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CLAN (Erse, a tribe or family), among the Highlanders of Scotland, consisted of the common descendants of the same progenitor, under the patriarchal control of a chief, who represented the common ancestor. The name of the clan was formed of that of the original progenitor with the affix mac (son): thus the MacDonalds were the sons of Donald, and every individual of this name was considered a descendant of the founder of the clan, and a brother of every one of its members. The chief exercised his authority by right of primogeniture, as the father of his clan: the clansmen revered and served the chief with the blind devotion of children. The appellation of the chiefs had, generally, a reference to the history of their ancestors, and denoted little more than that they were the descendants of the first father of the clan; thus the chief of the Macdonnells was Mac Allister More (the son of the great Allister). They were distinguished from the rest of the clan by a feather in their bonnets. Each clan was divided into two orders, the tenants or taksmen, the near relations of the chief, to whom portions of land were assigned, during pleasure or on short leases, and whose descendants were generally merged in the second class, or commoners, by the resumption of the land. The taksman usually had a subdivision of the clan under him, of which he was chieftain, subject, however, to the general head of the sept. The jurisdiction of the chiefs was not very accurately defined, but, as is generally the case in such a state of society, it was necessary to consult, in some measure, the opinions of the most influential clansmen, and the general wishes of the whole body. The rebellions of 1715 and 1745 induced the English government to break up the connexion which subsisted between the chiefs and the clansmen. The hereditary jurisdiction of the chiefs was, therefore, abolished, the people disarmed, and even compelled to relinquish their national dress; and but few traces of this institution now remain. (See Mrs. Grant's Superstitions of the Highlanders.)
CLAP, Thomas, president of Yale college, was born at Scituate, Massachusetts, June 26, 1703. He was graduated at Harvard college in 1722, and afterwards commenced the study of divinity. For his acquisitions in this and in various other branches of knowledge, particularly mathematics, astronomy, natural and moral philosophy, history, the civil and canon law, he was much distinguished, and pos
sessed, also, a competent knowledge of Greek, Latin and Hebrew. He prosecuted his ecclesiastical labors at Windham, Connecticut, from 1726 to 1739, when he succeeded the reverend Elisha Williams in the presidency of Yale college. He was an impressive and powerful preacher, and a man of exemplary piety and singular industry. His religious sentiments were in accordance with the Calvinism of the Westminster assembly. He constructed the first orrery or planetarium made in America, and published a History of Yale College, a Brief History and Vindication of the Doctrines received and established in the Churches of New England, two Sermons, and Conjectures upon the Nature and Motion of Meteors which are above the Atmosphere. He had prepared also materials for a history of Connecticut, but his manuscripts were carried off in the expedition against New Haven under general Tryon. He died on the 7th of January, 1767, in the 64th year of his age, having resigned his station as president the year previous.
CLAPPERTON, captain Hugh, the African traveller, was born in Annan, Dumfriesshire, in 1788. After some elementary instruction in practical mathematics, he was bound apprentice, at the age of 13, to the owner of a vessel trading between Liverpool and North America, in which he made several voyages. He was then impressed into his Britannic majesty's service, was soon after made a midshipman, served on the American lakes in 1815, and, in 1816, received the commission of lieutenant. Having retired to Scotland, he became acquainted with doctor Oudney, who was about to embark for Africa, and requested permission to accompany him. Lieutenant (since colonel) Denham having volunteered his services, and it being intended that researches should be made, to the east and west, from Bornou, where doctor Oudney was to reside as British consul, his name was added to the expedition by lord Bathurst. In the Recent Discoveries in Africa, made in 1823 and 1824, by Major Denham, Captain Clapperton and Doctor Oudney (London, 1826), we have accounts of an excursion from Mourzouk to Ghraat, a town of the Tuarics, by doctor Oudney; of a journey across the desert to Bornou, of various expeditions to the southward and eastward, by major Denham; and of an excursion through Soudan to the capital of the Fellatahs, by captain Clapperton. The expedition set out from Mourzouk Nov. 29, 1822, and
