« AnteriorContinua »
here Jerom refers to the two epistles published by him. But, 1. Jerom must be understood to mean the two well known epistles of Clement, of which he had spoken in his Catalogue: which are plainly the same, and no other than those spoken of by Eusebius of Cæsarea in his Ecclesiastical History, to which he refers, and indeed transcribes. is the more reasonable, and even expedient, so to understand him, because the books against Jovinian were written about the same time with the catalogue: from which it appears, that he had then no knowledge of any other epistles of Clement. If he had, he would not have omitted there to take notice of them. And in his other works, as we have seen, he quotes no epistle of Clement, but his well known and universally received epistle to the Corinthians. Here he speaks of two, it having been then not uncommon to ascribe to Clement another epistle, beside that which was universally received by the ancients, as we saw him acknowledge in the Catalogue. 2. Jerom here speaks hyperbolically, a style very frequent with him, as all know, and especially in his books against Jovinian; where he so exalted virginity, and depreciated marriage, as to give general offence, though at that time virginity was in great esteem. In those epistles, says Jerom, Clement discourseth almost throughout of the purity of virginity.' The meaning of which really is no more, than that there are in his epistles some things favourable to virginity. Jerom may be supposed to refer to some things in ch. 21, 29, 30, 35, 38, 48, and 58, of the epistle to the Corinthians; particularly to such places as these, where Clement says: Let our [or your] children 'partake of the discipline of Christ-Let them know how 'much a chaste love avails with God, how great and excel'lent his fear is, saving all who serve him in holiness with
conabor. Proferam primo duo externa testimonia Hieronymi atque Epiphanii, quorum ille c. Jovinianum 1. i. Hi,' inquit, sunt eunuchi, quos castravit non necessitas, sed voluntas propter regnum coelorum. Ad hos et Clemens, successor apostoli Petri, cujus Paulus apostolus meminit,' Philip. iv. 3, scribit epistolas, omnemque pene sermonem suum de virginitatis puritate contexuit: et deinceps multi apostolici et martyres, et illustres tam sanctitate quam eloquentiâ viri, quos ex propriis scriptis nosse perfacile est.' Hic vero Hær. xxx. Ebionitarum n. 15. Avros Kλnung-Hæc tamen testimonia de nostris epistolis, quæ nemo non videt esse clarissima, et a Petavio et Martinæo, Epiphanii et Hieronymi editoribus, et ab omnibus, quotquot illa epistolis Clementis ad Corinthios præfixa legerunt, et scriptoribus ecclesiastica historia, qui de Clemente egerunt, neglecta, id est, non intellecta, aut perperam de duabus istis ad Corinthios epistolis, in quibus tamen nec Sampsonis, nec prolixus de virginitate sermo reperitur, intellecta fuere. Wetst. Prolegom. p. v.
,τι αγαπη άγνη παρα τῷ θεῷ δυναται-κ. λ. Ep. ad Corinth.
a pure mind. We being the portion of the holy one, let us do all things that pertain unto holiness, shunning im'pure and unchaste einbraces.' Among the blessed and wonderful gifts of God, Clement reckons continence [or chastity] in holiness.' Again: Let therefore our whole body be saved in Jesus Christ.' Afterwards, in the same chapter: Let not him that is chaste [or pure] in the 'flesh, grow proud, knowing that it is from another he received the gift of continence.' And near the end he prays, That God may give them patience, long-suffering,
continence, chastity, and sobriety. To these and other things in the epistles to the Corinthians Jerome may be supposed to refer. And he may intend a large part of that which is called Clement's second epistle; in which are recommended chastity, self-denial, and mortification to the delights of this world. Jerom might have a regard to that epistle from chap. 4, to chap 12, that is, the end, so far as we have it. Where are such expressions as these: keep'ing the flesh chaste.' We ought therefore to keep our 'flesh as the temple of God.' Serving God with a pure heart.' And the like. That such expressions as these may be the foundation of what he says, is manifest from what immediately precedes the passage which we are considering. It is,' says he, an act of eminent faith, and eminent virtue, to be a holy temple of God, to "offer ourselves a 'whole burnt-offering to the Lord," Rom. xii. 1. And, according to the same apostle, to be "holy both in body and spirit," 1 Cor. vii. 34. These are eunuchs, who in Isaiah 'call themselves a dry tree- -To these eunuchs Clement 'writes.'The hyperbolical style appears likewise in what follows: In like manner many apostolical men, and 'martyrs, and others illustrious for their piety and eloquence, be easily seen in their own writings.' It is true, that many, beside Clement, have discoursed of chastity, and
6 as may
z Ibid. cap. 30.
