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was instructed only in reading, writing and accounts. He was apprenticed to a glover, but, at length, became journeyman to a tallow-chandler, and employed his leisure in the acquisition of knowledge, from the best English books which he could procure. In 1715, he published The Supremacy of the Father asserted, &c., the perspicuity and argumentative skill of which obtained for it much notice. Of course, a production, assailing a part of the orthodox faith, did not pass without reply, and a controversial warfare commenced, which lasted as long as his life. In 1730, he offered to the world his thoughts on a variety of topics, moral and theological, in 34 tracts, collected in a 4to. volume, of which book Pope, in a letter to Gay, speaks with great respect. Various publications followed, e. g., A Discourse concerning Reason, The true Gospel of Jesus Christ asserted, Inquiry into the Ground and Foundation of Religion, &c., which manifest his disposition to question many points of orthodoxy. He, however, adhered to the general conclusion, that Jesus was sent from God as an instructer to mankind, and regularly attended public worship at his parish church until his death. Chubb seems never to have sought to emerge from the humble condition in which fortune had placed him, although he met with some powerful patrons. He died suddenly in February, 1747, aged 68.

CHULUCANAS; the name of an ancient ruined city of Peru, on the ridge of the Cordilleras, at the height of 8943 feet above the level of the sea, and on the Paramo of Chulucanas, between the Indian villages of Ayavaca and Guancabamba. Humboldt says, that the great causey of the Incas, lined with freestone-one of the most useful and stupendous works ever executed by man, and which may be compared with the finest Roman roads-is still in good preservation, between Chulucanas, Guamani and Sagique; and Francisco Coreal found it perfect in two other places, and states that it yields in nothing to the most magnificent European road. It runs from Quito, through Cuzco, to La Plata, or from the equator to 20° of S. latitude. On the summit of the Andes, wherever this road passes, ruins of great buildings are every where seen. Humboldt counted nine in less than half a degree of latitude; and Pedro de Cieca de Leon, who wrote in 1541, describes several which he saw in the province of Los Canares. They are now called, by the Peruvians, palaces of the Incas, but were

probably only fortifications to secure the conquests of Quito and Chile.

CHUQUISACA, or LA PLATA; a city of South America, and capital of Bolivia; lat. 19° 40′ S.; lon. 66° 46 W.; population, 18,000. The inhabitants consist of Indians and Spaniards. It stands on a plain, environed by eminences, which defend it from all winds. The temperature of the air, in summer, is very mild; nor is there any considerable difference throughout the year. The houses have one story besides the ground floor. They are covered with tiles, and are very roomy and convenient, with delightful gardens, planted with European fruit-trees; but water is so scarce as hardly to supply the necessary purposes of life, and is brought from the several public fountains dispersed in the different parts of the city. The town had the name of La Plata from its being built near silver mines. It was erected into a bishopric in 1551, the place having then the title of city, and, in 1608, was raised to an archbishopric. The cathedral is large, of good architecture, and finely adorned with paintings and gildings. The city has also a university, dedicated to St. Francis Xavier, the chairs of which are filled indifferently with secular clergy or laymen; but the rector was formerly always a Jesuit.

CHUR. (See Coire.)

CHURCH is, in the widest sense of the word, the collective body of those who declare themselves to be followers of Christ. In this sense, the founder of the church is Jesus Christ himself; for, though his followers did not separate themselves from the community of the synagogue until after his death, yet he had, by preaching a doctrine essentially different from Judaism, and by collecting disciples and friends around him, laid the foundation of a new religious body, Moreover, he ordered his disciples, at the time of his departure from the world, to go forth and preach the gospel through the earth, and established two religious ceremonies, by which his followers were to be distinguished. These circumstances, many have thought, must be taken as indicating his intention to found a church. Judaism, too, may be considered as having paved the way for the establishment of a Christian church or organized religious community.-But the word church is not so often taken in the sense just described as in a much narrower one, in which it signifies a body of Christians, which differs in doctrines, constitution and usages from the remainder. From the 11th cen