arrived at lake Tchad, in the kingdom of Bornou, Feb. 4, after a journey of 800 miles. Six days after they entered the capital, Kouka, Clapperton, in company with doctor Oudney, who died on the way, set out on an expedition to Soccatoo, the capital of Houssa, more than 700 miles east of Kouka, which he reached in 90 days. He was not permitted to pursue his journey to the west, and returned to Kouka, and thence to England in 1825. The information which the travellers collected, in regard to the habits and commerce of the people of Central Africa, was important, as showing the existence in that quarter of a large population of a peaceable disposition, and possessed of a considerable civilization. The geographical information collected was not without its value, although it left undecided the disputed questions of the course and termination of the Niger. They proceeded south from Tripoli (lat. 32° 30°) to Musfeia (lat. 9° 10′), being 1400 miles in difference of latitude, and from Zangalia, on the east of lake Tchad (lon. 17° E.), to Soccatoo (lon. 6° E.), making a difference of longitude of 660 miles. They thus determined the position of the kingdoms of Mandara, Bornou and Houssa, their extent, and the position of their principal cities. On his return to England, lieutenant Clapperton received the rank of captain, and was immediately engaged, by lord Bathurst, for a second expedition, to start from the Bight of Benin. Leaving Badagry, Dec. 7, 1825, he pursued a north-easterly direction, with the intention of reaching Soccatoo and Bornou. Two of his companions, captain Pearce and doctor Morrison, perished, a short time after leaving the coast, and Clapperton pursued his way, accompanied by his faithful servant Lander. At Katunga, he was within 30 miles of the Quorra or Niger, but was not permitted to visit it. Continuing his journey north, he reached Kano, and then proceeded westward to Soccatoo, the residence of his old friend Bello. Bello refused to allow him to proceed to Bornou, and detained him a long time in his capital. This conduct appears to have arisen from the war then existing between Bello and the sheik of Bornou, and to the intrigues of the pacha of Tripoli, who had insinuated that the English meditated the conquest of Africa, as they had already conquered India. This disappointment preyed upon Clapperton's mind, and he died, April 13, 1827, at Chungary, a village four miles from Soccatoo, of a dysentery. (See Journal of a Second Expedition from
Kano to the Sea-coast, partly by a more eastern Route, London, 1829; Philadelphia, 1829; to which is added the Journal of Richard Lander (the servant of Clapperton). Clapperton was the first European who traversed the whole of Central Africa, from the Bight of Benin to the Mediterranean. We have thus a continuous line from Tripoli to Badagry, which is of great importance from the assistance which it will afford to future researches. Clapperton was a man without education, but intelligent and impartial; of a robust frame and a happy temperament. He was capable of enduring great hardships. His knowledge of the habits and prejudices of the Central Africans, his frank, bold and cheerful manners, would have rendered him peculiarly useful in promoting the designs of the British government in that quarter.
CLARE, John (called the peasant of Northamptonshire), a natural poet, born, July 13, 1793, at Helpstone, near Peterborough, in Northamptonshire, England, was obliged, when very young, to maintain his father, a day-laborer, who had become crippled, and his helpless family, by manual labor. The sufferings of the most abject poverty he has described with heart-rending truth, in his poem, Address to Plenty in Winter. The scanty assistance which the father received from the parish lightened the burden of supporting the family, and John succeeded in saving money, by means of extra labor, to enable him to learn to read. He now read, by night, Robinson Crusoe, and other books that were lent him. Thomson's Seasons first excited Clare's poetic talents in his 13th year, and suggested to him his first poem, the Morning Walk, to which he soon added the Evening Walk. John Turnhill of Helpstone, whose notice this attempt had attracted, now adopted the boy, and taught him writing and arithmetic. Clare made rapid progress, and succeeded, moreover, in acquiring considerable skill on the violin, though he was obliged to devote the whole day to labor, and had no instruction, except some advice from a village musician. This accomplishment he afterwards used as a means of support. He continued to write poetry for 13 years, with no other encouragement than the pleasure which he derived from it, and sung of God and the beauties of nature, while he labored with the hoe and spade. In December, 1818, one of his sonnets fell into the hands of Edward Drury, a bookseller at Hamford. The poem was upon the setting sun.