-εγκρατεια εν ἁγιασμῳ. c. 35. b Σωζέσθω το ήμων όλον σωμα εν Χρισψ Ιησε. c. 38.
c Ὁ ἁγνος εν τη σαρκι μη αλαζονευεσθω, γινωσκων, ότι έτερος ετιν ὁ επιχορηγων αυτῳ την εγκρατειαν. Ibid. · μακροθυμιαν, εγκρατειαν, αγνειαν, και σωφροσυνην. cap. 58. e Et posteriora quidem loca de continentiâ virginali aperte loquuntur, priora vero licet castitatem in genere, ipsamque conjugalem, concernant, ab Hieronymo tamen in disputationis fervore aliorsum trahi potuerunt. Grabe Spic. T. I. p. 263.
Β' Δει εν ἡμᾶς, ὡς ναον
σαρκα αγνην τήρησαντες. Ep. 2. cap. 8. θες, φυλάσσειν την σαρκα. cap. 9. h 'Ημεις εν εν καθαρᾷ καρδίᾳ δελεύσωμεν τῷ θεῷ. Ib. c. xi. Grandis fidei est, grandisque virtutis, Dei templum esse purissimum, totum se holocaustum offerre Domino, et juxta eundem apostolum, esse sanctum et corpore et spiritu. Hi sunt eunuchi, qui se lignum aridum ob sterilitatem putantes, audiunt per Isaiam, &c.
of purity in soul and body. But who are they, of whom it can be said, without an hyperbole, that they had written books, discoursing almost throughout of the purity of virginity? And where are their writings to be found? Dr. Cave understood Jerom exactly after this manner. As did' Grabe likewise; whose remarks upon this passage of Jerom are so clear and full, and, as seems to me, satisfactory, that I think it great pity Mr. Wetstein did not observe and well consider them. If he had so done, it might have prevented those scornful reflections upon Dr. Cave, and Bishop Beveridge, and the two learned editors of Epiphanius and Jerom, which are at p. v. of the Prolegomena. Godfrey Wendelin, as cited by Mr. Wetstein, Prolegom. p. vi. supposed that Jerom had an eye to the latter part of the second epistle, which is now wanting. And to the like purpose Cotelerius in his note at the end of that fragment. And indeed it has seemed to me not improbable, that Jerom reckoned he had an advantage to his cause from the second epistle ascribed to Clement. And therefore here writing against Jovinian, when his mind was heated with his argument, he speaks of two epistles of Clement; though in his catalogue, where he writes as a critic and an historian, he speaks as if he thought one only to be genuine; nor has he quoted any other in his Commentaries. Nevertheless I am of opinion, that we have enough remaining of these two epistles, and particularly of that last mentioned, to justify our interpretation of Jerom; especially with that qualifying expression almost: which no man can think to be a mere expletive. 3. I observe farther. If Jerom had intended the two epistles published by Mr. Wetstein, he would have said; To these eunuchs Clement wrote two whole epistles
* Cæterum haud satis constat, quid sibi velit Hieronymus, cum de epistolis a Clemente ad Corinthios scriptis verba faciens, omnem pene sermonem suum de virginitatis puritate Clementem contexuisse,' scribat. Neque enim alias ab hisce quæ nunc extant epistolas ad Corinthios dedisse Clementem credi potest, nec in his utramque faciunt paginam virginitatis laudes. Id potius dicendum videtur, Hieronymum nimio virginitatis studio abreptum, hyperbolicâ dictione usum esse, cumque Clemens pauculas periodos animi corporisque puritati docendæ impendat, totum sermonem virginitatis encomio dicatum esse voluisse. H. L. T. i. p. 20. De Clemente.
Hieronymus vero acriter disputans contra errorem Joviniani, eandem conjugii ac virginitatis dignitatem coram Deo statuentis, hyberbolice ait, ⚫ Clementem omnem pene sermonem suum de virginitatis puritate contexuisse.' Quales hyberbolicæ locutiones in ipsius scriptis, inque ipso illo contra Jovinianum, haud infrequentes occurrunt. Spic. T. i. p. 264.
Verisimile sit ex Epiphanio H. 30. cap. 15. et Hieronymo i. adversus Jovinianum 7. Apostolicum nostrum in iis quæ desiderantur istius epistolæ, de virginitate disseruisse non paucis. Cot. ap. Patr. Ap. p. 188.
in praise of virginity, and teaching how it may be kept pure and incorrupt. And the remaining part of the sentence, relating to other apostolical men, and other eminent writers, would likewise have been different. 4. If Jerom had these two epistles before him, and had supposed them to be written by Clement of Rome, he would not have failed to make great use of them in his books against Jovinian, and in his apology for them. Moreover they would also have been often quoted in his other writings, where he recommends virginity, and gives directions about preserving it.
