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same making, the like note shall be sung:“Quoniam prima sedes non judicabitur a quoquam; the first seat must not be judged by any man.” Lastly, if the pope does not think that the fulness of spiritual power is sufficient for his greatness, unless he may be also lord paramount in temporalibus; he hath his followers ready at hand, to frame a fair donation, in the name of Constantine the emperor, whereby his holiness shall be estated, not only in the city of Rome, but also in the seigniory of the whole west. It would require a volume to rehearse the names of those several tractates, which have been basely bred in the former days of darkness, and fathered upon the ancient doctors of the church, who, if they were now alive, would be deposed that they were never privy to their begetting.
Neither hath this corrupting humour stayed itself in forging of whole councils, and entire treatises of the ancient writers; but hath, like a canker, fretted away divers of their sound parts, and so altered their complexions, that they appear not to be the same men they were. To instance, in the great question of Transubstantiation: we were wont to read in the books attributed unto S. Ambrose,
Siergo tanta vis est in sermone Domini Jesu, ut inciperent esse quæ non erant: quanto magis operatorius est, ut sint quæ erant, et in aliud cominutentur ? if therefore there be so great force in the speech of our Lord Jesus, that the things which were not begun to be, (namely, at the first creation): how much more is the same powerful to make, that things may still be that which they were, and yet be changed into another thing?" It is not unknown how much those words, ut sint quæ erant, have troubled their brains who maintain that, after the words of consecration, the elements of bread and wine be not that thing which they were: and what devices they have found to make the bread and wine in the sacrament to be like unto the beast in the Revelation, “ that was, and is not, and yet is.” But that Gordian knot, which they with their skill could not so readily untie, their masters at Rome, Alexander
like, have now cut asunder; paring clean away in their Roman edition (which is also followed in that set out at Paris, anno 1603) those words, that so much troubled them; and letting the rest run smoothly after this manner: “ Quanto magis operatorius est, ut quæ erant, in aliud commutentur? how much more is the speech of our Lord powerful to make, that those things which were should be changed into another thing ?”
The author of the imperfect work upon Matthew, homily the eleventh, writeth thus :“Si ergo hæc vasa sanctificata ad privatos usus transferre sic periculosum est, in quibus non est verum corpus Christi, sed mysterium corporis ejus continetur ; quanto magis vasa corporis nostri, quæ sibi Deus ad habitaculum præparavit, non debemus locum dare diabolo agendi in eis quod vult? if therefore it be so dangerous a matter to transfer unto private uses those holy vessels, in which the true body of Christ is not, but the mystery of his body is contained; how much more for the vessels of our body, which God hath prepared for himself to dwell in, ought not we to give way unto the devil, to do in them what he pleaseth?” Those words, “ in quibus non est verum corpus Christi, sed mysterium corporis ejus continetur ; in which the true body of Christ is not, but the mystery of his body is contained;" did threaten to cut the very throat of the papists' real presence; and therefore, in good policy, they thought it fit to cut their throat first, for doing any further hurt. Whereupon, in the editions of this work printed at Antwerp, apud Joannem Steelsium, anno 1537. at Paris, apud Joannem Roigny, anno 1543. and at Paris again, apud Audoenum Parvum, anno 1557. not one syllable of them is to be seen; though extant in the ancienter editions, one whereof is as old as the year 1187. And to the same purpose, in the nineteenth homily, instead of “ sacrificium panis et vini, the sacrifice of bread and wine,” which we find in the old impressions, these latter editions have chopt in " sacrificium corporis et sanguinis Christi, the sacrifice of the body and blood of Christ.”
In the year 1608 there were published at Paris certain blood, ye
works of Fulbertus bishop of Chartres, "pertaining as well to the refuting of the heresies of this time (for so saith the inscription), as to the clearing of the history of the French.” Among those things that appertain to the confutation of the heresies of this time, there is one especially, folio 168. laid down in these words : “ Nisi manducaveritis, inquit, carnem filii hominis, et sanguinem biberitis, non habebitis vitam in vobis. Facinus vel flagitium videtur jubere. Figura ergo est, dicet hæreticus, præcipiens passioni Domini esse communicandum tantum, et suaviter atque utiliter recondendum in memoria, quod pro nobis caro ejus crucifixa et vulnerata sit : unless (saith Christ) ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his
shall not have life in you. He seemeth to command an outrage or wickedness. It is therefore a figure, will the heretic say, requiring us only to communicate with the Lord's passion, and sweetly and profitably to lay up in our memory that his flesh was crucified and wounded for us." He that put in those words “dicet hæreticus" thought he had notably met with the heretics of this time: but was not aware, that thereby he made St. Augustine an heretic for company. For the heretic, that speaketh thus, is even St. Augustine himself: whose very words these are, in his third book de doctrina Christiana, the sixteenth chapter. Which some belike having put the publisher in mind of, he was glad to put this among his errata, and to confess that these two words were not to be found in the manuscript copy which he had from Petavius; but telleth us not what we are to think of him, that, for the countenancing of the popish cause, ventured so shamefully to abuse St. Augustine.