Encouraged by Drury, Clare prepared a collection of his poems, which soon excited public interest. These Poems, descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery, by John Clare, a Northamptonshire Peasant (London, 3d edition, 1820), consist of sonnets, songs, ballads and miscellaneous pieces, which describe rural life: they are simple, interesting by their truth and feeling, and full of original images, but somewhat disfigured by provincialisms. A new collection of Clare's poems appeared in 1821, under the title of the Village Minstrel and other Poems, &c., two volumes, with the author's portrait. Clare has acquired some property by his poetic productions, but continues warmly attached to his village and situation.
CLARENCE, duke of, William Henry, prince of England, second brother of king George IV, born Aug. 21, 1765, was educated for the navy, and passed through all the ranks, but received no command. In the chamber of peers, he constantly opposed the war policy of the ministers. Humanity is indebted to him for his exertions for the abolition of the slave-trade. His uniting with the opposition contributed to the overthrow of Pitt and Addington, but he still lived on the best terms with the royal family. He was passionately attached to the celebrated actress Mrs. Jordan, with whom he was connected many years, and had several children by her. She died at Bordeaux, in 1816. The duke of Clarence conducted Louis XVIII to the coasts of France in 1814. He married the princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, July 11, 1818, and was desirous of fixing his residence thenceforth at Osnabruck. He lives now with his wife in London. In 1827, under Canning's administration, the duke of Clarence was appointed lord high admiral of England (see Admiral); but he retired from that office soon after the duke of Wellington had been made premier.
CLARENDON; a village three miles east of Salisbury, where Henry II summoned a council of the barons and prelates, in 1164, who enacted the laws called the constitutions of Clarendon, by which the power of the pope in England was checked.
rity of his intentions, his attachment to the laws of his country, and the talents which he displayed, gained him the confidence of that body. Upon the breaking out of the civil war, he attached himself to the king's party; became chancellor of the exchequer and member of the privy council, and followed prince Charles (afterwards Charles II) to Jersey. Here he remained for two years, while the prince was in France, and during that time began his History of the Rebellion. He likewise composed at Jersey the various writings which appeared in the king's name, as answers to the manifestoes of the parliament. After Charles I was beheaded, the new king called him to France, and sent him to Madrid, to see if any assistance could be obtained from the Spanish court. From thence he went to Paris to reconcile the queen mother with the duke of York, and afterwards to the Hague, where Charles II appointed him lord chancellor of England, in 1657. After Cromwell's death, Edward Hyde contributed more than any other man to the happy termination of the measures which placed Charles II on the throne. He subsequently possessed the entire confidence of the king, who loaded him with favors. In 1660, he was elected chancellor of the university of Oxford; in 1661, he was made peer, and baron Hyde, viscount Cornbury, and earl of Clarendon. Many events occurred to disquiet him in the licentious court of Charles II; among these was the marriage of the duke of York, the king's brother, to his daughter. The duke, while at Breda, the residence of his sister, the princess of Orange, became acquainted with Anne Hyde, Clarendon's eldest daughter, maid of honor to the princess, and married her, Nov., 1659, without the knowledge of the king or the chancellor. Anne's pregnancy occasioned the disclosure of this union after Charles's restoration. As soon as the king had ascertained the validity of the marriage, he acknowledged Anne Hyde as duchess of York, commanded his brother to continue to love her, and, at the same time, declared that this event had not changed his sentiments towards the chanellor. Two daughters, Anne and Mary, were the fruit of this marriage, both of whom ascended the English throne. In 1663, lord Bristol made an attack upon the chancellor in the parliament. This body, however, disregarded his accusations. Attempts were also made to injure him in public opinion, while, on the other hand, his influence with the king was declining, as Charles
CLARENDON. Edward Hyde, earl of Clarendon, lord high chancellor of England, probably born at Dinton, in Wiltshire, 1608, was educated at Oxford, and afterwards studied law under his uncle Nicholas Hyde, chief justice of the king's bench. He was a member of the long parliament under Charles I; and the pu