9. Epiphanius, who flourished about A. D. 368, and afterwards, in his article of the heresy of the Carpocratians, speaking of the first bishops of Rome, quotes Clement thus:
For" he says in one of his epistles.' The passage there quoted, is in the 54th chapter of the epistle to the Corinthians, which we have. Hereby we perceive that Epiphanius acknowledged more than one epistle of Clement. And we have learned from Jerom, that about that time it was not uncommon to speak of two epistles, as written by Clement.
In another place, the heresy of the Ebionites, says Epiphanius: There are other books used by them, as the Circuits of Peter, written by Clement: [probably meaning 'the recognitions:] in which they have made many interpo'lations. But Clement himself confutes them in the cir'cular letters written by him, which are read in the holy 'churches--He teaches virginity which they reject. He 'commends Elias, and David, and Samson, and all the pro'phets, whom they abuse.'
Mr. Wetstein' thinks, that Epiphanius here intends the epistles published by him. But to me it appears plain, that Epiphanius intends the two epistles spoken of by Eusebius, in his Ecclesiastical History, and by Jerom, in his Catalogue, and which we have had published now above a century by Patrick Young, from whence several other editions have been since made. For the epistles here spoken of by Epiphanius were circular, and read in the churches. So were ours. Indeed Eusebius and Jerom speak of but one only publicly read in christian assemblies. But the other might be so read likewise. There is reason to think, that both were read in some churches. For the eighty-fifth
Λεγει γαρ εν μια των επιτολων αυτ8. κ. λ. H. 27. n. 6. p. 107.
-- ὡς αυτος Κλημης αυτες κατα παντα ελέγχει, αφ' ων εγραψεν επι50λων εγκυκλίων των εν ταις αγιαις εκκλησιαις αναγινωσκομενων-Αυτος γαρ παρθενιαν διδασκει, και αυτοι ε δέχονται. Αυτος γαρ εγκωμιαζει Ηλιαν και Δαβιδ και Σαμψων, και παντας τες προφητας ες ετοι βδελυτονται. Η, 30. n. xv. p. 139. P See before, note *, p. 192.
apostolical canon, as it is called, reckons two epistles of Clement among the books of the New Testament. And our two epistles were at the end of the Alexandrian manuscript, after the books of scripture generally received; which affords an argument, that both these epistles were publicly read in the place where it was written and it should be taken notice of by us, that here we have two new witnesses to the number of Clement's epistles, as two only. If Jerom could say of our epistles, (as we have seen he might,) that Clement almost throughout discourseth of the purity of virginity, Epiphanius might say, he teacheth it. He also says, that Clement commends Elias, David, Samson, and all the prophets, which is the proper character of Clement's epistle to the Corinthians, though not the whole of it, and particularly insisted on by that early writer Irenæus: in which, says he, Clement exhorts the Corinthians to peace among 'themselves, and reminds them of the doctrine lately re'ceived from the apostles; which declares, that there is one 'God Almighty, maker of the heavens and the earth, who 'called Abraham, who spake to Moses, and sent the pro'phets.' All which perfectly suits the epistle to the Corinthians, which we still have in our hands, and in the name of Clement, as may appear to any upon consulting ch. 17, 18, 19, 20, 43, and other places. Mr. Wetstein objects, that Samson is not named in the epistle just mentioned, whereas he is in his. But though we do not now find Samson's name in what remains of that epistle, he may have been there. And as we have it not entire, I think it would be presumption to say he was not there named.
10. Photius, patriarch of Constantinople in the ninth century, has two articles for Clement bishop of Rome. In the first he says, 'That Clement wrote a valuable epistle to the • Corinthians, which is so esteemed by many, as to be read 'publicly. But that which is called the second to the same is rejected as spurious.'
In the other article he speaks of two epistles of Clement to the Corinthians, bound together in one book or volume; and he distinctly gives the character of each, with regard to their style and doctrine; but says nothing particularly about the genuineness of either.
11. Nicephorus Callisti, in the fourteenth century, so
4 Κλημεντος επιςολαι δυο. Αυτος και επιτολην αξιολογον προς Κορινθιας γραφει, ἧτις παρα πολλοις αποδοχης ηξιώθη, ως και δημοσια αναγινωσκεσθαι. Ἡ δε λεγομενη δευτερα προς αυτες, ως νόθος, αποδοκιμάζεται. Cod. 113. p. 289. Αναγνωσθη βιβλιδαριον, εν ψ Κλημεντος επιτολαι προς Κορινθιες δυο ανεφέροντο. Cod. 126. p. 305.