tury, the Greek or Oriental Christians were separated from the Latin Christians, or Christians of the West; and thus originated the difference between the Greek Catholic church, whose chief is the patriarch of Constantinople, and the Roman Catholic church, whose chief is the Roman bishop, or the pope. In the 16th century, the reformation caused another division in the Western church, one part of its members seceding from the government of the Roman see, and adopting different doctrines from those professed by the rest. Thus arose the difference between the Catholic and Protestant churches. It might reasonably be asked, whether some Protestant sects do not differ from each other as much as from the Catholic church; for instance, the Quakers from the English Episcopal church. But, for the purpose of this article, it is sufficient that, in the common use of language, they are all called Protestants. There is, moreover, one point which distinguishes all Protestant sects, or the whole Protestant church, from the two Catholic ones, namely, that the Protestants declare the Bible their only ground of belief, and permit it to be freely read and examined into. In a third sense, the word church is sometimes used for the whole Christian community of a country, e. g., the French church, Italian church, &c.—In a fourth sense, this word signifies the building in which Christians assemble for the worship of God. The Christians of the 1st century worshipped in private houses, or in the open air, in remote places, because they were not acknowledged by the state, and were often persecuted. It was not till the 3d century, that they could venture to give more publicity to their service, and to build churches. Since the 4th century, the churches have become large and magnificent edifices. Such were erected by Constantine and, more particularly, by Theodosius and Justinian. Many heathen temples, also, were changed into Christian churches. In the middle ages, many splendid edifices were erected for the performance of divine service, which, in loftiness and grandeur, were never surpassed. Some of the most famous churches at present are St. Peter's, at Rome; Notre Dame, at Paris; St. Stephen's, at Vienna; the church of Isaac, at St. Petersburg; the minsters at Strasburg and Cologne; and St. Paul's church, in London. (See Cathedrals.) Excepting the last mentioned edifice, Protestantism nas produced no very splendid church. n fact, the Protestants, in the construc

tion of their places of worship, seem to have had almost exclusively in view the accommodation of the hearers, particularly in England and America. This fact is easily explained from the circumstance that they do not celebrate, in their churches, divine service, in the sense in which the Catholics use the phrase, but chiefly meet to hear the Bible explained to them, and to be instructed in their duties; on account of which the churches of a large portion of Protestants are often, or even usually, called meeting-houses, and their sermons discourses.-In New England, the word church is used to denote the members of a religious society, who have made a public profession of the Christian religion, in contradistinction to the other individuals belonging to the same religious society, who have not made such a profession. There are various derivations of the word church, which, of course, has the same origin with the German Kirche, and the Scottish kirk. Some derive it from the Greek Kupiakov, from Kupios, lord, a house appropriated for the service of the Lord. Others think the German word is a translation of the Latin ecclesia, in which case it would be derived from kúren, to elect, and imply the idea of the elect people of God.

As it is the natural course of things that the different branches, powers, or, in general, the component parts of every establishment, are at first confounded, and separated only by degrees, with the progress of improvement, and after long struggles, so it has been with the church and the state. The violent contentions which took place at first between the emperor of Germany, who considered himself emperor of Christendom, and the pope, were repeated in many countries, and still continue in some. It would far exceed our limits to give even a sketch of these disputes, and of the theories which have been advanced on the different sides respecting this question: we will only mention, that, in all Protestant countries, the monarchs have usurped the highest ecclesiastical power, without any support from history or Scripture. Three equally untenable theories have been advanced to justify this assumption:1. the episcopal system, so called, according to which the episcopal rights are said to have been transferred to the sovereign by the reformation; 2. the territorial system, which maintains that the worldly ruler is, ipso facto, spiritual chief of the church of his country; 3. the collegial system, which considers the members of a church as a society, whose rights rest upon a con

tract, by which a part of them has been conferred upon the sovereign. History and reason prove how unfounded these theories are, which are properly to be considered as defences of usurpation. The United States of America are the only Christian country in which there is no established religion; but, notwithstanding all the advantages springing from this state of things, it is not entirely free from evils. The revenue of the church is a subject of great importance in political economy. The following table, showing the annual amount of the income of the clergy in all parts of the Christian world, is copied from the Catholic Miscellany. It will be perceived, that the revenue of the clergy of Great Britain, according to this statement, is greater, by £44,000 sterling, than that of all the other Christian clergy in the known world; while the number of hearers attending on their ministry, compared with the aggregate number belonging to the Christian flocks in other nations, is as 1 to 32.