had now less regard for an able minister than for the instruments of his prodigality. The duke of Buckingham, moreover, was continually laboring to make the chancellor ridiculous in the eyes of the king, and his station as prime minister made the nation regard him as answerable for all the faults of the administration. The ill success of the war against Holland, the sale of Dunkirk, and other events, excited public indignation. The king's displeasure was changed into hatred, when he saw his plan of repudiating his wife, and marrying the beautiful lady Stuart, defeated by Clarendon, who effected a marriage between this lady and the duke of Richmond. The king deprived him of his offices, and an impeachment for high treason was commenced against him. Clarendon fled, and sent his apology from Calais to the house of lords. Both houses ordered this writing to be burnt by the common hangman, and Clarendon was banished forever. The hatred of the nation pursued him even to the continent. At Evreux, he was attacked by some English sailors, dangerously wounded, and with difficulty rescued from their hands. He lived six years at Montpellier, Moulins and Rouen, at which latter place he died, Dec., 1674. His remains were afterwards carried to England, and buried in Westminster abbey.-Lord Clarendon, as long as he was minister, was the friend and supporter of the king against the factious, and the defender of his country's freedom against the abuse of the royal power. Ingratitude and prejudice the more easily ruined him, as his stern and proud character prevented his gaining affection. Among his many writings, the most important is the History of the Rebellion, from 1641 down to the Restoration of Charles II. It is a very able work, although not free from prejudices. To this was added, in 1759, his Life and a Continuation of his History.
CLARET. (See Bordelais Wines.) CLARICHORD, OF CLAVICHORD. A keyed instrument, now out of use, somewhat in the form of a spinet, and the strings of which are supported by five bridges. One distinction in the clarichord is, that the strings are covered with pieces of cloth, which render the sound sweeter, and, at the same time, deaden it, so as to prevent its being heard at any considerable distance. On this account, it was formerly much used by the nuns, who could practise on it without disturbing the dorinitory. It is sometimes called the dumb spinet.
CLARIFICATION, or the separation of the insoluble particles that prevent a liquid from being transparent, may be performed by depuration, filtration or coagulation. In the first of these operations, the liquid is permitted to subside, without being in the least disturbed, until all the particles which were in suspension are precipitated; it is then decanted. This mode of clarification can only be used when the substance on which we operate is in a large quantity, or is of a nature not to be altered during the time necessary to complete this operation, and finally when its specific gravity is less than that of the particles which render it turbid. Filtration is a process by which a liquid is strained through a body, the interstices of which are small enough to stop the solid particles contained in it. Filters of wool, linen, paper, powdered glass, sand or charcoal, may be used, according as the liquid is more or less dense, or of a nature to operate upon any one of these bodies. Finally, clarification by coagulation is performed with the assistance of albumen contained in the liquid, or some is added to it for this purpose, which, by the action of caloric, of acids, &c. becomes solid, forms a mass, and precipitates the extraneous substances. The white of eggs is generally used for this purpose.
CLARINET. A wind instrument of the reed kind, the scale of which, though it includes every semitone within its extremes, is virtually defective. Its lowest note is E below the F cliff, from which it is capable, in the hands of good performers, of ascending more than three octaves. Its powers, through this compass, are not every where equal; the player, therefore, has not a free choice in his keys, being generally confined to those of C and F, which, indeed, are the only keys in which the clarinet is heard to advantage. The music for this instrument is therefore usually written in those keys. There are, however, B flat clarinets, A clarinets, D clarinets, B clarinets, and G clarinets: the three latter are scarcely ever used in England.
CLARK, John; an industrious critic and classical commentator, who published many useful works on education. He was the master of a grammar-school at Hull, in Yorkshire, where he died in May, 1734. Among his publications are an Introduction to making Latin, and editions of several Latin authors, with English translations.
