace of his elocution, as by the extent of his learning. From his school proceeded Leonardo Bruno, Poggius, Francis Philelphus, and other distinguished revivers of classical studies. He afterwards taught with equal success in Milan, whence the Greek emperor Manuel, who, in 1400, had come to Italy, sent for him to Pavia, Venice, and lastly to Rome. Pope Gregory XII employed him in public affairs, and sent him, with others, to the council of Constance, where he died in 1415. He should not be confounded with his nephew and companion in Italy, John Chrysoloras.
CHRYSOSTOM, John, St.; a celebrated father of the church, born in Antioch, in the year 344. Secundus, his father, had the command of the imperial troops in Syria. In those times, eloquence was still the means of obtaining the highest honors in Greece. Chrysostom studied this art, with Libanius, the most famous orator of his time, and soon excelled his master. After having studied philosophy with Andragathius, he devoted himself to the Holy Scriptures, and determined upon quitting the world, and on consecrating his life to God in the deserts of Syria. At the age of 20, he conducted a legal case with extraordinary success; but he soon retired from public business, and, by fasting and penance, endeavored to obtain the mastery of his passions. He remained three years in Antioch. He was united, by the ties of an intimate friendship, with Basil, Theodore, afterwards bishop of Mopsuesta, and with Maximus, subsequently bishop of Seleucia. Theodore having quitted for a time his holy vocation, Chrysostom wrote two beautiful exhortations, in order to recall him to his duty. The bishops of the provinces had determined on electing him or Basil as bishop; but Chrysostom fled, and concealed himself; consequently Basil was elected, who complained, however, much of his friend's withdrawal. Chrysostom defended himself in his beautiful work on the office of priests. He was then only 26 years old. In 374, he retired to the anchorites who dwelt on the mountains in the vicinity of Antioch. He described the life which he led with them in
the following manner:-"They rise with the first crowing of the cock, or at midnight. After having read psalms and hymns in common, each, in his separate cell, is occupied in reading the Holy Scriptures, or in copying books. Then they proceed to church, and, after mass, return quietly to their habitations. They never speak to each other; their nourishment is bread and salt; some add oil to it, and the invalids vegetables. After meals, they rest a few moments, and then return to their usual occupations. They till the ground, fell wood, make baskets and clothes, and wash the feet of travellers. Their bed is a mat spread on the ground; their dress consists of skins, or cloths made of the hair of goats and camels. They go barefooted, have no property, and never pronounce the words mine and thine. Undisturbed peace dwells in their habitations, and a cheerfulness scarcely known in the world." After four years, Chrysostom quitted these hermits to seek a still greater seclusion. He dwelt in a cavern, where he remained two years without lying down. His penance and wakefulness, together with the dampness of his abode, threw him into a severe illness, which forced him to return to Antioch (381). In the same year, he was appointed deacon by the bishop of Antioch, and, in 386, consecrated priest. He was chosen vicar by the same dignitary, and commissioned to preach the word of God to the people. Till then, the bishops only had instructed the people in the gospel. His eloquence attracted Jews, heathens and heretics. He was, says Sozomenes, the ornament of his church, and of the whole East, when the emperor Arcadius determined, in 397, to place him in the episcopal see of Constantinople. To prevent the inhabitants of Antioch from opposing his intentions, the emperor caused him to be secretly conveyed to Constantinople, where Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, ordained him. He commenced his official labors by limiting the expenses of his house, founded and supported many hospitals, improved the morals of the clergy, and converted a number of heathens and heretics. He gave so generously to the poor, that he was universally called John the almsgiver. He devoted himself to attendance on the sick. He sent bishops as missionaries to the Goths, to the Scythians, and to Persia and Palestine. His eloquence twice prevented an insurrection. In 399, Chrysostom held a council in Constantinople, at which several Asiatic bishops were deposed as guilty of simony