Amount.

French Catholic and Prot

Hearers.

estant churches, £1,050,000 30,000,000 United States, 776,000

CHURCH, LATIN, or WESTERN. (See Roman Catholic Church.)

CHURCH, ROMAN CATHOLIC. (See Roman Catholic Church.)

9,600,000 Spain, under their 1,000,000 11,000,000 constitutional Portugal, governments. 300,000 3,000,000

Hungary, Catholics,

Calvinists,

Lutherans,

Italy,

Austria,

Switzerland,

Prussia,

German small states,
Holland,

Netherlands,

Denmark,

Sweden,

CHURCH, FATHERS OF THE (patres ecclesia); teachers and writers of the ancient church, who flourished after the time of the apostles and apostolic fathers (the immediate disciples of the apostles), from the 2d to the 6th century. This name is also sometimes given to the teachers and writers of the following centuries, down to the schoolmen, who begin with the 12th century. A large number of their writings have been preserved, and have been published by modern scholars. The knowledge of their lives and their works constitutes a particular science, called patristics. The fathers of the church introduced the Greek and Roman learning into Christian treatises, and many of them were as able as they were learned. Most of the earlier fathers of the church, before their conversion to Christianity, were rhetoricians or advocates, which accounts for several peculiarities, as well in their method of disputing as in their style. The object of their writings is to defend the Christian religion and the Christian community, refute the Jews, pagans and heretics, explain the Holy Scriptures, set forth 220,000 3,000,000 the doctrines of their faith, and the rules 63,000 1,050,000 of their morality, also the history of Chris26,000 650,000 tianity and the Christian church, and im776,000 19,391,000 part instruction to the people. The con950,000 16,918,000 tents of these writings, therefore, are apol87,000 1,720,000 ogetic, exegetic, dogmatic, moral, histori527,000 10,563,000 cal, polemical, or ascetic. The fathers of 765,000 12,765,000 the church are divided into two chief 160,000 2,000,000 classes, Latin and Greek. The most celebrated among the Greek fathers are, Clement of Alexandria, the first who philosophized on Christianity; Origen, dis8,000,000 tinguished for his homilies and his apolo6,000,000 getic and exegetic writings; Eusebius, who wrote the first history of Christianity; 520,000 21,000,000 Athanasius, who had a decided influence upon the formation of the Christian dog£8,852,000 198,728,000 mas; and Chrysostom, the most admired of the ancient Christian orators. The 6,400,000 most distinguished among the Latin fathers are, Tertullian, a writer of great originality; Augustine, a man of a peculiar and vehement mind, the oracle of the Western church; Ambrose, distinguished as a Christian orator; and Jerome, a man of much learning, and particularly happy in explaining the Holy Scriptures, whose efforts, however, contributed much to awaken in the West an admiration for the renunciation of the world and the celibacy of priests. The fathers of the