CLARKE, Edward Daniel, LL. D.; a celebrated traveller of our own times, pro
versity Library, Cambridge (8vo., 1809); Travels in various Countries of Europe, Asia and Africa, Part I, containing Russia, Tartary and Turkey (4to., 1810); Part II, containing Greece, Egypt and the Holy Land (Section 1st, 4to., 1812; Section 2d, 1814); and some other works. Doctor Clarke died March 9, 1821. After his death, a volume was published, containing his Travels through Denmark, Sweden, Lapland, Norway, Finland and Russia (London, 1823, 4to.). A complete edition of his works appeared, in 11 volumes, in 4to. and 8vo. (London, 181924), under the title of Travels in various Countries of Europe, Asia and Africa.
CLARKE, Samuel, DD., a celebrated theological and philosophical writer, was born at Norwich, England, in the year 1675, of which city his father was an alderman. He was educated at Caius college, Cambridge. Whilst at the university, he diligently cultivated a knowledge of the Scriptures, in the original languages, and, before the age of 21, had largely contributed to diffuse the Newtonian system. Being of opinion that the vehicle of an established work, like that of Rohault, would be most convenient for the gradual introduction of true philosophy, he translated that author's Physics for the use of young students, whom he thereby familiarized with the language and reasonings of Newton. On entering into orders, he became chaplain to Moore, bishop of Norwich, and first became an author in his own profession in 1699, when he published Three practical Essays upon Baptism, Confirmation and Repent
This work was followed by Reflections on a Book called Amyntor, by Toland, relating to the authenticity of writings not received into the canon of Scripture. In 1701, he published his Paraphrase on the Four Gospels, and, about the same time, received two small livings in and near Norwich. In 1704, he was appointed to preach the sermon at Boyle's lecture, when he chose for his subject the Being and Attributes of God, and gave so much satisfaction that he was appointed to the same office the next year, when he delivered a course of sermons on Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion. These sermons exceedingly raised the author's reputation as a close and acute reasoner, although his argument a priori, for the existence of a God, was, by Pope and others, deemed too subtle and metaphysical. He, however, employed it only in opposition to Hobbes, Spinoza, and similar reasoners, who could
fessor of mineralogy at Cambridge, which university he enriched with the fruits of his researches in foreign countries. He was the second son of the reverend Edward Clarke, author of Letters on the Spanish Nation, and various minor works, and was born in 1767. He received his education at Jesus college, Cambridge, of which society he became a fellow, having taken the degree of A. M. in 1794. Soon after, he accompanied lord Berwick to Italy, and, in 1799, set out with Mr. Cripps, on an extensive and laborious tour through Denmark, Sweden, Lapland, Finland, Russia, Tartary, Circassia, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Greece, and Turkey, returning, in 1802, through Germany and France. On his return, he obtained, from the university to which he belonged, the honorary degree of LL. D., as a distinguished mark of its approbation, and in consideration of the services rendered to its public libraries and institutions by his liberal contributions, among which the greatest, perhaps, in value, is the celebrated manuscript of Plato's works, with nearly 100 others, and a colossal statue of the Eleusinian Ceres. To him also the British nation is indebted for the acquisition of the famous sarcophagus of Alexander the Great, which he discovered in the possession of the French troops in Egypt, and was the means of its being surrendered to the English army. In 1806, he commenced a course of lectures on mineralogy, having brought a splendid collection of specimens to Europe; and, in 1808, a professorship being founded purposely for the encouragement of that branch of knowledge, he was elevated to the chair. A valuable collection of plants and medals proved, also, at once the correctness of his taste and the extent of his industry; while a curious model of mount Vesuvius, constructed by him, with the assistance of an Italian artist, from the materials of the mountain it represents, attests his great ingenuity. This piece of art is now in the possession of lord Berwick. Doctor Clarke published Testimony of different Authors respecting the colossal Statue of Ceres, placed in the Vestibule of the Public Library at Cambridge, with an account of its removal from Eleusis (8vo., 1801-1803); The Tomb of Alexander, a Dissertation on the Sarcophagus brought from Alexandria, and now in the British Museum (4to., 1805); A Description of the Greek Marbles brought from the Shores of the Euxine, Archipelago and Mediterranean, and deposited in the Vestibule of the Uni