Severin, bishop of Gabala, in Syria, dared to attack Chrysostom from the pulpit, and to stir up the people against him; but his charges were rejected as calumnies. Chrysostom had two dangerous enemies the empress Eudoxia, whose injustice and extortions gave cause to many complaints; and Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, who was jealous of his influence. The latter assembled several bishops at Chalcedon, who were to investigate the complaints made against Chrysostom. But he refused to appear, alleging that they had acted against the laws of the church; and, on his part, assembled 40 bishops at Constantinople. His enemies, however, prevailed. His removal was determined upon, and sanctioned by Arcadius, who banished him from the country. Chrysostom quitted the city secretly, that he might not be prevented by his adherents, and purposed retiring to Bithynia; but the people threatened a revolt. In the following night, an earthquake gave general alarm. In this dilemma, Arcadius recalled his orders, and Eudoxia herself invited Chrysostom to return. The people accompanied him triumphantly to the city, his enemies fled, and peace was restored, but only for a short time. A feast, attended with many heathen ceremonies, for the consecration of a statue, given by the empress, roused the zeal of the archbishop, who publicly exclaimed against it; and Eudoxia, violently incensed, recalled the prelates devoted to her will, and Chrysostom was condemned, although 40 bishops declared themselves in his favor. Arcadius ordered the soldiers to force him from the church, which was profaned and stained with blood. Pope Innocent I and the emperor Honorius declared themselves in favor of Chrysostom, but Arcadius refused to assemble the council, on which the others insisted, and commanded Chrysostom peremptorily to retire to the place of his banishment. He obeyed, and was conveyed to Nice, in Bithynia (404). Soon after his departure, the church and the palace where the senate used to assemble became a prey to the flames. Many works of art were lost in this conflagration, which the emperor attributed to the friends of Chrysostom. The Isaurians and Huns laid waste the empire. Chrysostom's return was universally desired; Arcadius remained inflexible. Eudoxia died soon after Chrysostom's banishment, after having fixed upon the little Armenian town Cucusus, in the wilds of Taurus, for his abode. Exhausted by sickness, deprivations, and the fatigues of 16
his journey, he arrived there, and continued to exert his pious zeal. He sent missionaries to Persia and Phoenicia, and wrote 17 letters to Olympias, all of which are moral dissertations. He likewise addressed to her his work entitled, "None can injure him who does not injure himself." All Christendom beheld the pious sufferer with love and admiration; at which the emperor, exasperated, commanded him to be conveyed to the shores of the Pontus Euxinus, to the town of Pityont, situated on its most distant borders. The officers who had him in charge obliged the old man to perform this journey on foot, with his head uncovered, in the burning heat of the sun; but he fell a prey to exhaustion. In Comana, in Pontus, he was brought to the oratory of the martyr St. Basil. He put on white garments, received the eucharist, uttered a fervent prayer, which he closed, as usual, with the words "Praise be to God for all things," crossed himself, and expired (407), 63 years old. His body was interred at the side of that of St. Basil; but, in 438, it was conveyed solemnly to Constantinople, and there interred in the church of the apostles, in the sepulchre of the emperor. At a later period, his remains were placed in the Vatican at Rome. The Greek church celebrates his feast on the 13th of November, the Roman on the 27th of January. The name of Chrysostom (golden-mouthed) was assigned to him, after his death, to express the eloquence which he possessed in so much greater a degree than the other fathers of the church. He never repeats himself, and is always original. The vivacity and power of his imagination, the force of his logic, his power of arousing the passions, the beauty and accuracy of his comparisons, the nextness and purity of his style, his clearness and sublimity, place him on a level with the most celebrated Greek authors: the Christian church has not a more accomplished orator.-The most accurate Greek edition of his works is that of Henry Saville (1612, 9 vols. fol.); the most complete Greek and Latin, is that of Montfaucon (Paris, 1618, 13 vols. fol.) Professor Neander, at Berlin, has written a biography of this father of the church, or rather a history of him and his time, entitled St. Chrysostom, a highly esteemed work, full of the important results of the deep re searches of its learned author.
CHUBB, Thomas; a writer in humble life, who obtained great temporary distinction as a controversialist. He was born at East Hadham, near Salisbury, and