Russia, Greek church,

105,000 3,000,000
119,000 1,700,000
238,000 3,371,000
510,000 34,000,000

Cath. and Luth., 480,000 Christians in Turkey, 180,000 dispersed

elsewhere,

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church are now very much studied by the German Protestants, and many parts of their works have been translated. We do not hesitate to say that they are too little studied in England, as well as in the U. States, containing, as they do, great stores of knowledge relating to the early history of Christianity, and elucidating its character. The work of doctor Neander, Denkwürdigkeiten aus der Geschichte des Christenthums und des Christlichen Lebens (Berlin, 1825—6), in which great use has been made of the writings of the fathers, affords abundant evidence of their value. CHURCH MUSIC. (See Music, Sacred.) CHURCH, STATES OF THE; the pope's dominions in Italy. They originated with the grant of Pepin, king of the Franks, in 754, who bestowed on Stephen II, bishop of Rome, some districts, which the Lombards, against whom Stephen II solicited Pepin's assistance, had taken from the exarchate. Charlemagne confirmed this grant in 774, and, in return, received the title of Roman emperor from Leo III, in 800. The suspicious charters of Louis-leDébonnaire, Otho I and Henry II, the genuineness of which the papal chamberlain, Marino Marini, has lately (Rome, 1822) endeavored to establish, are the only proofs of these grants of Pepin and Charlemagne to the popes. The temporal power of the popes over the States of the Church, or the dominion of St. Peter, is founded on these documents, of which there only exists a copy, received of the papal chamberlain Cancio, towards the end of the 12th century. The wise policy of the popes, in conferring favors on the Normans in Lower Italy, secured to them, in these vassals, stanch protectors of the holy see. The structure of the papal power was fully completed in 1075, under Gregory VII. The crusades contributed more to promote the views of the popes in the commencement than in the sequel. The dominions of Mathilda (q. v.) were added to the States of the Church, and the popes maintained possession of them against all the claims of the German emperors. The papal chair removed a dangerous neighbor belonging to the house of Hohenstaufen, by raising the house of Anjou to the throne of Naples, in the year 1265. The tyranny of the heads of the church, added to their corrupt life, at last provoked the Romans to opposition, and the popes were obliged to transfer their residence, from 1305 till 1376, to Avignon, which Clement VI bought of Joanna, queen of Naples and countess of Provence, in 1348. As the choice of the

popes made under the influence of the king of France seldom or never obtained the assent of the Romans and Germans, antipopes were elected by the latter, and the welfare of the church, as well as of the state, suffered by their mutual hostilities. The return of the popes to Rome was favorable to the aggrandizement of their power, although the German councils often expressed themselves in bold and independent language. Julius II added Bologna to the papal dominions in 1513, and Ancona in 1532. The Venetians were obliged to cede Ravenna. Ferrara was wrested from Modena in 1598, and Urbino was bequeathed to the papal chair, in 1626, by its last duke, Francis Maria, of the house of Rovera. At the same time, the popes lost a great part of their temporal and spiritual influence, to the diminution of which the rapid progress of the reformation from the year 1517, greatly contributed. The wise administration of Sixtus V restored internal order towards the end of the 16th century; but the extravagance and family partialities of his successors created fresh disorder. Clement XIV was forced to abolish the order of the Jesuits, in 1773. Subsequently, Naples renounced her feudal obligations to the papal chair, and even the journey of Pius VI to Vienna, in 1782, could not prevent the great changes which Joseph II was making in the ecclesiastical affairs of his kingdom. After the successes of the French in Italy, the pope was forced, at the peace of Tolentino, Feb. 13, 1797, to cede Avignon to France, and Romagna, Bologna and Ferrara to the Cisalpine republic. An insurrection in Rome against the French, Dec. 28, 1797, caused the occupation of the city, Feb. 10, 1798, and the annexation of the States of the Church to the Roman republic. Pius VI died in France. The victories of the Russians and Austrians in Italy favored the election of pope Pius VII, March 14, 1800, who, under the protection of Austrian troops, took possession of Rome. By the concordat concluded, in 1801, with the first consul of the French republic, the pope again lost a great part of his temporal power. In 1807, the holy father was urged to introduce the Code Napoléon, and to declare war against England. He refused; and, on the 3d of April, France was declared to be at war with the pope, and the provinces of Ancona, Urbino, Macerata and Camerino were added to the kingdom of Italy. The possessions of the church beyond the Apennines were all that remained to the pope. (See the correspondence of Pius