In the year 1616. a tome of ancient writers, that never saw the light before, was set forth at Ingoldstad by Petrus Steuartius : where, among other tractates, a certain Penitential, written by Rabanus that famous archbishop of Mentz, is to be seen. In the thirty-third chapter of that book, Rabanus, making answer unto an idle question moved by bishop Heribaldus concerning the eucharist, What should become of it after it was consumed, and sent into the draught, after the manner of other meats? hath these words, “Nam' quidam nuper, de ipso sacramento corporis et sanguinis Domini non rite sentientes, dixerunt; hoc ipsum corpus et sanguinem Domini, quod de Maria virgine natum est, et in quo ipse Dominus passus est in cruce, et resurrexit de sepulchro —cui errori quantum potuimus, ad Egilum abbatem scribentes, de corpore ipso quid vere credendum sit aperuimus : for some of late, not holding rightly of the sacrament of the body and blood of our Lord, have said ; that the very body and blood of our Lord, which was born of the virgin Mary, and in which our Lord himself suffered on the cross, and rose again from the grave-against which error writing unto abbot Egilus, according to our ability, we have declared what is truly to be believed concerning Christ's body." You see Rabanus's tongue is clipt here for telling tales: but how this came to pass were worth the learning. Steuartius freeth himself from the fact, telling us in his margin, that “ here there was a blank in the manuscript copy;" and we do easily believe him : for Possevine the Jesuit hath given us to understand, that manuscript" books also are to be purged, as well as printed. But whence was this manuscript fetched, think you? out of the famous monastery of Weingart; saith Steuartius. The monks of Weingart then belike must answer the matter; and they, I dare say, upon examination will take their oaths that it was no part of their intention to give any furtherance unto the cause of the protestants hereby. If hereunto we add, that Heribaldus and Rabanus both are ranked* among
p Quse tam ad refutandas hæreses hujus temporis, quam ad Gallorum hist. pertinent.
9 Vide tom. 11. bibliothecæ patrum, cdit. Col. pag. 44. b.
heretics by Thomas Walden, fory holding the eucharist to be subject to digestion and voidance, like other meats; the suspicion will be more vehement: whereunto yet I will adjoin one evidence more, that shall leave the matter past suspicion.
Finitio pag. 669.
s Vide Mabil. act. Bened. sec. 4. par. 2. pag. 596. i Lacuna hic est in MS. exemplari. "Ad istos enim quoque purgatio pertinet. Possevin. lib. 1. biblioth. select.
w Ex MS. cod. celeberrimi monasterii Weingartensis.
In the libraries of my worthy friends, Sir Robert Cotton, that noble baronet, so renowned for his great care in collecting and preserving all antiquities, and Dr. Ward, the learned Master of Sidney College in Cambridge, I met with an ancient treatise of the sacrament, beginning thus: “ Sicut ante nos quidam sapiens dixit, cujus sententiam probamus, licet nomen ignoremus;" which is the same with that in the Jesuits' college at Louvain, blindly fathered” upon Berengarius. The author of this treatise, having first twitted Heribaldus for propounding, and Rabanus for resolving, this question of the voidance of the eucharist, layeth down afterward the opinion of Paschasius Radbertus, whose writing is yet extant, “ quod non alia plane sit caro, quæ sumitur de altari, quam quæ nata est de Maria virgine, et passa in cruce, et quæ resurrexit de sepulchro, quæque et pro mundi vita adhuc hodie offertur : that the flesh, which is received at the altar, is no other than that which was born of the virgin Mary, suffered on the cross, rose again from the grave, and as yet is daily offered for the life of the . world. Contra quem, (saith he) satis argumentatur, et Rabanus in epistola ad Egilonema abbatem, et Ratrannus quidam libro composito ad Carolum regem; dicentes aliam esse: against whom both Rabanus in his epistle to abbot Egilo, and one Ratrannus in a book which he made to king Charles, argue largely; saying that it is another kind of flesh.” Whereby, what Rabanus his opinion was of this point in his epistle to abbot Egilo or Egilus, and consequently what that was which the monks of Weingart could not endure in his Penitential, I trust is plain enough.
? Ant. Possevin. apparat. sacr. in Berengario Turon.
• al. Elgionem, ct, Helgimonem, male. Neque enim alius hic intelligendus, quam Ægil. ille, cui in Fuldensis abbatiæ regimine proxime successit ipse Rabanus.