VII with Napoleon, in Staudlin's Historical Archives of the States of the Church, 1 vol., 1815.) Feb. 2, 1808, a French corps of 8000 men entered Rome; the remainder of the papal states were added to France, and a pension of 2,000,000 of francs settled on the pope, whose ecclesiastical power was to continue. The decree of May 17, 1809, at length put an end to the ecclesiastical state. The pope was detained in France until the events of 1814 again permitted him to take possession of his states. (See Pius VII) The States of the Church (Stato della Chiesa 17,185 square miles, with 2,460,000 inhabitants, occupying 90 towns, 212 marketplaces, and 3500 villages-are situated in the centre of Italy, between Lombardy, Tuscany, Naples, and the Tuscan and Adriatic seas. The Apennines (which include the Somma, 6800 ft., and Velino, 7872 ft. high) traverse the country from N. W. to S. E. The rivers are small, with the exception of the Po (which touches the northern boundary, and forms the marshes of Commachio) and its branches. The most considerable is the Tiber, navigable from Perugia. Pope Leo XII (Genga) reigned from 1823 till Feb. 15, 1829. Pius VIII (cardinal Castiglione) succeeded him. The revenue is estimated at 12 millions, and the national debt at 200 millions of florins. There is a standing army of 9000 men. The navy consists of 2 frigates and a few small vessels. The emperor of Austria has the right to garrison the citadel of Ferrara. Internal tranquillity is not yet restored. In 1816, the States of the Church, with the exception of Rome, Tivoli and Subiaco, which are under the immediate administration of the pope, were divided into 17 delegations, which, when under the government of cardinals, are called legations. Protestants, Greeks and Jews are tolerated. The religious orders and the Jesuits have been reëstablished, as was also, in 1826, the university of Urbino. This fertile country is not very well governed. It produces all kinds of corn, the finest fruits, such as oranges, lemons, figs, dates, &c.; a great quantity of oil, good wines, and mulberries, &c. The hills are covered with thick forests; the finest marble is found here; and there are, likewise, traces of various metals; but these advantages are not sufficiently estimated. Mining is not known; agriculture is neglected; but the breeding of cattle and sheep is more carefully attended to. Manufactures are limited to Rome, Bologna, Ancona and Norcia. In 1824, 3630 vessels entered

the five ports, Rome, Cività Vecchia, Ancio, Terracino and Ancona, of which 1052 belonged to the papal, and 2267 to the other Italian states. The fair of Sinigaglia is much frequented.

CHURCH, Benjamin, who distinguished himself in the Indian wars of New England, was born at Duxbury, Massachusetts, in 1639. He was one of the most active and indefatigable opponents of the Indian king Philip, and was once very near losing his life, while in pursuit of him. He commanded the party which killed Philip, in August, 1676. In 1704, the spirit of the old warrior was roused by the burning of Deerfield, and he immediately rode 70 miles on horseback, to tender his services to governor Dudley. The offer being accepted, he undertook an expedition against the eastern shore of New England, and inflicted considerable injury upon the French and Indians. The rupture of a blood-vessel, occasioned by a fall from his horse, put an end to his life, Jan. 17, 1718, in the 78th year of his age. He published a narrative of king Philip's war, 1716; and left a character of great integrity and piety.

CHURCHILL, John, duke of Marlborough, a distinguished general and statesman, was the son of sir Winston Churchill, and was born at Ashe, in Devonshire, in 1650. He received his education at home, under a clergyman, from whom he derived little instruction, but imbibed a strong attachment for the church of England. At the age of 12, he was taken to court, and became page to the duke of York, and, at 16, received from him a pair of colors. The first engagement at which he was present was the siege of Tangier, which seems to have decided him in his choice of a profession. On his return, he remained for some time about the court, and, being very handsome, was a great favorite with the ladies there. The king's mistress, the duchess of Cleveland, in particular, was much attached to him, and presented him with £5,000, with which he purchased a life annuity. In 1672, he accompanied the duke of Monmouth, as captain of grenadiers, when the duke went with a body of auxiliaries to the continent, to assist the French against the Dutch. He there fought under the great Turenne, with whom he went by the name of the handsome Englishman. At the siege of Maestricht, he distinguished himself so highly as to obtain the public thanks of the king of France. On his return to England, he was made lieutenantcolonel; also gentleman of the bed-chamher and master of the robes to the duke

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